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DBD::mysql::INSTALL(3pUser Contributed Perl DocumentatDBD::mysql::INSTALL(3pm)

       INSTALL - How to install and configure DBD::mysql

         perl Makefile.PL [options]
         make test
         make install

       This document describes the installation and configuration of
       DBD::mysql, the Perl DBI driver for the MySQL database. Before reading
       on, make sure that you have the prerequisites available: Perl, MySQL
       and DBI. For details see the separate section.  "PREREQUISITES".

       Depending on your version of Perl, it might be possible to use a binary
       distribution of DBD::mysql. If possible, this is recommended. Otherwise
       you need to install from the sources.  If so, you will definitely need
       a C compiler. Installation from binaries and sources are both described
       in separate sections. "BINARY INSTALLATION". "SOURCE INSTALLATION".

       Finally, if you encounter any problems, do not forget to read the
       section on known problems. "KNOWN PROBLEMS". If that doesn't help, you
       should look into the archive of the mailing list perl@lists.mysql.com.
       See http://www.mysql.com for archive locations. And if that still
       doesn't help, please post a question on this mailing list.

           Preferrably a version of Perl, that comes preconfigured with your
           system. For example, all Linux and FreeBSD distributions come with
           Perl. For Windows, ActivePerl is recommended, see
           http://www.activestate.com for details.

           You need not install the actual MySQL database server, the client
           files and the devlopment files are sufficient. For example, Fedora
           Core 4 Linux distribution comes with RPM files (using YUM)
           mysql.i386 and mysql-server.i386 (use "yum search" to find exact
           package names). These are sufficient, if the MySQL server is
           located on a foreign machine.  You may also create client files by
           compiling from the MySQL source distribution and using

             configure --without-server

           If you are using Windows and need to compile from sources (which is
           only the case if you are not using ActivePerl), then you must
           ensure that the header and library files are installed. This may
           require choosing a "Custom installation" and selecting the
           appropriate option when running the MySQL setup program.

       DBI DBD::mysql is a DBI driver, hence you need DBI. It is available
           from the same source where you got the DBD::mysql distribution

       C compiler
           A C compiler is only required, if you install from source. In most
           cases there are binary distributions of DBD::mysql available.
           However, if you need a C compiler, make sure, that it is the same C
           compiler that was used for compiling Perl and MySQL! Otherwise you
           will almost definitely encounter problems because of differences in
           the underlying C runtime libraries.

           In the worst case, this might mean to compile Perl and MySQL
           yourself. But believe me, experience shows that a lot of problems
           are fixed this way.

       Gzip libraries
           Late versions of MySQL come with support for compression. Thus it
           may be required that you have install an RPM package like libz-
           devel, libgz-devel or something similar.

       Binary installation is possible in the most cases, depending on your
       system. I give some examples:

       ActivePerl offers a PPM archive of DBD::mysql. All you need to do is

         install DBI
         install DBD-mysql

       This will fetch the modules via HTTP and install them. If you need to
       use a WWW proxy server, the environment variable HTTP_proxy must be

         set HTTP_proxy=http://my.proxy.server:8000/
         install DBI
         install DBD-mysql

       Of course you need to replace the host name "my.proxy.server" and the
       port number 8000 with your local values.

       If the above procedure doesn't work, please upgrade to the latest
       version of ActivePerl. Versions before build 623 are known to have

       PPM 3 is said to miss DBD::mysql in the repository. Thus use of PPM 3
       is discouraged, in favour of PPM 2. If you need to use PPM 3, try

         rep add PPM2 http://ppm.activestate.com/PPMPackages/5.6plus/
         rep 2
         install DBI
         install DBD-mysql

   Red Hat Linux
       As of version 7.1, Red Hat Linux comes with MySQL and DBD::mysql.  You
       need to ensure that the following RPM's are installed:


       For installation from source the following RPM's are required


       Optional are


   Fedora Core Linux
       As of version 3, Fedora Linux comes with MySQL and DBD::mysql.  You
       need to ensure that the following RPM's are installed:

         mysql or mysql-server

       For installation from source the following RPM's are required


       Please try

         yum search mysql

       To see the exact names

       Note: (important) FC 3 comes with MySQL 3.x, and some people have
       upgraded using MySQL RPMs for newer versions. If you do this, you must
       re-compile you DBD::mysql because your existing DBD::mysql will be
       linked against the old version of MySQL's client libs. CPAN has no way
       to know or detect that you have upgraded MySQL.

   Other systems
       In the case of Linux or FreeBSD distributions it is very likely that
       all you need comes with your distribution, as in the case of Red Hat
       Linux. I just cannot give you names, as I am not using these systems.

       Please let me know if you find the files in your SuSE Linux, Debian
       Linux or FreeBSD distribution so that I can extend the above list.

       So you need to install from sources. If you are lucky, the Perl module
       "CPAN" will do all for you, thanks to the excellent work of Andreas
       Koenig. Otherwise you will need to do a manual installation. Some of
       you, in particular system administrators of multiple sites, will choose
       automatic installation. All of these installation types have an own
       section. "CPAN installation".  "Manual installation". "Configuration".

       The DBD::mysql Makefile.PL needs to know where to find your MySQL
       installation. This may be achieved using command line switches (see
       "Configuration") or automatically using the mysql_config binary which
       comes with most MySQL distributions. If your MySQL distribution
       contains mysql_config the easiest method is to ensure this binary is on
       your path.


         export PATH

   CPAN installation
       Installation of DBD::mysql can be incredibly easy:

         install DBD::mysql

       If you are using the CPAN module for the first time, just answer the
       questions by accepting the defaults which are fine in most cases. If
       you are using an older version of Perl, you might instead need a

         perl -MCPAN -e shell
         install DBD::mysql

       If you cannot get the CPAN module working, you might try manual
       installation. If installation with CPAN fails because the your local
       settings have been guessed wrong, you need to ensure MySQL's
       mysql_config is on your path (see "SOURCE INSTALLATION") or
       alternatively create a script called "mysql_config". This is described
       in more details later. "Configuration".

   Manual installation
       For a manual installation you need to fetch the DBD::mysql source
       distribution. The latest version is always available from


       The name is typically something like


       The archive needs to be extracted. On Windows you may use a tool like
       WinZip, on Unix you type

         gzip -cd DBD-mysql-1.2216.tar.gz | tar xf -

       This will create a subdirectory DBD-mysql-1.2216. Enter this
       subdirectory and type

         perl Makefile.PL
         make test

       (On Windows you may need to replace "make" with "nmake" or "dmake".) If
       the tests seem to look fine, you may continue with

         make install

       If the compilation (make) or tests fail, you might need to configure
       some settings.

       For example you might choose a different database, the C compiler or
       the linker might need some flags. "Configuration".  "Compiler flags".
       "Linker flags".

       For Windows/CygWin there is a special section below.  "CygWin" in

       The install script "Makefile.PL" can be configured via a lot of
       switches. All switches can be used on the command line. For example,
       the test database:

         perl Makefile.PL --testdb=<db>

       If you do not like configuring these switches on the command line, you
       may alternatively create a script called "mysql_config".  This is
       described later on.

       Available switches are:

           Name of the test database, defaults to test.

           Name of the test user, defaults to empty. If the name is empty,
           then the currently logged in users name will be used.

           Password of the test user, defaults to empty.

           Host name or IP number of the test database; defaults to localhost.

           Port number of the test database

       ps-protcol=1 or 0
           Whether to run the test suite using server prepared statements or
           driver emulated prepared statemetns. ps-protocol=1 means use server
           prepare, ps-protocol=0 means driver emulated.

           This is a list of flags that you want to give to the C compiler.
           The most important flag is the location of the MySQL header files.
           For example, on Red Hat Linux the header files are in
           /usr/include/mysql and you might try


           On Windows the header files may be in C:\mysql\include and you
           might try


           The default flags are determined by running

             mysql_config --cflags

           More details on the C compiler flags can be found in the following
           section. "Compiler flags".

           This is a list of flags that you want to give to the linker or
           loader. The most important flags are the locations and names of
           additional libraries. For example, on Red Hat Linux your MySQL
           client libraries are in /usr/lib/mysql and you might try

             -L/usr/lib/mysql -lmysqlclient -lz

           On Windows the libraries may be in C:\mysql\lib and

             -LC:\mysql\lib -lmysqlclient

           might be a good choice. The default flags are determined by running

             mysql_config --libs

           More details on the linker flags can be found in a separate
           section.  "Linker flags".

       If a switch is not present on the command line, then the script
       "mysql_config" will be executed. This script comes as part of the MySQL
       distribution. For example, to determine the C compiler flags, we are

         mysql_config --cflags
         mysql_config --libs

       If you want to configure your own settings for database name, database
       user and so on, then you have to create a script with the same name,
       that replies

   Compiler flags
       Note: the folling info about compiler and linker flags, you shouldn't
       have to use these options because Makefile.PL is pretty good at
       utilising mysql_config to get the flags that you need for a successful

       It is typically not so difficult to determine the appropriate flags for
       the C compiler. The linker flags, which you find in the next section,
       are another story.

       The determination of the C compiler flags is usually left to a
       configuration script called mysql_config, which can be invoked with

         mysql_config --cflags

       When doing so, it will emit a line with suggested C compiler flags, for
       example like this:


       The C compiler must find some header files. Header files have the
       extension ".h". MySQL header files are, for example, mysql.h and
       mysql_version.h. In most cases the header files are not installed by
       default. For example, on Windows it is an installation option of the
       MySQL setup program (Custom installation), whether the header files are
       installed or not. On Red Hat Linux, you need to install an RPM archive
       mysql-devel or MySQL-devel.

       If you know the location of the header files, then you will need to add
       an option

         -L<header directory>

       to the C compiler flags, for example "-L/usr/include/mysql".

   Linker flags
       Appropriate linker flags are the most common source of problems while
       installing DBD::mysql. I will only give a rough overview, you'll find
       more details in the troubleshooting section.  "KNOWN PROBLEMS"

       The determination of the C compiler flags is usually left to a
       configuration script called mysql_config, which can be invoked with

         mysql_config --libs

       When doing so, it will emit a line with suggested C compiler flags, for
       example like this:

          -L'/usr/lib/mysql' -lmysqlclient -lnsl -lm   -lz -lcrypt

       The following items typically need to be configured for the linker:

       The mysqlclient library
           The MySQL client library comes as part of the MySQL distribution.
           Depending on your system it may be a file called

             F<libmysqlclient.a>   statically linked library, Unix
             F<libmysqlclient.so>  dynamically linked library, Unix
             F<mysqlclient.lib>    statically linked library, Windows
             F<mysqlclient.dll>    dynamically linked library, Windows

           or something similar.

           As in the case of the header files, the client library is typically
           not installed by default. On Windows you will need to select them
           while running the MySQL setup program (Custom installation). On Red
           Hat Linux an RPM archive mysql-devel or MySQL-devel must be

           The linker needs to know the location and name of the mysqlclient
           library. This can be done by adding the flags

             -L<lib directory> -lmysqlclient

           or by adding the complete path name. Examples:

             -L/usr/lib/mysql -lmysqlclient
             -LC:\mysql\lib -lmysqlclient

           If you would like to use the static libraries (and there are
           excellent reasons to do so), you need to create a separate
           directory, copy the static libraries to that place and use the -L
           switch above to point to your new directory. For example:

             mkdir /tmp/mysql-static
             cp /usr/lib/mysql/*.a /tmp/mysql-static
             perl Makefile.PL --libs="-L/tmp/mysql-static -lmysqlclient"
             make test
             make install
             rm -rf /tmp/mysql-static

       The gzip library
           The MySQL client can use compression when talking to the MySQL
           server, a nice feature when sending or receiving large texts over a
           slow network.

           On Unix you typically find the appropriate file name by running

             ldconfig -p | grep libz
             ldconfig -p | grep libgz

           Once you know the name (libz.a or libgz.a is best), just add it to
           the list of linker flags. If this seems to be causing problem you
           may also try to link without gzip libraries.

       Below you find information on particular systems:

       If you are a user of Cygwin (the Redhat distribution) you already know,
       it contains a nicely running perl 5.6.1, installation of additional
       modules usually works as a charme via the standard procedure of

           perl makefile.PL
           make test
           make install

       The Windows binary distribution of MySQL runs smoothly under Cygwin.
       You can start/stop the server and use all Windows clients without
       problem.  But to install DBD::mysql you have to take a little special

       Don't attempt to build DBD::mysql against either the MySQL Windows or
       Linux/Unix BINARY distributions: neither will work!

       You MUST compile the MySQL clients yourself under Cygwin, to get a
       'libmysqlclient.a' compiled under Cygwin. Really! You'll only need that
       library and the header files, you don't need any other client parts.
       Continue to use the Windows binaries. And don't attempt (currently) to
       build the MySQL Server part, it is unneccessary, as MySQL AB does an
       excellent job to deliver optimized binaries for the mainstream
       operating systems, and it is told, that the server compiled under
       Cygwin is unstable.

       Install MySQL (if you havn't already)

       -   download the MySQL Windows Binaries from

       -   unzip mysql-<version>-win.zip into some temporary location

       -   start the setup.exe there and follow the instructions

       -   start the server

       -   alternatively download, install and start the server on a remote
           server, on what supported OS ever

       Build MySQL clients under Cygwin:

       -   download the MySQL LINUX source from

       -   unpack mysql-<version>.tar.gz into some tmp location

       -   cd into the unpacked dir mysql-<version>

             ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --without-server

           This prepares the Makefile with the installed Cygwin features. It
           takes some time, but should finish without error. The 'prefix', as
           given, installs the whole Cygwin/MySQL thingy into a location not
           normally in your PATH, so that you continue to use already
           installed Windows binaries. The --without-server parameter tells
           configure to only build the clients.


           This builds all MySQL client parts ... be patient. It should finish
           finally without any error.

             make install

           This installs the compiled client files under /usr/local/mysql/.
           Remember, you don't need anything except the library under
           /usr/local/mysql/lib and the headers under

           Essentially you are now done with this part. If you want, you may
           try your compiled binaries shortly; for that, do:

             cd /usr/local/mysql/bin
             ./mysql -h

           The host (-h) parameter targets the local host, but
           forces the mysql client to use a TCP/IP connection. The default
           would be a pipe/socket connection (even if you say '-h localhost')
           and this doesn't work between Cygwin and Windows (as far as I

           If you have your MySQL server running on some other box, then
           please substitute '' with the name or IP-number of that

       Please note, in my environment the 'mysql' client did not accept a
       simple RETURN, I had to use CTRL-RETURN to send commands ... strange,
       but I didn't attempt to fix that, as we are only interested in the
       built lib and headers.

       At the 'mysql>' prompt do a quick check:

         mysql> use mysql
         mysql> show tables;
         mysql> select * from db;
         mysql> exit

       You are now ready to build DBD::mysql!

       Build DBD::mysql:

       -   download DBD-mysql-<version>.tar.gz from CPAN

       -   unpack DBD-mysql-<version>.tar.gz

       -   cd into unpacked dir DBD-mysql-<version> you probably did that
           already, if you are reading this!

             cp /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql_config .

           This copies the executable script mentioned in the DBD::mysql docs
           from your just built Cywin/MySQL client directory; it knows about
           your Cygwin installation, especially about the right libraries to
           link with.

             perl Makefile.PL --testhost=

           The --testhost= parameter again forces a TCP/IP connection
           to the MySQL server on the local host instead of a pipe/socket
           connection for the 'make test' phase.


           This should run without error

             make test

           with DBD-mysql-2.1022 or earlier you will see several errors in
           dbdadmin.t, mysql.t and mysql2.t; with later versions you should
           not get errors (except possibly one, indicating, that some tables
           could not be dropped. I'm hunting for a solution to that problem,
           but have none yet).

             make install

           This installs DBD::mysql into the Perl hierarchy.


       This was tested with MySQL version 3.23.54a and DBD::mysql version
       2.1022. I patched the above mentioned test scripts and sent the patches
       to the author of DBD::mysql Jochen Wiedman.

       Georg Rehfeld          15. Jan. 2003

       1.) Some Linux distributions don't come with a gzip library by default.
           Running "make" terminates with an error message like

             LD_RUN_PATH="/usr/lib/mysql:/lib:/usr/lib" gcc
               -o blib/arch/auto/DBD/mysql/mysql.so  -shared
               -L/usr/local/lib dbdimp.o mysql.o -L/usr/lib/mysql
               -lmysqlclient -lm -L/usr/lib/gcc-lib/i386-redhat-linux/2.96
               -lgcc -lz
             /usr/bin/ld: cannot find -lz
             collect2: ld returned 1 exit status
             make: *** [blib/arch/auto/DBD/mysql/mysql.so] Error 1

           If this is the case for you, install an RPM archive like libz-
           devel, libgz-devel, zlib-devel or gzlib-devel or something similar.

       2.) If Perl was compiled with gcc or egcs, but MySQL was compiled with
           another compiler or on another system, an error message like this
           is very likely when running "Make test":

             t/00base............install_driver(mysql) failed: Can't load
             '../blib/arch/auto/DBD/mysql/mysql.so' for module DBD::mysql:
             ../blib/arch/auto/DBD/mysql/mysql.so: undefined symbol: _umoddi3
             at /usr/local/perl-5.005/lib/5.005/i586-linux-thread/DynaLoader.pm
             line 168.

           This means, that your linker doesn't include libgcc.a. You have the
           following options:

           The solution is telling the linker to use libgcc. Run

             gcc --print-libgcc-file

           to determine the exact location of libgcc.a or for older versions
           of gcc

             gcc -v

           to determine the directory. If you know the directory, add a

             -L<directory> -lgcc

           to the list of C compiler flags. "Configuration". "Linker flags".

       3.) There are known problems with shared versions of libmysqlclient, at
           least on some Linux boxes. If you receive an error message similar

             install_driver(mysql) failed: Can't load
             for module DBD::mysql: File not found at
             /usr/lib/perl5/i586-linux/5.00404/DynaLoader.pm line 166

           then this error message can be misleading: It's not mysql.so that
           fails being loaded, but libmysqlclient.so! The usual problem is
           that this file is located in a directory like


           where the linker doesn't look for it.

           The best workaround is using a statically linked mysqlclient
           library, for example


           The use of a statically linked library is described in the previous
           section on linker flags. "Configuration".  "Linker flags".

       4.) Red Hat 8 & 9 set the Default locale to UTF which causes problems
           with MakeMaker.  To build DBD::mysql on these systems, do a 'unset
           LANG' before runing 'perl Makefile.PL'

       Finally, if everything else fails, you are not alone. First of all, for
       an immediate answer, you should look into the archives of the mailing
       list perl@lists.mysql.com. See http://www.mysql.com for archive

       If you don't find an appropriate posting and reply in the mailing list,
       please post a question. Typically a reply will be seen within one or
       two days.

perl v5.10.0                      2006-12-23          DBD::mysql::INSTALL(3pm)