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WRITE(2)                    BSD Programmer's Manual                   WRITE(2)

NAME
     write, writev - write output

SYNOPSIS
     #include <&lt;sys/types.h>&gt;
     #include <&lt;sys/uio.h>&gt;
     #include <&lt;unistd.h>&gt;

     ssize_t
     write(int d, const void *buf, size_t nbytes);

     ssize_t
     writev(int d, const struct iovec *iov, int iovcnt);

DESCRIPTION
     Write() attempts to write nbytes of data to the object referenced by the
     descriptor d from the buffer pointed to by buf. Writev() performs the
     same action, but gathers the output data from the iovcnt buffers speci-
     fied by the members of the iov array: iov[0], iov[1], ..., iov[iovcnt-1].

     For writev(), the iovec structure is defined as:

           struct iovec {
                   void *iov_base;
                   size_t iov_len;
           };

     Each iovec entry specifies the base address and length of an area in mem-
     ory from which data should be written.  Writev() will always write a com-
     plete area before proceeding to the next.

     On objects capable of seeking, the write() starts at a position given by
     the pointer associated with d, see lseek(2).  Upon return from write(),
     the pointer is incremented by the number of bytes which were written.

     Objects that are not capable of seeking always write from the current po-
     sition.  The value of the pointer associated with such an object is unde-
     fined.

     If the real user is not the super-user, then write() clears the set-user-
     id bit on a file.  This prevents penetration of system security by a user
     who ``captures'' a writable set-user-id file owned by the super-user.

     When using non-blocking I/O on objects such as sockets that are subject
     to flow control, write() and writev() may write fewer bytes than request-
     ed; the return value must be noted, and the remainder of the operation
     should be retried when possible.

RETURN VALUES
     Upon successful completion the number of bytes which were written is re-
     turned.  Otherwise a -1 is returned and the global variable errno is set
     to indicate the error.

ERRORS
     Write() and writev() will fail and the file pointer will remain unchanged
     if:

     [EBADF]       D is not a valid descriptor open for writing.

     [EPIPE]       An attempt is made to write to a pipe that is not open for
                   reading by any process.

     [EPIPE]       An attempt is made to write to a socket of type that is not

                   connected to a peer socket.

     [EFBIG]       An attempt was made to write a file that exceeds the pro-
                   cess's file size limit or the maximum file size.

     [EFAULT]      Part of iov or data to be written to the file points out-
                   side the process's allocated address space.

     [EINVAL]      The pointer associated with d was negative.

     [ENOSPC]      There is no free space remaining on the file system con-
                   taining the file.

     [EDQUOT]      The user's quota of disk blocks on the file system contain-
                   ing the file has been exhausted.

     [EIO]         An I/O error occurred while reading from or writing to the
                   file system.

     [EAGAIN]      The file was marked for non-blocking I/O, and no data could
                   be written immediately.

     In addition, writev() may return one of the following errors:

     [EINVAL]      Iovcnt was less than or equal to 0, or greater than
                   UIO_MAXIOV.

     [EINVAL]      One of the iov_len values in the iov array was negative.

     [EINVAL]      The sum of the iov_len values in the iov array overflowed a
                   32-bit integer.

SEE ALSO
     fcntl(2),  lseek(2),  open(2),  pipe(2),  select(2)

STANDARDS
     Write() is expected to conform to IEEE Std 1003.1-1988 (``POSIX'').

HISTORY
     The writev() function call appeared in 4.2BSD. A write function call ap-
     peared in Version 6 AT&T UNIX.

4th Berkeley Distribution        April 2, 1994                               2