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 vxassist(1M)			  VxVM 3.5			vxassist(1M)
				 1 Jun 2002



 NAME
      vxassist - create, relayout, convert, mirror, backup, grow, shrink,
      delete, and move volumes

 SYNOPSIS
      vxassist [ options ] [ -b ] addlog volume [ attribute...]

      vxassist [ options ] [ -b ] convert volume [ attribute...]

      vxassist [ options ] [ -b ] growby volume lengthchange [ attribute...]

      vxassist [ options ] [ -b ] growto volume newlength [ attribute...]

      vxassist help { alloc | attrs | layout | mirror | options | showattrs |
      space | usage }

      vxassist [ options ] [ -b ] make volume length [ attribute...]

      vxassist [ options ] [ -b ] maxgrow volume [ attribute...]

      vxassist [ options ] [ -b ] maxsize [ attribute...]

      vxassist [ options ] [ -b ] mirror volume [ attribute...]

      vxassist [ options ] [ -b ] move volume storage-spec... [ attribute...]

      vxassist [ options ] [ -b ] relayout { volume| plex} [ attribute...]

      vxassist [ options ] remove { volume | mirror | log } volume [storage-
      spec...] [ attribute...]

      vxassist [ options ] shrinkby volume lengthchange [ attribute...]

      vxassist [ options ] shrinkto volume newlength [ attribute...]

      vxassist [ options ] snapabort volume

      vxassist [ options ] snapback snapvolume

      vxassist [ options ] snapclear volume [snap_object]

      vxassist [ options ] snapprint [volume]

      vxassist [ options ] snapshot volume snapvolume [ attribute...]

      vxassist [ options ] [ -b ] snapstart volume [ attribute...]

      vxassist [ options ] snapwait volume

 DESCRIPTION
      The vxassist utility is a command-line interface to the VERITAS Volume



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 vxassist(1M)			  VxVM 3.5			vxassist(1M)
				 1 Jun 2002



      Manager (VxVM) that:

	   +  Finds space for and creates volumes

	   +  Performs volume conversion

	   +  Adds mirrors and logs to existing volumes

	   +  Extends and shrinks existing volumes

	   +  Migrates data from a specified set of disks

	   +  Provides facilities for the online backup of existing volumes

      Specify the appropriate keyword to vxassist to select an action to
      perform.

      Each operation can be applied to only one disk group at a time.  For
      most keywords, the volume operand specifies the volume on which to
      operate.	For the make operation, attributes that name specific disks
      can be used to determine a default disk group, according to the
      standard disk group selection rules described in vxintro(1M).  A
      specific disk group can be specified with -g diskgroup.  If no disk
      attributes are specified, the make operation defaults to using the
      rootdg disk group.  You can specify an alternate default disk group in
      a defaults file (usually /etc/default/vxassist).

      Many vxassist operations can take a set of attributes that specify
      such things as how to lay out volumes, or on which sets of disks to
      build them.  There are two basic types of attributes:

	   +  storage specifications

	   +  attribute settings

      Storage specification attributes are either simple disk names (for
      example, disk01), or groups of disks selected by controller or target.
      For example, ctlr:c1 specifies all disks on controller 1.

      You can exclude (negate) storage specification by specifying the
      exclamation character (!) prefix. (Note: You may also need to escape
      the ! character to prevent it being interpreted by the shell.) For
      example, you can combine the arguments ctlr:c1 and !target:c1t5 to
      indicate that storage be allocated from controller 1, but not from
      SCSI target 5 on that controller.

      Other attributes are of the form attrname=value; these additional
      attributes can specify the type of a volume (mirrored, RAID-5,
      striped, logged), layout policies (contiguous, spanning), mirroring
      requirements (mirror across controllers), and constraint parameters
      (constrain allocations to a single controller).  See the ATTRIBUTES



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				 1 Jun 2002



      section below for a complete list of attribute specifications.

      If no non-excluded storage specification attributes are given, any
      non-reserved, non-volatile, non-spare, non-excluded disk can be used
      to allocate storage.  Attributes may constrain the selection,
      particularly with respect to the selection of multiple disks.  For
      example, the command:

      vxassist make mirvol 500m layout=mirror,log mirror=ctlr !ctlr:c2


      requests that vxassist create a new mirrored volume on any disks that
      are not on controller 2.	The mirror=ctlr attribute constrains the
      selection of disks so that the mirrors are created on different
      controllers.

 KEYWORDS
      addlog	Adds a log or DCO to a volume.

		DCO is a data change object, used for Persistent FastResync.

		DRL is a dirty region log, used for speedy recovery of
		mirrors after a system crash.

		Sequential DRL is a form of DRL that is optimized for
		volumes that are written to sequentially, such as database
		log volumes.

		DCM is a data change map, used for fast resynchronization of
		a secondary RVG with its primary.

		Mirrored volumes are associated with DRL or sequential DRL
		logs.

		RAID-5 volumes are associated with RAID-5 logs.

		Replicated volumes are associated with DCM logs.

		By default, when adding a log, vxassist attempts to
		determine the correct type of log to add, even if no logtype
		attribute is specified. For example, if the volume is part
		of an RVG, vxassist attempts to create a DCM log.

		When adding a DRL, RAID-5 or DCM log to a volume for the
		first time, the loglen attribute can be used to specify the
		length of the log; on adding additional logs, the loglen
		attribute is ignored and the existing log length is used. If
		a loglen which is too large or small to be practical is
		specified, vxassist may adjust the length to a reasonable
		size. If no loglen attribute is supplied, vxassist picks an
		appropriate log size. Other attributes can be specified to



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 vxassist(1M)			  VxVM 3.5			vxassist(1M)
				 1 Jun 2002



		indicate desired properties for the new allocations.
		Mirroring constraints do not apply to logs, though storage
		constraints can be specified that limit the logs to disk
		sets already used by the volume.

		Adding a DCO to a volume creates a DCO object that is
		associated with the volume, and a DCO volume that is
		associated with the DCO object. When created for a non-
		layered volume with at least 2 data plexes or for any
		layered volume, the default DCO volume has 2 DCO plexes
		(mirrors for redundancy), each of length 132 blocks. When
		created for a non-layered volume with a single data plex,
		the default DCO volume has a single unmirrored DCO plex of
		length 132 blocks.

		Note: To allow operation of the dynamic disk group
		split/join feature (see vxdg(1M) for more information),
		vxassist attempts to place DCO plexes on the same disks as
		the plexes of the corresponding data volume.  This
		allocation policy may not succeed if there is insufficient
		disk space.  vxassist then uses available space in the
		remaining disks of the disk group. This may prevent certain
		disk group split or move operations if the DCO plexes cannot
		accompany their parent data volume. To overcome this, you
		can use storage specifications to specify explicitly the
		disks on which the DCO plexes are to be configured.

		Note: Adding a DCO does not enable Persistent FastResync on
		the parent volume unless fastresync=yes is also specified.

		Adding a DRL log to a mirrored volume creates a single log
		subdisk and a new plex to contain that subdisk. The new plex
		is then be attached to the volume. DRL logging can co-exist
		with DCO.

		Adding a RAID-5 log to a RAID-5 volume involves creating a
		new plex that is attached to the volume as a log plex.

		Adding a DCM log to a replicated volume adds two logs (by
		default), each consisting of a log plex and associated
		subdisk.  DCM logging can co-exist with DCO.

      convert	Converts a volume layout to a mirror-stripe from a stripe-
		mirror, or from a mirror-stripe to a stripe-mirror.  Also
		converts to mirror-concat from a concat-mirror, or from a
		mirror-concat to a concat-mirror.

      growby | growto
		Increases the length of the named volume to the length
		specified by newlength (growto), or by the length specified
		by lengthchange (growby).  Specify the new length, or change



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				 1 Jun 2002



		in length, in VERITAS Volume Manager standard lengths (see
		vxintro(1M)).  The growto operation fails if the new length
		is not greater than the current volume length.	The length
		of the volume is increased by extending existing subdisks in
		the volume, or by adding and associating new subdisks.
		Plexes that are not already fully populated (that is,
		sparse) are left unchanged.  Log-only plexes are also left
		unchanged.

		Note: Following a relayout, specify the attribute
		layout=nodiskalign to the growby and growto commands if you
		want the subdisks to be grown using contiguous disk space.

		Note: When you grow a volume, it is recommended that you
		also grow any file system that is configured on that volume
		(see vxresize(1M)).  vxassist does not resize file systems
		(or other uses of the volume, such as databases) that reside
		on the volume.	If necessary, use the appropriate
		application command to adjust the layout of data in the
		volume after the grow operation has finished.

		When a volume is grown, the volume may be converted from one
		layout to another as a side effect.  For example, a volume
		that has the mirror-stripe layout may be converted to
		stripe-mirror when it is grown.	 This kind of conversion is
		done if vxassist determines that the new volume is too small
		or large for the original layout.  If the new volume layout
		is inappropriate, use the convert operation between layered
		and non-layered forms.	See Layout Specifications for a
		description of the methods used to determine disk layouts.

		Note: You cannot resize volumes comprised of different plex
		layouts.  If you try to do so, an error message displays
		stating that the volume contains differing layouts.

		You can specify attributes to indicate properties for the
		new allocations.  Any mirroring constraints still apply
		between all extensions to the existing mirrors and the other
		mirrors.  Growing of a volume requires that the volume be
		enabled.

		When the size of a replicated volume changes, you can ensure
		that the size of the DCM is appropriate by removing all the
		DCM logs and adding them back without specifying the loglen
		attribute.

      help	Displays information on vxassist usage and VERITAS Volume
		Manager attributes.  For example, to display information
		about using vxassist attributes, enter:





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 vxassist(1M)			  VxVM 3.5			vxassist(1M)
				 1 Jun 2002



		vxassist help attributes




      make	Creates a volume with the specified name and the specified
		length.	 The length is specified as a standard VERITAS
		Volume Manager length (see vxintro(1M)).  You can specify
		attributes to indicate various properties and storage
		locations for the created volume.  See Layout Specifications
		for a description of the methods used to determine disk
		layouts.

      maxgrow	Reports the maximum size a volume can grow given its
		attributes and given the free storage available.

      maxsize	Reports the maximum size a volume could be created with
		given the attributes specified and given the free storage
		available.

      mirror	Creates a new mirror (or plex) and attaches it to the
		volume.	 This operation is allowed only if the volume is
		enabled.  Attributes can be specified to indicate various
		desired properties and storage locations for the created
		volume.	 Attributes that constrain mirroring (such as
		requiring that mirrors be on separate groups of disks) apply
		between the existing mirrors of the volume and the new
		mirror.

      move	Moves subdisks within the named volume off the excluded
		storage specified on the command line.	Excluded storage is
		specified with a prefix of !.  The move operation requires
		that at least one excluded storage specification be given.

		If the volume is enabled, subdisks within detached or
		disabled plexes (or detached log or RAID-5 subdisks) are
		moved without recovery of data.	 If the volume is not
		enabled, stale log or RAID-5 subdisks, or subdisks within
		STALE or OFFLINE plexes, are moved without recovery; if
		there are other subdisks within a non-enabled volume that
		require moving, the move operation fails.

		For enabled subdisks in enabled plexes within an enabled
		volume, the data within subdisks are moved to the new
		location, without loss of availability (or redundancy) of
		the volume.

      relayout	Changes a volume layout or properties.	This operation
		changes the number of columns in a stripe or the stripe
		width of a volume. It also converts a volume to or from
		RAID-5, concatenated-mirror, striped, striped-mirror or any



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				 1 Jun 2002



		similar layout.

		Note: The relayout operation internally generates unique
		data object names (for example, v2-Dp02) when it converts a
		volume to a specified destination layout.

		Note: Following a relayout, specify the attribute
		layout=nodiskalign to the growby and growto commands if you
		want the subdisks to be grown using contiguous disk space.

		After relayout to a layered form, a volume may be converted
		to a non-layered form. For example, to convert from a 4-
		column mirror-stripe to a 5-column mirror-stripe, first
		relayout the volume as a stripe-mirror:

		vxassist relayout vol1 nstripe=5


		If you view the volume with vxprint during relayout, the
		volume shows several subvolumes that are used during the
		change, and a more complex configuration than usual.

		After the new column is added, the volume is in stripe-
		mirror layout. Use vxassist convert to convert back to a
		mirror-stripe layout:

		vxassist convert vol1 layout=mirror-stripe




		Note: If the system crashes during relayout or conversion,
		the process continues when the system is rebooted.  However,
		if the crash occurred during the first stage of a two-stage
		relayout and convert operation, only the first stage is
		subsequently completed after rebooting.	 You must run
		vxassist convert manually to complete the second stage.

      remove volume | mirror | log
		Deletes the entire volume, one or more mirrors, or one or
		more logs, according to the argument.  When deleting a
		mirror or a log, specify the storage to be removed using the
		attribute form !diskname (see Storage Specifications below).
		For example, to remove a mirror on disk01, enter:

		vxassist remove mirror vol01 !disk01


		See vxplex(1M) for an example of an alternative method of
		removing a mirror from a volume.




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				 1 Jun 2002



		Use the logtype= attribute to specify the type of log to be
		removed. For example, specify logtype=drl to remove a DRL
		log.

		Note: Specifying logtype=dco completely removes the DCO
		object, DCO volume and any snap objects that are associated
		with the specified volume, and also disables FastResync on
		the volume.

		The alloc=, nmirror=, and nlog= attributes also determine
		the number of mirrors or logs remaining after the remove
		operation completes.  When the number of mirrors drops to 1,
		logs are also removed.

		By default, vxassist removes 1 mirror or 1 log.

      shrinkby | shrinkto
		Decreases the length of the named volume to the length
		specified by newlength (shrinkto), or by the length
		specified by lengthchange (shrinkby).  Specify the new
		length, or change in length, in VERITAS Volume Manager
		standard lengths (see vxintro(1M)).  The shrinkto operation
		fails if the new length is not less than the current volume
		length.

		The length of a volume is decreased by removing and
		shortening subdisks to leave each plex with the requested
		volume length.	The freed space can then be allocated for
		use by other volumes.  Log-only plexes are left unchanged.

		When a volume is shrunk, the volume may be converted from
		one layout to another as a side effect.	 For example, a
		volume that has the mirror-stripe layout may be converted to
		stripe-mirror when it is shrunk.  This kind of conversion is
		done if vxassist determines that the new volume is too small
		or large for the original layout.  If the new volume layout
		is inappropriate, use the convert operation between layered
		and non-layered forms.	See Layout Specifications for a
		description of the methods used to determine disk layouts.

		Note: You cannot resize volumes comprised of different plex
		layouts.  If you try to do so, an error message displays
		stating that the volume contains differing layouts.

		Caution: Data can be lost or corrupted if file systems or
		other organized data residing on a volume are not shrunk
		before shrinking the volume.  vxassist does not resize file
		systems (or other uses of the volume, such as databases)
		that reside on the volume.  You can use the vxresize command
		to shrink file systems on the volume (see vxresize(1M)).
		Otherwise, use the appropriate application command to adjust



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				 1 Jun 2002



		the layout of data in the volume before initiating the
		shrink operation.

      snapabort Removes the mirror snapshot when a snapstart mirror has been
		started (and eventually completed).

      snapback	By default, finds one plex in the snapshot volume that has
		the snap_rid field set, and attaches it to the original
		volume.	 If the plex is the last in a volume, that volume is
		removed from the disk group.

		Note: The snapshot volume and the original volume must be in
		the same disk group.

		If the -o allplexes option is specified, all snapshot plexes
		in the same disk group are reattached.	Alternatively, if
		the nmirror=number attribute is specified, only number
		plexes are reattached.

		The direction of the resynchronization can be determined by
		specifying either resyncfromoriginal or resyncfromreplica as
		the useopt argument to the -o option.  To choose the
		original volume as the preferred copy of the data, use -o
		resyncfromoriginal.  To choose the replica as the preferred
		copy of the data, use -o resyncfromreplica.

		Note: You must unmount the original volume (if mounted)
		before using the -o resyncfromreplica option.  Similarly,
		you must unmount the snapshot volume (if mounted) before
		using the -o resyncfromoriginal option.

      snapclear Clears the FastResync map, removes any snap objects, and
		clears the snap_rid field of the volume.

		Note: snapback cannot be invoked after snapclear is used.

		If Persistent FastResync is enabled and the original volume
		and the snapshot volume are in different disk groups,
		snapclear removes the snap object and clears the FastResync
		map for the snapshot volume that corresponds to the snapshot
		object.	 To stop tracking on the original volume for the
		snapshot volume, specify the snap object, snap_object, in
		the original volume that refers to the snapshot volume.	 You
		must also run vxassist snapclear separately on the snapshot
		volume.	 For example, if myvol1 and SNAP-myvol1 are in
		separate disk groups mydg1 and mydg2 respectively, the
		following command stops tracking on myvol1 with respect to
		SNAP-myvol1:

		vxassist -g mydg1 snapclear myvol1 SNAP-myvol1_snp




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				 1 Jun 2002



		However, tracking is still enabled on SNAP-myvol1 with
		respect to myvol1. The following command turns this tracking
		off by specifying the snap object, myvol1_snp, in SNAP-
		myvol1 that points to myvol1:

		vxassist -g mydg2 snapclear SNAP-myvol1 myvol1_snp


		If Persistent FastResync is enabled and the original volume
		and the snapshot volume are in the same disk group,
		snapclear removes the snap records for both the original
		volume and the snapshot volume in addition to clearing their
		FastResync maps.

		Note: Either of the two previous examples stops Persistent
		FastResync tracking for both the snapshot volume (SNAP-
		myvol1) and the original volume (myvol1) if they are in the
		same disk group.

		To support Non-Persistent FastResync and to be compatible
		with previous versions of VxVM, a single snapshot volume can
		be specified as the argument to snapclear, for example:

		vxassist -g myolddg snapclear SNAP-myoldvol




      snapprint Displays the associations between the original volumes and
		their respective replicas.  If a volume is specified, output
		is displayed only for that volume.  An error message is
		displayed if FastResync is not enabled on the volume.

		The following information is displayed:

		+  Name of the original volume.

		+  Names of all snapshot volumes.

		+  Length in blocks of the volume, detached plex, or
		   snapshot plex.

		+  Percentage of the snapshot plex or detached plex that is
		   considered to have been changed (dirty).  For Non-
		   Persistent FastResync, which keeps information about
		   changed regions in a single map for the original volume
		   and its snapshot volumes, the %DIRTY value is the same
		   for the original volume as for a snapshot volume even if
		   writes are only made to the snapshot volume.	 For
		   Persistent FastResync, which maintains separate tracking
		   maps for the original volume and each of its snapshot



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		   volumes, the %DIRTY value is based only on what has been
		   written to an individual volume.

		In the following example, Persistent FastResync is enabled
		on volume v1, and Non-Persistent FastResync on volume v2.  V
		and v indicate the volume, DP and dp indicate detached
		plexes, and SS and ss indicate snapshot plexes.

		# vxassist -g mydg snapprint v1

		V  NAME		USETYPE	     LENGTH
		SS SNAPOBJ	NAME	     LENGTH	%DIRTY
		DP NAME		VOLUME	     LENGTH	%DIRTY

		v  v1		fsgen	     20480
		ss SNAP-v1_snp	SNAP-v1	     20480	4
		dp v1-01	v1	     20480	0
		dp v1-02	v1	     20480	0

		v  SNAP-v1	fsgen	     20480
		ss v1_snp	v1	     20480	0

		# vxassist -g mydg snapprint v2

		V  NAME		USETYPE	     LENGTH
		SS SNAPOBJ	NAME	     LENGTH	%DIRTY
		DP NAME		VOLUME	     LENGTH	%DIRTY

		v  v2		fsgen	     20480
		ss --		SNAP-v2	     20480	0
		dp v2-01	v2	     20480	0

		v  SNAP-v2	fsgen	     20480
		ss --		v2	     20480	0


      snapshot	Creates a new volume by taking one or more attached
		temporary mirrors (with state SNAPDONE) to use as its
		plexes.	 The nmirror=number attribute can be used to specify
		the number of mirrors in a snapshot volume. At least number
		SNAPDONE plexes must be available in the original volume.
		By default, one plex is used if nmirrors is not specified.

		The comment attribute may also be used to set the comment
		field for the snapshot volume.

		The following are examples of the use of the nmirror and
		comment attributes:

		vxassist snapshot nmirror=2 \
		comment="mirrored snapvol for myvol" myvol snapvol



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		Some usage types attempt to synchronize any in-memory data
		associated with the volume (such as unwritten file system
		modifications) when the snapshot operation is done. In
		particular, if the fsgen usage type is used with a volume
		containing a VERITAS File System (VxFS), then cooperating
		procedures ensure that all file system data is consistently
		flushed to the volume.	For hfs and other file system types,
		the synchronization operation calls sync.  This makes the
		snapshot a better image, but it may leave some
		inconsistencies between in-memory file system data and the
		data residing on the backup image.

		The snapshot command accepts more than one volume. All the
		given volumes are split atomically (in a single
		transaction).  That is, all the given volumes are relatively
		consistent as a result of taking the snapshot. If you
		specify the -o allvols option without giving any volume
		names, vxassist attempts to create a sufficiently long
		vxplex command to take a snapshot of all the volumes in the
		disk group. You can use the -o name=pattern option to
		specify a name for the new volume.  Otherwise, the default
		name assigned to the new volume has the form SNAP%d-%v.

      snapstart Creates a plex and attaches it to the named volume as a
		snapshot mirror.  When the attach completes, the plex has
		state SNAPDONE and is a candidate for selection by the
		snapshot operation.  Attributes can be specified to indicate
		the desired properties of the snapshot mirror.

		The nmirror=number attribute can be used to specify the
		number of snapshot plexes to be attached to a volume. By
		default, number is 1.

		Note: To allow operation of the dynamic disk group
		split/join feature (see vxdg(1M) for more information),
		vxassist attempts to avoid placing snapshot plexes on the
		same disks as the plexes of the original volume or the
		plexes of its associated DCO volume.  This allocation policy
		may not succeed if there is insufficient disk space.
		vxassist then uses any other available space in the disk
		group. This may prevent certain disk group split or move
		operations if the snapshot plexes and their associated DCO
		plexes cannot be physically separated from the plexes of the
		original volume or the plexes of its DCO volume.  To
		overcome this, you can use storage specifications to specify
		explicitly the disks on which the snapshot plexes are to be
		configured.

      snapwait	Waits for an attached mirror to become available on a volume
		if a snapstart mirror attach is done as a background task
		(such as using the -b option).	The operation exits when the



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		snapshot is complete.  Available snapshot plexes are flagged
		with state SNAPDONE.

 OPTIONS
      -b	Performs extended operations in the background.	 This option
		applies to plex consistency recovery operations for make,
		growto and growby, to plex attach operations started by
		mirror and snapstart, to relayout operations started by
		relayout, and to the addlog, convert, maxgrow, maxsize, move
		and remove operations.

      -d defaults
		Specifies a file containing defaults for various attributes
		related to volume creation and space allocation.  If not
		specified, this defaults to /etc/default/vxassist.

      -f	Forces operations not usually allowed by vxassist.

      -g diskgroup
		Specifies the disk group for the operation, either by disk
		group ID or by disk group name. By default, the disk group
		is chosen based on the medianame operands (if any) for the
		vxassist make operation, or based on the volume operands for
		all other operations.

      -n	Prevents the system defaults file being read.

      -o useopt Passes in options specific to a usage type to the operation.
		A certain set of operations are expected to be implemented
		by all usage types:

		allplexes Specifies that all available snapshot plexes in a
			  disk group are to be reattached to their original
			  volume during a snapback operation.

		allvols	  Takes a snapshot of all the volumes in the disk
			  group.  An error results if one or more volumes do
			  not have a plex that is usable for the snapshot.

		iosize=size
			  Performs copy and recovery operations in regions
			  with the length specified by size, which is a
			  standard VERITAS Volume Manager length number (see
			  vxintro(1M)). Specifying a larger number typically
			  causes the operation to complete sooner, but with
			  greater impact on other processes using the
			  volume. The default I/O size is typically between
			  4 and 128 kilobytes.

		name=pattern
			  Specifies the template for naming new snapshot



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 vxassist(1M)			  VxVM 3.5			vxassist(1M)
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			  volumes. The pattern consists of characters and
			  one or more of the following specifiers:

			  %%	    Single percent character.

			  %d	    Unique serialization number expressed as
				    a decimal integer.

			  %g	    Disk group name.

			  %m	    Mirror's original name.

			  %s	    Serialization string expressed as a
				    sequence of one or more lower case
				    letters.

			  %S	    Serialization string expressed as a
				    sequence of one or more upper case
				    letters.

			  %v	    Volume name.

			  %x	    Unique serialization number expressed as
				    a lower-case hexadecimal integer.

			  %X	    Unique serialization number expressed as
				    an upper case hexadecimal integer.
		The default template name for a new snapshot volume is
		SNAP%d-%v.

		numchild=number
			  Specifies the number of child processes that are
			  used to perform resynchronization during a
			  snapback operation.  The default value of number
			  is 1 (no child processes), which is the same as
			  specifying a number of 0. Specifying a larger
			  value for number potentially speeds up
			  resynchronization, although the effectiveness of
			  this depends to some extent on the underlying
			  characteristics of the disk array.  No further
			  benefit in performance may be noticeable for a
			  value for number greater than 3.

			  By default, the child processes divide the volume
			  into equally sized chunks, which they then
			  resynchronize independently with the volume.	This
			  behavior may be modified using the useopt
			  sequential.

			  Note: A large iosize of 1m or 2m is recommended
			  for use with this option.



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		ordered	  Specifies that ordered allocation should be used
			  to create a new volume.  For more information, see
			  the Ordered Allocation section below.

		readonly  Specifies that a read-only replica volume is
			  created during a snapshot.

		renamesnapplex
			  Specifies that a snapshot plex is renamed when the
			  snapshot operation is used to create a snapshot
			  volume.  If this option is not specified, the plex
			  retains the same name that it had in the original
			  volume.

		resyncfromoriginal
			  Performs a resync using the data in the original
			  volume during a snapback.

		resyncfromreplica
			  Performs a resync using the data in the snap plex
			  during a snapback.

		sequential
			  When specified with the useopt numchild for values
			  of number greater than 1, the child processes co-
			  operate in resynchronizing regions of the volume
			  that are close together, starting at the beginning
			  of the volume and moving to the end.	This creates
			  more overhead for the resynchronization, but it
			  potentially makes better use of the sequential
			  read-ahead buffer of the physical disks.

		slow[=iodelay]
			  Reduces the impact on system performance of copy
			  operations. Copy and plex consistency recovery
			  operations are usually a set of short operations
			  on small regions of the volume (normally from 16
			  kilobytes to 128 kilobytes). This option inserts a
			  delay between the recovery of each such region. A
			  specific delay can be specified with iodelay as a
			  number of milliseconds, or a default is chosen
			  (normally 250 milliseconds).

      -p	Prints only the maximum size with no text wrappers (used
		with maxsize and maxgrow).

      -r	Includes spare disks (reserved for hot-relocation) in the
		calculation.

      -t tasktag
		Marks any tasks that are registered to track the progress of



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		an operation with the tag tasktag. This option is passed to
		utilities called by vxassist, so any child tasks are also
		tagged with tasktag.  The tag specified by tasktag is a
		sequence of up to 16 alphanumeric characters.

      -U usetype
		Limits the operation to volumes that have this usage type.
		Any attempt to operate on volumes that have a different
		usage type fails.

		For a make operation, this option specifies the usage type
		of the volume to be created. Otherwise, the default usage
		type set in the /etc/default/vxassist file is used, or if
		such an entry does not exist, the usage type is set to
		fsgen.

      -v	Traces calls to other utilities to determine which VERITAS
		Volume Manager commands vxassist is executing.

 Hardware-Specific Options
      Some environments provide guidelines to optimize VxVM's interaction
      with intelligent storage systems. If these guidelines are present,
      VxVM follows the guidelines when creating volumes or allocating space
      for volumes. By default, vxassist only creates volumes that conform
      with these guidelines. The following options change the behavior of
      vxassist operations make, mirror, grow and shrink :

      -o override
		Performs the specified vxassist task for the specified
		volume and ignores any storage-specific guidelines.
		Overriding the guidelines is not recommended as it can
		result in incompatible objects, or objects that cannot be
		administered by VxVM and any associated software that
		exploit storage-specific features.

      -o verify Verifies that the vxassist task for the specified volume can
		be performed without violating any storage-specific
		guidelines, but does not commit or perform any task.  If any
		guidelines are violated, vxassist exits with an error
		message.

		Note: These options need a separate license. Without the
		license, vxassist ignores the specified option.

      Refer to the vendor-specific documentation for more information on how
      intelligent storage systems can interact with VxVM.

 ATTRIBUTES
      Attribute values for various purposes can be specified with arguments
      of the form attribute=value. Attributes can also be passed in through
      a defaults file. Default attribute values can be stored in the file



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      /etc/default/vxassist.

      Attributes are selected according to the order in which they are
      scanned.	In general they are taken in decreasing priority of being
      specified on:

      1. The command line.

      2. The specified defaults file (as supplied with the -d command line
	 argument).

      3. The system defaults file (as specified in /etc/default/vxassist).

      Attributes from all sources have the same form. However, in some
      cases, command-line attributes change default behaviors in ways that
      attributes in the defaults file do not. In particular, references to
      mirroring (such as specifying a mirror count) or logging (such as
      specifying a log count or length) on the command line cause mirroring
      or logging to happen by default. If such attributes are specified in a
      defaults file, they indicate the attributes that would be used if
      mirroring or logging were enabled.

      Attributes are either storage specifications (possibly negated), or
      are in the form attribute=value. In a defaults file, attributes are
      separated by a space or are on separate lines. Blank lines in a
      defaults file are ignored, and comments can be included with the
      standard # convention.

 Storage Specifications
      Storage specification attributes have one of the following forms:

      [!]diskname
		Specifies (or excludes) a disk. diskname refers to a disk
		media record name in a VERITAS Volume Manager disk group.

      [!]diskclass:instance
		Specifies (or excludes) a set of disks. diskclass names a
		particular type of disk grouping (for example, ctlr to
		indicate groups of disks on a single controller), and
		instance specifies which grouping of that type (for example
		c1).  Each type of disk class has a particular format for
		specifying instances of the class.

      diskclass:same
		Specifies that the allocation must be constrained to include
		disks from the same instance of the given class. For
		example, a storage specification of diskparam:same indicates
		that all disks selected must have the same basic parameters
		(tracksize, cylinder size, size, and revolutions-per-
		minute), but does not specify which specific parameters to
		use.



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      The defined disk classes (and alternate names, or aliases, for those
      classes) are as follows:

      ctlr (alias: c, ctrl, cntrl, controller)
		Specifies disks accessible through a controller group. All
		disks accessible through the specified controller name(c#)
		are selected for the operation.

		For example, consider a configuration where two enclosures
		are connected to a host. The first through controllers c1,
		c2 and the second through controllers c3, c4. The command:


		     vxassist make vol1 1024 !ctlr:c1


		results in disks from the first enclosure being excluded
		from the operation because all disks in the first enclosure
		are accessible through c1(and c2). The command:


		     vxassist make vol1 1024 !ctlr:c2


		has the same effect (of excluding disks in the first
		enclosure) in the above configuration. The command:


		     vxassist make vol1 1024 layout=mirror nmirror=2 mirror=ctlr


		results in the mirrors being placed across the controller
		groups c1, c2 and c3, c4.

      da	Specifies a VERITAS Volume Manager disk (VM disk) by device
		name (disk access record name).	 For example, c2t1d0
		indicates a VM disk defined on disk c2t1d0.

      device (alias: d)
		Specifies all VM disks on a physical disk.  The physical
		disk is specified in the form c#t#d#, which indicates the
		controller, target ID, and disk number.	 Typically, only one
		VM disk device is created for each physical disk.

      diskrpm (alias: rpm)
		Specifies disks with a given rotation speed in revolutions
		per minute (for example, 7200).

      dm (alias: disk)
		Specifies a VM disk by disk name (disk media record name) in
		the disk group of the volume. Specifying a disk class type



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				 1 Jun 2002



		of dm or disk is equivalent to giving a storage
		specification with no disk class name.

      enclr (alias: e, enclr, enclosure)
		Specifies disks belonging to a particular enclosure. The
		enclosure name is obtained using the command:


		     vxdmpadm listenclosure all


		For example, the following command excludes disks in the
		enclosure enc1 from the operation.


		     vxassist make vol1 1024 layout=mirror nmirror=2 \
			  !enclr:enc1


      target (alias: t)
		Specifies disks with the same SCSI target address on the
		same controller.  The target is specified in the form c#t#.
		For example, t:c2t4 selects disks on target 4 of controller
		2.

 Other Attributes
      Other attributes are of the form attribute=value.	 The attribute name
      in an attribute value pair never contains a colon, so it is possible
      to specify a disk that has an equal sign in its name using the storage
      specification dm:disk01=a. Without the dm: prefix, disk01=a would
      cause an error indicating an unrecognized attribute.

      Defined attributes (and common aliases) are:

      alloc=storage-spec[,storage-spec,...]

		Specifies storage as single attributes.	 This is useful in a
		defaults file, so that all attributes (including storage
		specifications) are in the attribute=value format. Any
		number of storage specifications can be specified, separated
		by commas. More than one alloc attribute can be specified,
		in which case they are logically concatenated to form one
		longer list.

      col_switch=size1,size2[,...]
		When creating a volume using ordered allocation (-o
		ordered), specifies how much space to allocate from each
		listed disk to a concatenated column before switching to the
		next disk.  The number of size arguments (switch points)
		determines how many disks are concatenated to form a column.
		size1 space is allocated from the first disk, size2 space is



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				 1 Jun 2002



		then allocated from the second disk, and so on.	 The switch
		points are applied identically to all columns in the volume
		being created.

		For more information, see the Ordered Allocation section
		below.

      comment=comment
		Specifies a comment to give to a volume when it is created.
		This comment can be displayed with vxprint -l, and can be
		changed, at a later time, with vxedit set. This attribute
		can be used with the make and snapshot operations.

      dcolen=number (alias: dcologlen)
		Specifies the length of each plex in a DCO volume.  By
		default, specifying a length on the command line creates a
		DCO volume.  The default length is 132 blocks, and any
		specified value should be an integral multiple of 33 blocks
		between 33 and 2112 blocks.

      diskgroup=disk-group (alias: dg)

		Specifies the disk group for an operation. If a disk group
		is specified in a defaults file, then it just specifies the
		default disk group to use for the make operation, if no
		other means of determining the disk group can be used. If
		specified as a command line attribute, it has the same
		effect as specifying a disk group with the -g option (the
		operation is forced to apply to the given disk group).

      excl=yes|y|on|true|no|n|off|false
		Sets or clears the EXCLUSIVE flag on the volume.  A volume
		in exclusive open state can be opened by only one node in
		the cluster at a time. Multiple opens of an exclusive volume
		from the same node are permitted.  Non-exclusive volumes can
		be simultaneously opened by more than one node.	 After a
		node opens an exclusive volume, every other node's open
		attempt fails until the last close of the volume by the
		first opener. Such an open failure returns a EBUSY error
		code.

		Note: Only available if the VERITAS Volume Manager cluster
		feature is enabled.

      fastresync=yes|y|on|true|no|n|off|false (alias: fmr)
		Enables or disables both Persistent and Non_Persistent
		FastResync.  If enabled, FastResync is non-persistent if a
		DCO object and a DCO volume are not associated with a
		volume, and it is persistent if a DCO object and DCO volume
		are associated with a volume.




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		Note: A license is necessary to use the FastResync feature.

      fstype=file-system-type
		Specifies the file system type for a new volume (this is
		used only with the make operation).  The file system type
		for a volume is usually determined when needed by running
		the fstyp utility (see fstyp(1M)), but can be specified
		explicitly.  The file system type parameter is used with the
		VERITAS Volume Manager vxresize utility, as well as with
		volume snapshots, copies, and dissociates (to select
		features that are used with VERITAS File System (VxFS)).

		The file system type can be changed at any later time with
		the vxedit set operation.

      group=owning-group
		Sets the group ID for a new volume. The group ID can be
		specified numerically or with a system group name. This
		attribute is used only with the make operation. By default,
		volumes are created with group 0.

      init=initialization-type
		Specifies how to initialize a new volume. The default method
		(which can be selected explicitly with init=default) is to
		call vxvol start to perform a default initialization that is
		specific to a usage type.  A new volume can be left
		uninitialized with init=none. The most useful non-default
		initialization that can be specified is init=zero, to clear
		the volume before enabling it for general use.

      layout=layout-spec[,layout-spec,...]
		Specifies a plex layout type (RAID-5, mirrored, unmirrored,
		striped, cylinder alignment), and turn some features on and
		off (such as logging). The list of layout specifications is
		given in the Layout Specifications section.  By default,
		unmirrored, non-striped volumes are created without a log.

      logdisk=disk[,disk,...]
		When creating volumes using ordered allocation (-o ordered),
		specifies on which disks logs should be created.  This
		attribute must be specified for RAID-5 volumes unless nolog
		or noraid5log is specified.  For other types of volume
		layout, this attribute is optional, and if not specified any
		required logs are co-located with the data.

		For more information, see the Ordered Allocation section
		below.

      loglen=length
		Specifies a log length to use for dirty-region log (DRL)
		subdisks for mirrored volumes, for RAID-5 log plexes, or for



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		DCM log plexes for replicated volumes.	By default,
		specifying a log length on the command line creates a log.
		Associating a log with a mirrored or RAID-5 volume is
		sufficient to enable its use.

		A DCM log must be enabled using the vxrlink command.  This
		is because it is used for failure recovery and
		synchronization of replicated volumes.

      logtype=type
		Specifies the type of log to use with a mirrored or
		replicated volume:

		dcm  Select DCM (data change map).  This is the default log
		     type for replicated volumes.

		dco  Select DCO (data change object).  (This is used to
		     implement Persistent FastResync, which is enabled by
		     additionally specifying fastresync=on.) This creates a
		     DCO object and a DCO volume with a plex size specified
		     by the dcologlen attribute, and number of plexes
		     specified using the ndcomirror attribute. The default
		     names for the DCO object and DCO volume are vol_dco and
		     vol_dcl respectively for a volume, vol.

		     If additional logging is required, it can be added to a
		     volume by using the vxassist addlog command.  DCO can
		     co-exist with DCM logging for replicated volumes, or
		     with DRL logging for mirrored volumes.

		drl  Select DRL (dirty region logging).	 This is the default
		     log type for mirrored volumes.

		drlseq
		     Select sequential dirty region logging.  This is
		     identical to drl except that the number of dirty bits
		     that can be set in the DRL is limited to the value of
		     the tunable voldrl_max_seq_dirty (default value is 3).
		     This is useful on volumes that are usually written to
		     sequentially, such as database log volumes. Limiting
		     the number of dirty regions allows for faster recovery
		     if a crash occurs. However, if applied to volumes that
		     are written to randomly, this type of logging can be a
		     performance bottleneck as it limits the number of
		     parallel writes that can be carried out.

		none Do not create a log.

		region
		     Select dirty region logging; identical to drl.




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		RAID-5 logging is automatically selected when a log plex is
		added to a RAID-5 volume; it has no specific logtype.

		If logtype is not specified for a volume, vxassist attempts
		to create the optimal type of log.

      max_nraid5column=number
		(alias: maxraid5columns, max_nraidcolumn, max_nraid5stripe,
		max_nraidstripe, maxraidcolumns, maxraid5stripes,
		maxraidstripes)

		Specifies the default maximum number of stripe columns for a
		RAID-5 volume (default value is 8). The rules for selecting
		the default number of RAID-5 stripe columns are described in
		the nstripe attribute.

      max_ncolumn=number (alias: maxcolumns, max_nstripe, maxstripes)
		Specifies the default maximum number of stripe columns,
		either for a RAID-5 volume (if max_nraid5stripe is not also
		specified) or for a striped plex (default value is 8). The
		rules for selecting the default number of stripe columns is
		described in the nstripe attribute.

      max_regionloglen=length (alias: maxregionloglen)
		Specifies the maximum default dirty region logging log
		subdisk length.	 If the user does not specify the dirty
		region log length for a volume, when creating the first log
		for a mirrored volume, vxassist uses a simple formula based
		on the log length. The default length is not be bounded by
		max_regionloglen (default value is 32k (32 kilobytes)).

      min_ncolumn=number (alias: mincolumns, min_nstripe, minstripes)
		Specifies the default minimum number of stripe columns for
		either a RAID-5 volume (if min_nraid5stripe is not also
		specified) or for a striped plex (default value is 2). The
		policy for selecting a default number of stripe columns is
		not allowed to select fewer than this number of columns.

      min_nraid5column=number
		(alias: minraid5columns min_nraidcolumn, min_nraid5stripe,
		min_nraidstripe, minraidcolumns, minraid5stripes,
		minraidstripes)

		Specifies the default minimum number of stripe columns for a
		RAID-5 volume (default value is 3). The policy for selecting
		a default number of RAID-5 stripe columns is not allowed to
		create a RAID-5 volume with fewer than min_nraid5stripe
		stripe columns.

      mirror=[+|-]number|yes|no|diskclass[,...]
		Specifies various mirroring parameters. Multiple mirroring



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		parameters can be given, each separated by a comma. A
		decimal number indicates a specific number of mirrors to
		create, when creating a mirrored volume (equivalent to
		nmirror=number). yes indicates that volumes should be
		mirrored by default (equivalent to layout=mirror). no
		indicates that volumes should be unmirrored by default
		(equivalent to layout=nomirror).

		Any other mirroring parameters specify that volumes should
		be mirrored across instances of a particular disk class
		(such as enclr, ctlr or target).  For example, mirror=target
		specifies that volumes should be mirrored between SCSI
		target addresses, and mirror=ctlr specifies that disks in a
		mirror should not be on the same controller as disks in
		other mirrors within the same volume.  Similarly,
		mirror=enclr specifies that disks in a mirror should not be
		from the same enclosure as disks in other mirrors within the
		same volume.

		Each mirror can contain disks from any number of instances
		of the disk class, but different mirrors cannot use disks
		from the same instance of the disk class.

      mirrorconfine=diskclass[,diskclass,...]
		Specifies a required list of disk classes for mirror
		confinement constraints. If this attribute is specified, a
		single mirror is confined to (that is, allocated from) a
		group of disks belonging to a specific disk class.  Multiple
		mirrors can be allocated from a single disk class.  Multiple
		disk classes cannot be used to allocate a mirror.  The
		following example specifies that each mirror is allocated
		from devices belonging to a single SCSI target; and multiple
		mirrors can be allocated from devices belonging to a single
		SCSI target:

		mirrorconfine=scsi_target


      mode=permissions
		Specifies the permissions for the block and character device
		nodes created for a new volume. The mode can be specified
		either as an octal number or symbolically. A symbolic mode
		is specified using the syntax given in chmod(1). This
		attribute is used only with the make operation. The default
		mode for a volume gives read and write access only to the
		owner.

      ndcmlog=number (alias: ndcmlogs, ndcms, ndcm)
		Specifies the number of DCM log plexes to create. The
		default number is 2 which creates a mirrored DCM log.




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				 1 Jun 2002



      ndcomirror=number (alias: ndco, ndcos, ndcolog, ndcologs, ndcomirrors)
		Specifies the number of DCO plexes to create for a DCO
		volume.	 A value for number of 2 or greater creates a
		mirrored DCO volume.  For non-layered volumes, the default
		number is set to the lesser of the number of data plexes in
		the parent volume or 2.	 For layered volumes, the default
		number is set to 2.

      nlog=[+|-]number, (alias: nlogs, logs)
		Specifies the number of logs to create, by default, for a
		RAID-5, mirrored, or replicated volume (assuming that logs
		are to be created). The number of logs to create can be
		specified independently for RAID-5 or mirrored volumes using
		the nraid5log and nregionlog attributes.  For a relayout,
		this value can be preceded by a + or a - to add or subtract
		logs.

      nmirror=[+|-]number, (alias: nmirrors, mirrors)
		Specifies the number of mirrors to create when mirroring a
		volume (default value is 2).

		For a relayout, this value can be preceded by a + or a - to
		add or subtract mirrors. The value can also be specified as
		src_nmirror to preserve the number of mirrors.

		This attribute is also used to specify the number of
		snapshot plexes to be attached to a volume by a snapstart
		operation, and the number of plexes in a snapshot volume for
		snapshot and snapback operations.  For a snapshot, there
		must be number SNAPDONE plexes available in the original
		volume.	 For a snapback, there must be number snapshot
		plexes available in the snapshot volume (which must also be
		in the same disk group as the original volume).

      nraid5log=number
		(alias: nraid5logs, raid5logs, nraidlog, nraidlogs,
		raidlogs)

		Specifies the number of log plexes to create for a new
		RAID-5 volume (default value is 1).  This attribute is used
		only with the make operation.

      nraid5stripe=[+|-]number
		(alias: raid5stripes, nraid5column, nraidstripe,
		raidstripes, raidcolumns, nraidcolumn, raid5columns)

		Specifies the number of stripe columns to use when creating
		a new RAID-5 volume (the default is to adjust the number to
		available disks). This attribute is used only with make and
		relayout operations.  For the relayout operation, the
		default is the same number of stripe columns the volume has.



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		For a relayout, this value can be preceded by a + or a - to
		add or subtract columns.

      nregionlog=number (alias: nregionlogs, regionlogs, ndrl)
		Specifies the number of log subdisks to create for a new
		mirrored volume (default value 1). This attribute is used
		only with the make operation, and only if logging is
		requested for the volume.

      nstripe=[+|-]number
		(alias: stripes, ncolumn, ncolumns, ncol, ncols, columns,
		cols)

		Specifies the number of stripe columns to use when creating
		a new RAID-5 volume (with the make operation) or when
		creating a striped plex (with the make, relayout, mirror,
		and snapstart operations). The default is to adjust to the
		number of available disks. For the relayout operation, the
		default is the same number of stripe columns the volume has.
		For a relayout, this value can be preceded by a + or a - to
		add or subtract columns.

      probe_granularity=size
		Specifies the granularity for the maxsize request.  The
		default size value is 1m (1 megabyte).

      raid5_stripeunit=width
		(alias: raid5_stwid, raid5_st_width, raid5_stwidth,
		raid_st_width, raid_stripeunitsize, raid5_stripeunitsize,
		raid5_stripeunitwidth, raid_stwid, raid_stwidth,
		raid_stripeunit, raid_stripeunitwidth)

		Specifies the stripe unit size to use when creating a new
		RAID-5 volume (default value is 16k (16 kilobytes)).  This
		attribute is used only with the make operation.

      raid5loglen=length (alias: raidloglen)
		Specifies the log length to use when adding the first log to
		a RAID-5 volume. The default is four times the full stripe
		width (the stripe unit size times the number of stripe
		columns).

      regionloglen=length (alias: drlloglen, drllen)
		Specifies the log subdisk length to use when adding the
		first log subdisk to a mirrored volume. The default is
		chosen based on a formula involving the volume length.

      spare=no|only|yes
		Controls the use of spare disks when hot-relocation is
		performed.




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		If set to yes, spare disks are used. If necessary, free
		space is also used on disks that have been marked
		nohotuse=off.  This is the default behavior.

		If set to only, relocation storage is allocated using only
		spare disks.

		If set to no, spare disks are not used.	 Alternatively, do
		not mark any of your disks as spares and do not mark them as
		available for use by hot relocation.

      stripe=diskclass[,...]
		Specifies that volumes should be striped across instances of
		a particular disk class.  For example, stripe=target
		specifies that volumes should be striped between SCSI target
		addresses.  Each column can contain disks from any number of
		instances of the disk class, but different columns cannot
		use disks from the same instance of the disk class.

      stripe-mirror-col-trigger-pt=size
		Specifies a size that triggers the creation of a stripe-
		mirror volume. If the size of the volume is greater than the
		size specified in this attribute, then a stripe-mirror
		volume is created.

      stripe-mirror-col-split-trigger-pt=size
		Specifies a size that triggers the creation of a stripe-
		mirror-sd volume. If the size of each column is greater than
		the size specified in this attribute, then a stripe-mirror-
		sd volume is created.

      stripe_stripeunit=width
		(alias: stripe_stwid, stripe_stwidth, stripe_st_width,
		stripe_stripeunitsize, stripe_stripeunitwidth)

		Specifies the stripe unit size to use when creating striped
		plexes to attach to a volume. When attaching a new plex, the
		default is to use the same stripe unit size as any other
		striped plexes in the volume.  If the volume does not yet
		contain striped plexes, the default value is 64k (64
		kilobytes).

      stripeunit=width
		(alias: stwid, stripewidth, stwidth, st_width, stripe_width,
		stripeunitsize, stripeunitwidth)

		Specifies the stripe unit size to use for either a RAID-5
		volume or for striped plexes. stripeunit can be used to set
		the values for both raid5_stripeunit and stripe_stripeunit.





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      tmpsize=size
		Specifies the size of the temporary storage used to perform
		a relayout operation.

      tmpalloc=storage-spec[,storage-spec,...]
		Specifies a set of storage specifications for the temporary
		storage required during a relayout operation. The format is
		the same as for the alloc attribute (a comma-separated list
		of storage specifications).

      user=owning-user
		Specifies the user ID for a new volume (default value is
		root).	The user ID can be specified numerically or it can
		be a system login name.	 This attribute is used only with
		the make operation.

      usetype=volume-usage-type
		Specifies the usage type to use when creating a new volume
		(default value is raid5 for RAID-5 volumes; otherwise fsgens
		the default).  This attribute is only used with the make
		operation.  The usage type can also be specified using the
		-U option.

      wantalloc=storage-spec[,storage-spec,...]
		Specifies a set of desired storage specifications.  This is
		useful in a defaults file to indicate desired storage
		specifications that should be discarded if they fail to
		yield a reasonable set of allocations.	The format is the
		same as for the alloc attribute (a comma-separated list of
		storage specifications).

		For example, a defaults file can name a specific controller
		type to use for allocations, if possible. When all disks on
		that type of controller are full, other controllers are
		used.

      wantmirror=diskclass[,diskclass,...]
		Specifies a desired list of disk class mirroring
		specifications. This is useful in a defaults file to
		indicate a set of desired mirroring constraints that can be
		dropped if they fail to yield a reasonable set of
		allocations.

		For example, a defaults file can specify that volumes should
		be mirrored between disks on different controllers in the
		system.	 The constraint is dropped if the set of volumes
		builds up in such a way that a new volume cannot be mirrored
		across controllers.

      wantmirrorconfine=diskclass[,diskclass,...]
		Specifies a list of disk classes for mirror confinement



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		constraints.  A single mirror is confined to (that is,
		allocated entirely from) a group of disks belonging to a
		single disk class.

		This is useful in a defaults file to indicate a set of
		mirror confinement constraints that can be dropped if they
		fail to yield a reasonable set of allocations.	For example,
		a defaults file can specify that a single mirror be confined
		to disks of the same vendor:

		wantmirrorconfine=vendor


		If vxassist cannot allocate a mirror from disk devices of
		one vendor, this constraint is dropped and the mirror is
		allocated from disk devices of other vendors.

      wantstripe=diskclass[,diskclass,...]
		Specifies a desired list of disk class stripping
		specifications. This is useful in a defaults file to
		indicate a set of desired stripping constraints that can be
		dropped if they fail to yield a reasonable set of
		allocations.

		For example, a defaults file can specify that volumes should
		be striped between disks on different controllers in the
		system.	 The constraint is dropped if the set of volumes
		builds up in such a way that a new volume cannot be striped
		across controllers.

 Layout Specifications
      The layout attribute specifies a comma-separated list of simple
      parameters (with no arguments) that apply to vxassist operations.

      Two new layouts were added in the 3.0 release of VxVM: stripe-mirror
      and concat-mirror.  In previous releases, whenever mirroring was used,
      the mirroring had to happen above striping or concatenation.  Now
      there can be mirroring both above and below striping and
      concatenation.

      Putting mirroring below striping mirrors each column of the stripe. If
      the stripe is large enough to have multiple subdisks per column, each
      subdisk can be individually mirrored.  A similar concatenated volume
      would also mirror each subdisk individually.  These new layouts
      enhance redundancy and reduce recovery time in case of an error.	In a
      mirror-stripe layout, if a disk fails, the entire plex is detached,
      thereby losing redundancy on the entire volume.  When the disk is
      replaced, the entire plex must be brought up to date.  Recovering the
      entire plex can take a substantial amount of time.  If a disk fails in
      a stripe-mirror layout, only the failing subdisk must be detached, and
      only that portion of the volume loses redundancy.	 When the disk is



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      replaced, only a portion of the volume needs to be recovered.

      The new volume layouts are more complex than the older volume layouts.
      Because the advantages of recovery time and improved redundancy are
      more important for larger volumes, it is best to continue using
      mirror-stripe and mirror-concat for most volumes and only use stripe-
      mirror and concat-mirror for very large volumes.

      You can specify layout=mirror-stripe or layout=stripe-mirror to
      implement the desired layout.  If you specify layout=stripe,mirror or
      layout=mirror,stripe, vxassist automatically determines the best
      layout for the volume.  Unless there is a reason to implement a
      particular layout, it is best to let vxassist create the layout for
      each volume.  Because the advantages of the new layouts are related to
      the size of the volume, vxassist creates the simplest configuration
      for smaller volumes and the more complex stripe-mirror for larger
      volumes.

      The attributes stripe-mirror-col-trigger-pt and stripe-mirror-col-
      split-trigger-pt control the selection.  They can be set in
      /etc/default/vxassist.  Volumes that are smaller than stripe-mirror-
      col-trigger-pt are created as mirror-stripe, and volumes that are
      larger are created as stripe-mirror.  If vxassist creates the stripe-
      mirror and the columns are larger than stripe-mirror-col-split-
      trigger-pt, the individual subdisks are mirrored instead of mirroring
      the columns of the stripe.  By default, both of these attributes are
      set to one gigabyte.

      The disk group must be created on a 3.0 or later release to use the
      new layouts, but older disk groups can be updated.  See the vxdg
      upgrade command for more information on upgrading disk groups.

      Defined layout specifications are:

      concat-mirror
		Specifies that new volumes should be concatenated and
		mirrored. The mirroring is handled at each subdisk level.
		The attribute stripe-mirror-col-split-trigger-pt is applied.

      contig, nocontig
		Disallows or allows (default) plexes, regular stripe
		columns, or RAID-5 stripe columns from using multiple
		regions of disk. If contig is specified, then plexes and
		columns must be allocated from a single contiguous region of
		disk. If this is not possible, the allocation fails. By
		default, vxassist tries to allocate space contiguously, but
		it can use multiple regions or multiple disks if required.

      diskalign, nodiskalign
		Aligns (default for all volumes except layered volumes) or
		does not align subdisks on cylinder boundaries.	 When



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		alignment is not disabled, subdisks are created beginning on
		cylinder boundaries and are extended to match the end of a
		cylinder.  Dirty region log subdisks, however, are not
		cylinder aligned (they are usually only 2 or 3 blocks long).
		Instead, when creating log subdisks, spaces are located from
		the available disks that could not be turned into regular
		subdisks because the spaces are not cylinder aligned. For
		example, once one cylinder is used for a log subdisk, that
		cylinder cannot be used to create an aligned data (or RAID-5
		log) subdisk, so other log subdisks are created there until
		that cylinder fills up.

		Note: The diskalign attribute is not supported for layered
		volumes (concat-mirror and stripe-mirror).

      grow, nogrow
		Allows a volume to grow during a relayout operation.

      log, nolog
		Creates (or does not create) dirty region logs (for mirrored
		volumes) or log plexes (for RAID-5 volumes) when creating a
		new volume. This attribute can be specified independently
		for mirrored and RAID-5 volumes with the raid5log and
		regionlog layout specifications. The current implementation
		does not support the creation of DCM logs in the layout
		specification.

      mirror, nomirror
		Specifies that new volumes should be mirrored or unmirrored
		(default) respectively.	 For mirror, the attributes stripe-
		mirror-col-trigger-pt and stripe-mirror-col-split-trigger-pt
		are applied.

      mirror-concat
		Specifies that new volumes should be mirrored.	The
		mirroring is done at the volume level.	The attributes
		stripe-mirror-col-trigger-pt and stripe-mirror-col-split-
		trigger-pt are ignored with this layout.

      mirror-stripe
		Specifies that new volumes should be mirrored and striped.
		The mirroring is done at the volume level. The attributes
		stripe-mirror-col-trigger-pt and stripe-mirror-col-split-
		trigger-pt are ignored with this layout.

      raid5	Specifies that new volumes should be RAID-5.

      raid5log, noraid5log
		Creates (default) or does not create log plexes for RAID-5
		volumes.




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      regionlog, noregionlog
		Creates or does not create (default) dirty-region log
		subdisks for mirrored volumes.

      shrink, noshrink
		Allows or disallows shrinking of a volume during a relayout
		operation.

      span, nospan
		Allows (default) or disallows plexes, regular stripe
		columns, or RAID-5 stripe columns from spanning multiple
		disks. If nospan is indicated, then plexes or columns can be
		formed from multiple regions of the same disk, but cannot be
		formed from more than one disk.

      stripe, nostripe
		Specifies that new plexes should be striped or unstriped,
		respectively. When creating a new volume, the default is
		nostripe. When adding a new plex to an existing volume, the
		default is stripe if the volume already has one or more
		striped plexes, and nostripe in other cases. For stripe
		(when combined with mirror, the attributes stripe-mirror-
		col-trigger-pt and stripe-mirror-col-split-trigger-pt are
		applied.

      stripe-mirror
		Specifies that new volumes should be striped and mirrored.
		The mirroring is handled at each column level or subdisk
		level depending on the attribute stripe-mirror-col-split-
		trigger-pt.

      stripe-mirror-col
		Specifies that new volumes should be striped and mirrored.
		The mirroring is handled at each column level. The
		attributes stripe-mirror-col-trigger-pt and stripe-mirror-
		col-split-trigger-pt are ignored with this layout.

      stripe-mirror-sd
		Specifies that new volumes should be striped and mirrored.
		The mirroring is handled at each subdisk level.

 Ordered Allocation
      If the -o ordered option is specified when creating a volume, vxassist
      uses the specified storage in the following order:

      1. Concatenate disks.

      2. Form columns.

      3. Form mirrors.




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      For example, the following command creates a mirrored-stripe volume
      with 3 columns and 2 mirrors on 6 disks:

	   vxassist -o ordered make mirstrvol 10g layout=mirror-stripe \
		nstripe=3 disk01 disk02 disk03 disk04 disk05 disk06


      This command places columns 1, 2 and 3 of the first mirror on disk01,
      disk02 and disk03 respectively, and columns 1, 2 and 3 of the second
      mirror on disk04, disk05 and disk06 respectively.

      For layered volumes, the same rules are used to allocate storage as
      for non-layered volumes. For example, the following command creates a
      striped-mirror volume with 2 mirrored columns:

	   vxassist -o ordered make strmirvol 10g layout=stripe-mirror \
		nstripe=2 disk01 disk02 disk03 disk04


      This command mirrors column 1 across disk01 and disk03, and column 2
      across disk02 and disk04.

      The col_switch attribute can additionally be used to specify how space
      on the disks is to be concatenated into columns. For example, the
      following command creates a mirrored-stripe volume with 2 columns:

	   vxassist -o ordered make strmir2vol 10g layout=mirror-stripe \
		nstripe=2 col_switch=3g,2g disk01 disk02 disk03 disk04 \
		disk05 disk06 disk07 disk08


      This command allocates 3 gigabytes from disk01 and 2 gigabytes from
      disk02 to column 1, and 3 gigabytes from disk03 and 2 gigabytes from
      disk04 to column 2.  The mirrors of these columns are then similarly
      formed from disks disk05 through disk08.

      Other storage specification classes for controllers, enclosures,
      targets and trays can be used with ordered allocation. For example,
      the following command creates a 3-column mirrored-stripe volume
      between specified controllers:

	   vxassist -o ordered make mirstr2vol 10g layout=mirror-stripe \
		nstripe=3 ctlr:c1 ctlr:c2 ctlr:c3 ctlr:c4 ctlr:c5 ctlr:c6


      This command allocates space for column 1 from disks on controller c1,
      for column 2 from disks on controller c2, and so on.

 FILES
      /etc/default/vxassist	    System default settings file for
				    vxassist attributes.



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 EXIT CODES
      The vxassist utility exits with a non-zero status if the attempted
      operation fails. A non-zero exit code is not a complete indicator of
      the problems encountered, but rather denotes the first condition that
      prevented further execution of the utility.

      See vxintro(1M) for a list of standard exit codes.

 SEE ALSO
      chmod(1), fstyp(1M), sync(1M), vxedit(1M), vxintro(1M), vxmake(1M),
      vxmend(1M), vxplex(1M), vxrelayout(1M), vxresize(1M), vxsd(1M),
      vxtask(1M), vxvol(1M)










































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