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ACCESS(2)                   BSD System Calls Manual                  ACCESS(2)

     access -- check access permissions of a file or pathname

     #include <&lt;unistd.h>&gt;

     access(const char *path, int mode);

     The access() function checks the accessibility of the file named by path
     for the access permissions indicated by mode.  The value of mode is the
     bitwise inclusive OR of the access permissions to be checked (R_OK for
     read permission, W_OK for write permission and X_OK for execute/search
     permission) or the existence test, F_OK.  All components of the pathname
     path are checked for access permissions (including F_OK).

     The real user ID is used in place of the effective user ID and the real
     group access list (including the real group ID) are used in place of the
     effective ID for verifying permission.

     Even if a process has appropriate privileges and indicates success for
     X_OK, the file may not actually have execute permission bits set.  Like-
     wise for R_OK and W_OK.

     If path cannot be found or if any of the desired access modes would not
     be granted, then a -1 value is returned; otherwise a 0 value is returned.

     Access to the file is denied if:

     [ENOTDIR]          A component of the path prefix is not a directory.

     [ENAMETOOLONG]     A component of a pathname exceeded {NAME_MAX} charac-
                        ters, or an entire path name exceeded {PATH_MAX} char-

     [ENOENT]           The named file does not exist.

     [ELOOP]            Too many symbolic links were encountered in translat-
                        ing the pathname.

     [EROFS]            Write access is requested for a file on a read-only
                        file system.

     [ETXTBSY]          Write access is requested for a pure procedure (shared
                        text) file presently being executed.

     [EACCES]           Permission bits of the file mode do not permit the
                        requested access, or search permission is denied on a
                        component of the path prefix.  The owner of a file has
                        permission checked with respect to the ``owner'' read,
                        write, and execute mode bits, members of the file's
                        group other than the owner have permission checked
                        with respect to the ``group'' mode bits, and all oth-
                        ers have permissions checked with respect to the
                        ``other'' mode bits.

     [EFAULT]           Path points outside the process's allocated address

     [EIO]              An I/O error occurred while reading from or writing to
                        the file system.

     [EINVAL]           An invalid value was specified for mode.

     chmod(2), stat(2)

     The access() function conforms to ISO/IEC 9945-1:1990 (``POSIX.1'').

     Access() is a potential security hole and should never be used.

4th Berkeley Distribution        April 1, 1994       4th Berkeley Distribution