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CHROOT(2)                     System Calls Manual                    CHROOT(2)



NAME
       chroot - change root directory

SYNOPSIS
       int chroot(dirname)
       char *dirname;

       int fchroot(fd)
       int fd;

DESCRIPTION
       chroot()  and fchroot() cause a directory to become the root directory,
       the starting point for path names  beginning  with  `/'.   The  current
       working directory is unaffected by this call.  This root directory set-
       ting is inherited across execve(2V) and by all children of this process
       created with fork (2V) calls.

       In  order  for  a directory to become the root directory a process must
       have execute (search) access to the directory and either the  effective
       user  ID of the process must be super-user or the target directory must
       be the system root or  a  loop-back  mount  of  the  system  root  (see
       lofs(4S)).   fchroot() is further restricted in that while it is always
       possible to change to the system root using this call, it is not  guar-
       anteed  to succeed in any other case, even should fd be in all respects
       valid.

       The dirname argument to chroot() points to a path name of a  directory.
       The  fd argument to fchroot() is the open file descriptor of the direc-
       tory which is to become the root.

       The ..  entry in the root directory is interpreted  to  mean  the  root
       directory itself.  Thus, ..  cannot be used to access files outside the
       subtree rooted at the root directory.  Instead, fchroot() can  be  used
       to  set  the  root back to a directory which was opened before the root
       directory was changed.

WARNINGS
       The only use of fchroot() that is appropriate is to change back to  the
       system  root.   While it may succeed in some other cases, it is guaran-
       teed to fail if auditing is  enabled.   Super-user  processes  are  not
       exempt from this limitation.

RETURN VALUES
       chroot() returns:

       0      on success.

       -1     on failure and sets errno to indicate the error.

ERRORS
       chroot()  will  fail and the root directory will be unchanged if one or
       more of the following are true:

       EACCES              Search permission is denied for a component of  the
                           path prefix of dirname.

                           Search  permission  is  denied  for  the  directory
                           referred to by dirname.

       EBADF               The descriptor is not valid.

       EFAULT              dirname  points  outside  the  process's  allocated
                           address space.

       EINVAL              fchroot()  attempted to change to a directory which
                           is not the system root and external  circumstances,
                           such as auditing, do not allow this.

       EIO                 An I/O error occurred while reading from or writing
                           to the file system.

       ELOOP               Too many symbolic links were encountered in  trans-
                           lating dirname.

       ENAMETOOLONG        The length of the path argument exceeds {PATH_MAX}.

                           A pathname component is longer than {NAME_MAX} (see
                           sysconf(2V)) while {_POSIX_NO_TRUNC} is  in  effect
                           (see pathconf(2V)).

       ENOENT              The  directory  referred  to  by  dirname  does not
                           exist.

       ENOTDIR             A component of the path prefix of dirname is not  a
                           directory.

                           The file referred to by dirname is not a directory.

       EPERM               The effective user ID is not super-user.

SEE ALSO
       chdir(2V), execve(2V), fork(2V), lofs(4S)



                                21 January 1990                      CHROOT(2)