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READ(2)                     BSD System Calls Manual                    READ(2)

     read, readv, pread, preadv -- read input

     #include <&lt;unistd.h>&gt;

     read(int d, void *buf, size_t nbytes);

     pread(int d, void *buf, size_t nbytes, off_t offset);

     #include <&lt;sys/uio.h>&gt;

     readv(int d, const struct iovec *iov, int iovcnt);

     #include <&lt;sys/types.h>&gt;
     #include <&lt;sys/uio.h>&gt;

     preadv(int d, const struct iovec *iov, int iovcnt, off_t offset);

     read() attempts to read nbytes of data from the object referenced by the
     descriptor d into the buffer pointed to by buf.  readv() performs the
     same action, but scatters the input data into the iovcnt buffers speci-
     fied by the members of the iov array: iov[0], iov[1], ..., iov[iovcnt-1].
     pread() and preadv() perform the same functions, but read from the speci-
     fied position offset in the file without modifying the file pointer.

     For readv() and preadv(), the iovec structure is defined as:

           struct iovec {
                   void *iov_base;
                   size_t iov_len;

     Each iovec entry specifies the base address and length of an area in mem-
     ory where data should be placed.  readv() and preadv() will always fill
     an area completely before proceeding to the next.

     On objects capable of seeking, the read() starts at a position given by
     the pointer associated with d (see lseek(2)).  Upon return from read(),
     the pointer is incremented by the number of bytes actually read.

     Objects that are not capable of seeking always read from the current
     position.  The value of the pointer associated with such an object is

     Upon successful completion, read(), readv(), pread(), and preadv() return
     the number of bytes actually read and placed in the buffer.  The system
     guarantees to read the number of bytes requested if the descriptor refer-
     ences a normal file that has that many bytes left before the end-of-file,
     but in no other case.

     Note that readv() and preadv() will fail if the value of iovcnt exceeds
     the constant IOV_MAX.

     If successful, the number of bytes actually read is returned.  Upon read-
     ing end-of-file, zero is returned.  Otherwise, a -1 is returned and the
     global variable errno is set to indicate the error.

     read(), readv(), pread(), and preadv() will succeed unless:

     [EBADF]            d is not a valid file or socket descriptor open for

     [EFAULT]           Part of buf points outside the process's allocated
                        address space.

     [EIO]              An I/O error occurred while reading from the file sys-

     [EINTR]            A read from a slow device (i.e. one that might block
                        for an arbitrary amount of time) was interrupted by
                        the delivery of a signal before any data arrived.

     In addition, read() and readv() may return the following errors:

     [EAGAIN]           The file was marked for non-blocking I/O, and no data
                        were ready to be read.

     [ENOTCONN]         The file is a socket associated with a connection-ori-
                        ented protocol and has not been connected.

     [EIO]              The process is a member of a background process
                        attempting to read from its controlling terminal, the
                        process is ignoring or blocking the SIGTTIN signal or
                        the process group is orphaned.

     read() and pread() may return the following error:

     [EINVAL]           nbytes was larger than SSIZE_MAX.

     pread() and preadv() may return the following errors:

     [EINVAL]           offset was negative.

     [ESPIPE]           d is associated with a pipe, socket, FIFO, or tty.

     readv() and preadv() may return one of the following errors:

     [EINVAL]           iovcnt was less than or equal to 0, or greater than

     [EINVAL]           The sum of the iov_len values in the iov array over-
                        flowed an ssize_t.

     [EFAULT]           Part of iov points outside the process's allocated
                        address space.

     dup(2), fcntl(2), open(2), pipe(2), poll(2), select(2), socket(2),

     The read(), readv(), and pread() functions conform to IEEE Std
     1003.1-2008 (``POSIX.1'').

     A read() system call first appeared in Version 1 AT&T UNIX; readv() in
     4.1cBSD; pread() in AT&T System V Release 4 UNIX; and preadv() in
     OpenBSD 2.7.

     Error checks should explicitly test for -1.  Code such as

           while ((nr = read(fd, buf, sizeof(buf))) > 0)

     is not maximally portable, as some platforms allow for nbytes to range
     between SSIZE_MAX and SIZE_MAX - 2, in which case the return value of an
     error-free read() may appear as a negative number distinct from -1.
     Proper loops should use

           while ((nr = read(fd, buf, sizeof(buf))) != -1 && nr != 0)

BSD                             March 28, 2017                             BSD