memcntl - memory management control
int mask );
Specifies a multiple of pagesize as returned by the sysconf routine
where implemented; otherwise, addr must contain the value NULL. Where
used, control operations can be further defined with the bit pattern
contained in attr.
len Must specify 0 (zero) for the MC_LOCKALL and MC_UNLOCKALL commands.
cmd Specifies the operation to be performed. See the Operations section
for a list of the symbolic names used for the operations as they are
defined by <<sys/mman.h>>.
arg Specifies a bit pattern built from the flags used to control the
behavior of the operation where implemented; otherwise, arg must con-
tain the value 0 (zero).
Specifies the page attributes. If an operation is not to be controlled
by these attributes, the attr argument must contain the value 0 (zero).
Must specify 0 (zero). Reserved for future use.
The memcntl function enables the calling process to exercise various con-
trol operations over the address space which is identified by the mappings
set for the address range [addr, addr, + len].
The scope of the control operations can be further specified with addi-
tional selection criteria (in the form of attributes) according to the bits
contained in the attr parameter.
To specify the selection criteria for page mapping, use the following
Page is mapped shared.
Page is mapped private.
To specify the selection criteria for page protection, use the following
Page is readable.
Page is writable.
Page is executable.
Additional criteria includes the following:
Process Text. When used, it provides all privately mapped segments
with read and execute permission.
Process Data. When used, it provides all privately mapped segments
with read and write permissions.
The selection criteria are constructed by an OR of the attributes bits and
must match exactly. The selection criteria can be used to describe many
abstract memory objects with the address space on which to operate.
This section lists the symbolic names for operations as defined in
Lock in memory all pages in the range with attributes defined by the
attr parameter. Although a specified page may be locked multiple times
through different mappings, page locks do not nest within a specified
A single unlock operation removes multiple lock operations that occur
on a page with the same address in the same process. If a page is
locked in one process, but mapped in another, or visible through a dif-
ferent mapping in the locking process, the lock remains in memory until
the locking process completes either implicit or explicit unlock opera-
Removing a locked mapping or deleting a page through file removal or
truncation causes an implicit unlock operation. However, if a writable
MAP_PRIVATE page in the address range is changed, the lock is
transferred to the private page.
The arg parameter is currently unused; however, it must be specified as
0 (zero) for future compatibility.
Lock in memory all pages mapped by the address space with attributes
defined by attr. The arg parameter controls whether the locked pages
will be those mapped by the current address space, those that will be
mapped later, or both. The arg is a bit pattern built from the follow-
Locks the current mappings, according to the value of the attr
Locks the future mappings. That is, all mappings subsequently
added to the address space are locked if sufficient memory is
available. The attr parameter is not used in this operation.
Locks future mappings according to the selection criteria specified
in the attr parameter. This flag only applies to PROT_READ,
PROT_WRITE, PROT_EXEC, PROC_TEXT, and PROC_DATA.
The addr and len parameters currently are not used in this operation.
However, their values must be specified as NULL and 0 (zero) respec-
MC_LOCKAS alters the calling process's swap state to permanently
resident when MCL_CURRENT and MCL_FUTURE are specified or when
MCL_CURRENT and MCL_FUTURE_SELECTIVE are specified with attr set to
PROT_READ, PROT_WRITE, and PROT_EXEC.
Write all modified pages with the attributes defined by attr to their
backing storage, and if specified, invalidate the cache copies.
For modified pages mapped shared (MAP_SHARED), the backing storage is
the file to which the page is mapped. For modified pages mapped private
(MAP_PRIVATE), the backing storage is its swap area.
The arg parameter is a bit pattern built from the following flags:
Performs asynchronous write operations, and returns once all write
operations are scheduled.
Performs synchronous write operations and returns after all write
operations are complete.
Invalidates the mappings of cache copies in memory, forcing all
future references of the pages to be obtained from the backing
storage location by the system. Use this operation for applica-
tions that require a memory object to be in a known state.
Unlocks all pages in the range that have the attributes specified by
The arg parameter is unused, but it must specify 0 (zero).
Removes address space memory locks and locks on all pages in the
address space that have the attributes specified by the attr parameter.
Clears all future lock bits, thus preventing future mapped pages from
being locked. In addition, if the process was permanently resident,
makes the process swappable by removing the permanently resident
After fork, the child process does not inherit locks established with
lock operations. The memcntl function fails if memory locks exceed a
system specific limit.
With the exception of MC_SYNC, all operations are restricted to
processes that have superuser effective user ID. The memcntl function
subsumes the operations of plock and mctl.
The parameters, addr, arg, len and mask are unused, but an argument of
NULL must be specified for addr, with the other fields specifying 0
MS_SYNC can only be used on nonprivately mapped files.
On successful completion, the memcntl function returns zero (0). To indi-
cate error, errno is set and a value of -1 is returned.
One or more of the following may be returned on failure:
Indicates that part or all of the memory specified by the operation
could not be locked by MC_LOCK or MC_LOCKAS, or unlocked when MC_UNLOCK
or MC_UNLOCKAS is specified.
Indicates that part or all of the addresses in the range [addr, addr, +
len) are locked, and MC_SYNC was specified with MC_INVALIDATE or
Indicates that the addr parameter does not specify a multiple of the
page size as returned by the sysconf routine.
Indicates that MC_LOCKAS or MC_UNLOCKAS was specified and the addr
parameter is not specified as NULL, the len parameter is not specified
as 0 (zero), or both.
Indicates that the arg parameter is invalid for the operation speci-
Indicates that the attr parameter contains the invalid selection cri-
Indicates that part or all of the addresses in the range [addr, addr +
len) are invalid as the address space of the process or pages not
mapped are specified.
Indicates that there was insufficient system storage available when
MC_LOCK, MC_LOCKAS, MC_UNLOCK, or MC_UNLOCKAS was specified.
Indicates that cmd parameter specified with MC_SYNC is not supported on
the address space specified.
Indicates that the effective user ID of the process is not superuser
and one of the following was specified: MC_LOCK, MC_LOCKAS, MC_UNLOCK,
Functions: mmap(2), mprotect(2), plock(2), msync(2)
Routines: mlock(3), mlockall(3), sysconf(3)