chroot - Changes the effective root directory
int chroot (
const char *path );
Interfaces documented on this reference page conform to industry standards
chroot(): XPG4, XPG4-UNIX
Refer to the standards(5) reference page for more information about indus-
try standards and associated tags.
path Points to the new effective root directory. If the path parame-
ter refers to a symbolic link, the chroot() function sets the
effective root directory to the directory pointed to by the sym-
The chroot() function causes the directory named by the path parameter to
become the effective root directory.
The effective root directory is the starting point when searching for a
file's pathname that begins with a / (slash). The current working directory
is not affected by the chroot() function.
The calling process must have superuser privilege in order to change the
effective root directory. The calling process must also have search access
to the new effective root directory.
The .. (dot-dot) entry in the effective root directory is interpreted to
mean the effective root directory itself. Thus, .. (dot-dot) cannot be
used to access files outside the subtree rooted at the effective root
Upon successful completion, a value of 0 (zero) is returned. If the
chroot() function fails, a value of -1 is returned and errno is set to
indicate the error.
If the chroot() function fails, the effective root directory remains
unchanged and errno may be set to one of the following values:
[EACCES] Search permission is denied for any component of the pathname.
[EFAULT] The path parameter points outside the process' allocated address
[EIO] An I/O error occurred while reading from or writing to the file
[ELOOP] More than MAXSYMLINKS symbolic links are encountered while
The length of the path argument exceeds PATH_MAX or a pathname
component is longer than NAME_MAX.
[ENOENT] The path parameter does not exist or points to an empty string.
[ENOTDIR] A component of path is not a directory.
[EPERM] The process does not have appropriate privilege.