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FCNTL(2V)                                                            FCNTL(2V)

       fcntl - file control

       #include <&lt;sys/types.h>&gt;
       #include <&lt;unistd.h>&gt;
       #include <&lt;fcntl.h>&gt;

       int fcntl(fd, cmd, arg)
       int fd, cmd, arg;

       fcntl() performs a variety of functions on open descriptors.  The argu-
       ment fd is an open descriptor used by cmd as follows:

       F_DUPFD        Returns a new descriptor, which has the  smallest  value
                      greater  than  or  equal  to arg.  It refers to the same
                      object as the original  descriptor,  and  has  the  same
                      access  mode  (read,  write  or  read/write).   The  new
                      descriptor shares descriptor status flags with  fd,  and
                      if  the object was a file, the same file pointer.  It is
                      also associated with a FD_CLOEXEC  (close-on-exec)  flag
                      set to remain open across execve(2V) system calls.

       F_GETFD        Get  the FD_CLOEXEC (close-on-exec) flag associated with
                      fd.  If the low-order bit is 0, the  file  remains  open
                      after executing execve(), otherwise it is closed.

       F_SETFD        Set  the FD_CLOEXEC (close-on-exec) flag associated with
                      fd to the low order bit of arg (0 or 1 as above).

                      Note: this is a  per-process  and  per-descriptor  flag.
                      Setting  or clearing it for a particular descriptor does
                      not affect the flag on descriptors  copied  from  it  by
                      dup(2V) or F_DUPFD, nor does it affect the flag on other
                      processes of that descriptor.

       F_GETFL        Get descriptor status flags (see  fcntl(5)  for  defini-

       F_SETFL        Set  descriptor  status  flags (see fcntl(5) for defini-
                      tions).  The following flags are  the  only  ones  whose
                      values  may  change: O_APPEND, O_SYNC, and O_NDELAY, and
                      the  FASYNC,  FNDELAY,  and  FNBIO  flags   defined   in

                      O_NDELAY and FNDELAY are identical.

                      Descriptor  status  flag  values  set by F_SETFL affects
                      descriptors copied using dup(2V), F_DUPFD or other  pro-

                      Setting  or  clearing  the  FNDELAY flag on a descriptor
                      causes an FIONBIO ioctl(2) request to  be  performed  on
                      the  object  referred to by that descriptor.  Setting or
                      clearing non-blocking mode, and setting or clearing  the
                      FASYNC  flag on a descriptor causes an FIOASYNC ioctl(2)
                      request to be performed on the  object  referred  to  by
                      that  descriptor, setting or clearing asynchronous mode.
                      Thus,  all  descriptors  referring  to  the  object  are

       F_GETLK        Get  a  description  of the first lock which would block
                      the lock specified by the flock structure pointed to  by
                      arg  (see  the  definition of struct flock below).  If a
                      lock exists, The flock  structure  is  overwritten  with
                      that  lock's  description.   Otherwise, the structure is
                      passed back with the lock type set to  F_UNLOCK  and  is
                      otherwise unchanged.

       F_SETLK        Set  or clear a file segment lock according to the flock
                      structure pointed to by arg.  F_SETLK  is  used  to  set
                      shared  (F_RDLCK)  or  exclusive  (F_WRLCK) locks, or to
                      remove those locks (F_UNLCK).   If  the  specified  lock
                      cannot  be  applied,  fcntl()  fails and returns immedi-

       F_SETLKW       This cmd is the same as F_SETLK except that if a  shared
                      or exclusive lock is blocked by other locks, the process
                      waits until the requested lock can  be  applied.   If  a
                      signal  that  is  set  to  be caught (see signal(3V)) is
                      received while fcntl() is waiting for a region, the call
                      to   fcntl()  is  interrupted.   Upon  return  from  the
                      process's signal handler, fcntl() fails and returns, and
                      the requested lock is not applied.

       F_GETOWN       Get  the process ID or process group currently receiving
                      SIGIO and SIGURG signals; process groups are returned as
                      negative values.

       F_SETOWN       Set  the  process  or process group to receive SIGIO and
                      SIGURG signals.  Process groups are specified by supply-
                      ing  arg  as negative, otherwise arg is interpreted as a
                      process ID.

       F_RGETLK       Are used by the network lock daemon, lockd(8C), to  com-
                      municate  with  the NFS server kernel to handle locks on
                      the NFS files.

       Record locking is done  with  either  shared  (F_RDLCK),  or  exclusive
       (F_WRLCK)  locks.   More  than  one process may hold a shared lock on a
       particular file segment, but if one process holds an exclusive lock  on
       the  segment,  no  other process may hold any lock on the segment until
       the exclusive lock is removed.

       In order to claim a shared lock, a descriptor must be opened with  read
       access.   Descriptors  for  exclusive  locks  must be opened with write

       A shared lock may be changed to an exclusive lock, and vice versa, sim-
       ply  by specifying the appropriate lock type with a F_SETLK or F_SETLKW
       cmd.  Before the previous lock is released and the  new  lock  applied,
       any other processes already in line must gain and release their locks.

       If cmd is F_SETLKW and the requested lock cannot be claimed immediately
       (for instance, when another process holds an exclusive lock that  over-
       laps the current request) the calling process is blocked until the lock
       may be acquired.  These blocks may be  interrupted  by  signals.   Care
       should  be  taken  to  avoid deadlocks caused by multiple processes all
       blocking the same records.

       A shared or exclusive lock is either advisory or mandatory depending on
       the  mode  bits of the file containing the locked segment.  The lock is
       mandatory if the set-GID bit (S_ISGID) is set and the group execute bit
       (S_IXGRP)  is  clear  (see  stat(2V)  for information about mode bits).
       Otherwise, the lock is advisory.

       If a process holds a mandatory shared lock on  a  segment  of  a  file,
       other  processes  may read from the segment, but write operations block
       until all locks are removed.  If a process holds a mandatory  exclusive
       lock on a segment of a file, both read and write operations block until
       the lock is removed (see WARNINGS).

       An advisory lock does not affect read and write access  to  the  locked
       segment.   Advisory locks may be used by cooperating processes checking
       for locks using F_GETLCK and voluntarily observing the  indicated  read
       and write restrictions.

       The record to be locked or unlocked is described by the flock structure
       defined in <&lt;fcntl.h>&gt; as follows:

              struct flock {
                     short l_type;   /* F_RDLCK, F_WRLCK, or F_UNLCK */
                     short l_whence; /* flag to choose starting offset */
                     long  l_start;  /* relative offset, in bytes */
                     long  l_len;    /* length, in bytes;  0 means lock to EOF */
                     pid_t l_pid;    /* returned with F_GETLK */

       The flock  structure  describes  the  type  (l_type),  starting  offset
       (l_whence),  relative  offset  (l_start),  and size (l_len) of the file
       segment to be affected.  l_whence is  set  to  SEEK_SET,  SEEK_CUR,  or
       SEEK_END  (see lseek(2V)) to indicate that the relative offset is to be
       measured from the start of the file, current position, or EOF,  respec-
       tively.  The process id field (l_pid) is only used with the F_GETLK cmd
       to return the description of a lock held by another process.  Note:  do
       not  confuse  struct  flock with the function flock(2).  They are unre-

       Locks may start or extend beyond the current EOF, but may not be  nega-
       tive  relative to the beginning of the file.  Setting l_len to zero (0)
       extends the lock to EOF.  If l_whence is set to  SEEK_SET  and  l_start
       and  l_len are set to zero (0), the entire file is locked.  Changing or
       unlocking the subset of a locked segment leaves the smaller segments at
       either  end  locked.   Locking  a segment already locked by the calling
       process causes the old lock type to be removed and the new lock type to
       take  affect.  All locks associated with a file for a given process are
       removed when the file is closed or the process terminates.   Locks  are
       not inherited by the child process in a fork(2V) system call.

       fcntl() record locks are implemented in the kernel for local locks, and
       throughout the network by  the  network  lock  daemon  (lockd(8C))  for
       remote  locks  on  NFS files.  If the file server crashes and has to be
       rebooted, the lock daemon attempts to recover all locks that were asso-
       ciated  with  that  server.  If a lock cannot be reclaimed, the process
       that held the lock is issued a SIGLOST signal.

       In order to maintain consistency in the network case, data must not  be
       cached  on client machines.  For this reason, file buffering for an NFS
       file is turned off when the  first  lock  is  attempted  on  the  file.
       Buffering  remains  off  as long as the file is open.  Programs that do
       I/O buffering in the user address space, however, may have inconsistent
       results.  The standard I/O package, for instance, is a common source of
       unexpected buffering.

       O_NDELAY and FNBIO are identical.

       On success, the value returned by fcntl() depends on cmd as follows:

              F_DUPFD        A new descriptor.

              F_GETFD        Value  of  flag  (only  the  low-order   bit   is

              F_GETFL        Value of flags.

              F_GETOWN       Value of descriptor owner.

              other          Value other than -1.

       On failure, fcntl() returns -1 and sets errno to indicate the error.

       EACCES         cmd  is  F_SETLK,  the  lock  type  (l_type)  is F_RDLCK
                      (shared lock), and the file  segment  to  be  locked  is
                      already under an exclusive lock held by another process.
                      This error is also returned if the lock type is  F_WRLCK
                      (exclusive  lock) and the file segment is already locked
                      with a shared or exclusive lock.

                      Note: In future, fcntl() may generate EAGAIN under these
                      conditions,  so  applications  testing for EACCES should
                      also test for EAGAIN.

       EBADF          fd is not a valid open descriptor.

                      cmd is F_SETLK or F_SETLKW and the process does not have
                      the appropriate read or write permissions on the file.

       EDEADLK        cmd is F_SETLKW, the lock is blocked by one from another
                      process, and putting the calling-process to sleep  would
                      cause a deadlock.

       EFAULT         cmd  is  F_GETLK, F_SETLK, or F_SETLKW and arg points to
                      an invalid address.

       EINTR          cmd is F_SETLKW and a  signal  interrupted  the  process
                      while it was waiting for the lock to be granted.

       EINVAL         cmd  is  F_DUPFD and arg is negative or greater than the
                      maximum allowable number (see getdtablesize(2)).

                      cmd is F_GETLK, F_SETLK, or F_SETLKW and arg  points  to
                      invalid data.

       EMFILE         cmd  is  F_DUPFD and the maximum number of open descrip-
                      tors has been reached.

       ENOLCK         cmd is F_SETLK or F_SETLKW and there are  no  more  file
                      lock entries available.

       close(2V),  execve(2V), flock(2), fork(2V), getdtablesize(2), ioctl(2),
       open(2V), sigvec(2), lockf(3), fcntl(5), lockd(8C)

       Mandatory record locks are dangerous.  If a runaway or  otherwise  out-
       of-control  process  should hold a mandatory lock on a file critical to
       the system and fail to release that lock, the entire system could  hang
       or  crash.  For this reason, mandatory record locks may be removed in a
       future SunOS release.  Use advisory record locking whenever possible.

       Advisory locks allow cooperating processes to perform consistent opera-
       tions  on  files,  but do not guarantee exclusive access.  Files can be
       accessed without advisory files, but inconsistencies may result.

       read(2V) and write(2V) system calls on files are affected by  mandatory
       file and record locks (see chmod(2V)).

       File  locks  obtained  by  fcntl()  do not interact with flock() locks.
       They do, however, work correctly with the exclusive  locks  claimed  by

       F_GETLK  returns  F_UNLCK if the requesting process holds the specified
       lock.  Thus, there is no way for a process to determine if it is  still
       holding a specific lock after catching a SIGLOST signal.

       In  a  network  environment,  the value of l_pid returned by F_GETLK is
       next to useless.

                                21 January 1990                      FCNTL(2V)