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 sendmail(1M)							sendmail(1M)




 NAME
      sendmail - send mail over the Internet

 SYNOPSIS
      /usr/sbin/sendmail [mode] [flags] [address ...]

 DESCRIPTION
      sendmail sends a message to one or more recipients or addresses,
      routing the message over whatever networks are necessary.	 sendmail
      does internetwork forwarding as necessary to deliver the message to
      the correct place.

      sendmail is not intended as a user interface routine.  Other programs
      provide user-friendly front ends.	 sendmail is used only to deliver
      pre-formatted messages.

      With no flags specified in the command line, sendmail reads its
      standard input up to an end-of-file or a line consisting only of a
      single dot (.) and sends a copy of the message found there to all of
      the addresses listed in the command line.	 It determines the
      network(s) to use based on the syntax and contents of the addresses,
      according to information in the sendmail configuration file.  The
      default configuration file is /etc/mail/sendmail.cf.

      Local addresses are looked up in a file and aliased appropriately, and
      sendmail also supports the use of NIS and LDAP for address lookup.
      Aliasing can be prevented by preceding the address with a backslash
      (\).  Normally the sender is not included in any alias expansions.
      For example, if `john' sends to `group', and `group' includes `john'
      in the expansion, then the letter will not be delivered to `john'.

      If newaliases is invoked, sendmail will rebuild the alias database.
      newaliases is identical to sendmail -bi.	See newaliases(1M).  Mail
      that is temporarily undeliverable is saved in a mail queue.  If mailq
      is invoked, sendmail will print the contents of the mail queue.  The
      mail queue files are in the directory /var/spool/mqueue.	mailq is
      identical to sendmail -bp.  See mailq(1).

    Arguments
      sendmail recognizes the following arguments:

	   mode	     A mode selected from those described in the "Modes"
		     subsection below.	Only one mode can be specified.	 The
		     default is -bm.

	   address   The address of a recipient.  Several addresses can be
		     specified.

	   flags     A flag selected from those described in the "Flags"
		     subsection below.	Several flags can be specified.




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 sendmail(1M)							sendmail(1M)




    Modes
      sendmail operates in one of the following modes.	The default is -bm,
      deliver mail in the usual way.

	   -ba	Go into ARPANET mode.  All input lines must end with a CR-
		LF, and all messages will be generated with a CR-LF at the
		end.  Also, the ``From:'' and ``Sender:'' fields are
		examined for the name of the sender.

	   -bd	Run as a daemon.  sendmail will fork and run in background
		listening on socket 25 for incoming SMTP connections.

	   -bD	Run as a daemon, but run in foreground.

	   -bh	Print the persistent host status database.

	   -bH	Purge the persistent host status database.

	   -bi	Initialize the alias database for the mail aliases file.
		newaliases is identical to sendmail -bi.  See
		newaliases(1M).

	   -bm	Deliver mail in the usual way (default).

	   -bp	Print a listing of the mail queue.  mailq is identical to
		sendmail -bp.  See mailq(1).

	   -bs	Use the SMTP protocol as described in RFC821 on standard
		input and output.  This flag implies all the operations of
		the ba flag that are compatible with SMTP.

	   -bt	Run in address test mode.  This mode reads addresses and
		shows the steps in parsing; it is used for debugging
		configuration tables.

	   -bv	Verify names only - do not try to collect or deliver a
		message.  Verify mode is normally used for validating users
		or mailing lists.

    Flags
      sendmail recognizes the following flags:

	   -Btype      Set the body type, 7BIT or 8BITMIME.

	   -Cfile      Use alternate configuration file.  sendmail refuses
		       to run as root if an alternate configuration file is
		       specified.

	   -dX	       Set debugging value to X.





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 sendmail(1M)							sendmail(1M)




	   -Ffullname  Set the full name of the sender.

	   -fname      Sets the name of the ``from'' person (i.e., the
		       sender of the mail) to name.  If the user of the -f
		       option is not a ``trusted'' user (normally root,
		       daemon, and network) and if the name set using the -f
		       option and the login name of the person actually
		       sending the mail are not the same, it results in an
		       X-Authentication-Warning in the mail header.

	   -hN	       Set the hop count to N.	The hop count is incremented
		       every time the mail is processed.  When it reaches a
		       limit, the mail is returned with an error message,
		       the victim of an aliasing loop.	If not specified,
		       ``Received:'' lines in the message are counted.

	   -i	       Ignore dots alone on lines by themselves in incoming
		       messages. This should be set if you are reading from
		       a file.

	   -n	       Do not do aliasing.

	   -Ndsn       Set delivery status notification conditions. The
		       valid conditions with which dsn can be set are as
		       follows:

		       never	      For no notifications.

		       failure	      If delivery failed.

		       delay	      If delivery is delayed.

		       success	      When message is successfully
				      delivered.

	   -Ooption=value
		       Set option option to a specified value.	Options are
		       described below in ""Processing Options."

	   -ox=value   Set option x to the specified value.  Options are
		       described below in "Processing Options."

	   -pprotocol  Set the name of the protocol used to receive the
		       message.	 This can be a simple protocol name such as
		       ``UUCP'' or a protocol and hostname, such as
		       ``UUCP:ucbvax''.

	   -qtime      Process saved messages in the queue at given
		       intervals.  If time is omitted, process the queue
		       once.  time is given as a tagged number, with s being
		       seconds, m being minutes, h being hours, d being



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 sendmail(1M)							sendmail(1M)




		       days, and w being weeks.	 For example, -q1h30m or
		       -q90m would both set the timeout to one hour thirty
		       minutes.	 If time is specified, sendmail will run in
		       background.  This option can be used safely with bd.

	   -qIsubstr   Limit processed jobs to those containing substr as a
		       substring of the queue id.

	   -qRsubstr   Limit processed jobs to those containing substr as a
		       substring of one of the recipients.

	   -qSsubstr   Limit processed jobs to those containing substr as a
		       substring of the sender.

	   -rname      An alternate and obsolete form of the f flag.

	   -Rreturn    Set the amount of the message to be returned if the
		       message bounces.	 The values that can be set for
		       return are as follows:

		       full	 To return the entire message

		       hdrs	 To return only the headers.

	   -t	       Read message for recipients.  To:, Cc:, and Bcc:
		       lines will be scanned for recipient addresses.  The
		       Bcc: line will be deleted before transmission.

	   -U	       Initial (user) submission. This flag should always be
		       set when sendmail is called from a user agent such as
		       mail or elm.  This flag should never be set when
		       called from a network delivery agent such as rmail.

	   -v	       Go into verbose mode.  Alias expansions will be
		       announced, etc.

	   -Venvid     Set the original envelope identification. This is
		       propagated across SMTP to servers that support DSN's
		       (delivery status notification) and is returned in
		       DSN-compliant error messages.

	   -Xlogfile   Log all traffic in and out of mailers in the
		       indicated log file.  This should only be used as a
		       last resort for debugging mailer bugs.  It will log a
		       lot of data very quickly.

	   --	       Stop processing command flags and use the rest of the
		       arguments as addresses.

    Processing Options
      There are also a number of processing options that may be set.



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      Normally these will only be used by a system administrator.  Options
      may be set either on the command line using the -o flag or in the
      configuration file, /etc/mail/sendmail.cf.  The options are:

	   AliasFile=file
		       Use alternate alias file.

	   HoldExpensive
		       On mailers that are considered ``expensive'' to
		       connect to, do not initiate immediate connection.
		       This requires queuing.

	   CheckpointInterval=N
		       Checkpoint the queue file after every N successful
		       deliveries (default 10).	 This avoids excessive
		       duplicate deliveries when sending to long mailing
		       lists interrupted by system crashes.

	   DeliveryMode=x
		       Set the delivery mode to x.  Delivery modes are

		       i     interactive (synchronous) delivery.

		       b     background (asynchronous) delivery.

		       q     queue only; expect the messages to be delivered
			     the next time that the queue is run.

		       d     deferred; the same as q except that database
			     lookups (DNS and NIS lookups) are avoided.

	   ErrorMode=x Set error processing to mode x.	Valid modes are

		       m     mail back the error message.

		       w     ``write'' back the error message (or mail it
			     back if the sender is not logged in).

		       p     print the errors on the terminal (default).

		       q     throw away error messages (only exit status is
			     returned).

		       e     do special processing for the BerkNet.

		       If the text of the message is not mailed back by
		       modes m or w and if the sender is local to this
		       machine, a copy of the message is appended to the
		       file dead.letter in the sender's home directory.





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 sendmail(1M)							sendmail(1M)




	   SaveFromLine
		       Save UNIX -style From lines at the front of messages.

	   MaxHopCount=N
		       The maximum number of times a message is allowed to
		       ``hop'' before it is considered in a loop.

	   IgnoreDots  Do not take dots on a line by themselves as a message
		       terminator.

	   SendMimeErrors
		       Send error messages in MIME format.

	   ConnectionCacheTimeOut=timeout
		       Set connection cache timeout.

	   ConnectionCacheSize=N
		       Set connection cache size.

	   Loglevel=n  The log level.

	   MeToo       Send to ``me'' (the sender) also if the sender is in
		       an alias expansion.

	   CheckAliases
		       Validate the right hand side of aliases during a
		       newaliases command. See newaliases(1M).

	   OldStyleheaders
		       If set, this message may have old style headers.	 If
		       not set, this message is guaranteed to have new style
		       headers (i.e., commas instead of spaces between
		       addresses).  If set, an adaptive algorithm is used
		       that will correctly determine the header format in
		       most cases.

	   QueueDirectory=queuedir
		       Select the directory in which to queue messages.

	   StatusFile=file
		       Save statistics in the named file.

	   Timeout.queuereturn=time
		       Set the timeout on undelivered messages in the queue
		       to the specified time.  After delivery has failed
		       (e.g., because of a host being down) for this amount
		       of time, the failed messages will be returned to the
		       sender.	The default is three days.

	   UserDatabaseSpec=userdatabase
		       If set, a user database is consulted to get



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 sendmail(1M)							sendmail(1M)




		       forwarding information.	You can consider this an
		       adjunct to the aliasing mechanism, except that the
		       database is intended to be distributed; aliases are
		       local to a particular host.

	   ForkEachJob Fork each job during queue runs.	 May be convenient
		       on memory-poor machines.

	   SevenBitInput
		       Strip incoming messages to seven bits.

	   EightBitMode=mode
		       Set the handling of eight bit input to seven bit
		       destinations. Mode can be set to the following values

		       m     Convert to seven-bit MIME format.

		       p     Pass it as eight bits.

		       s     Bounce the mail.

	   MInQueueAge=timeout
		       Sets how long a job must ferment in the queue in
		       between attempts to send it.

	   DefaultCharSet=charset
		       Sets the default character set used to label 8-bit
		       data that is not otherwise labeled.

	   DialDelay=sleeptime
		       If opening a connection fails, sleep for sleeptime
		       seconds and try again.  Useful on dial-on-demand
		       sites.

	   NoRecipientAction=action
		       Set the behaviour when there are no recipient headers
		       (To:, Cc: or Bcc:) in message to action.	 The
		       different values that can be set for action are

		       none	      Leaves the message unchanged.

		       add-to	      Adds a To: header with the envelope
				      recipients.

		       add-apparently-to
				      Adds an Apparently-To: header with the
				      envelope recipients.

		       add-bcc	      Adds an empty Bcc:





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 sendmail(1M)							sendmail(1M)




		       add-to-undisclosed
				      Adds a header reading To:undisclosed-
				      recipients:

	   MaxDaemonChildren=N
		       Sets the maximum number of children that an incoming
		       SMTP daemon will allow to spawn at any time to N.

	   ConnectionRateThrottle=N
		       Sets the maximum number of connections per second to
		       the SMTP port to N.

	   AutoRebuildAliases
		       If set, causes sendmail to rebuild the alias database
		       when needed.  Setting this option may cause excessive
		       overhead and is not recommended.

	   DontProbeInterfaces
		       If set, this option is to turn off the inclusion of
		       all the interface names in $=w on startup.  In
		       particular, if you have lots of virtual interfaces,
		       this option will speed up startup.  However, unless
		       you make other arrangements, mail sent to those
		       addresses will be bounced.  This is useful for
		       sending mail to hosts which have dynamically assigned
		       names.

	   DontBlameSendmail=options
		       This options allows you to bypass some of sendmail
		       file security checks at the expense of system
		       security.  This should only be used if you are
		       absolutely sure you know the consequences. The
		       available options for DontBlameSendmail are as
		       follows:

		       Safe
		       AssumeSafeChown
		       ClassFileInUnsafeDirPath
		       ErrorHeaderInUnsafeDirPath
		       GroupWritableDirPathSafe
		       GroupWritableForwardFileSafe
		       GroupWritableIncludeFileSafe
		       GroupWritableAliasFile
		       HelpFileinUnsafeDirPath
		       WorldWritableAliasFile
		       ForwardFileInGroupWritableDirPath
		       IncludeFileInGroupWritableDirPath
		       ForwardFileInUnsafeDirPath
		       IncludeFileInUnsafeDirPath
		       ForwardFileInUnsafeDirPathSafe




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 sendmail(1M)							sendmail(1M)




		       IncludeFileInUnsafeDirPathSafe
		       MapInUnsafeDirPath
		       LinkedAliasFileInWritableDir
		       LinkedClassFileInWritableDir
		       LinkedForwardFileInWritableDir
		       LinkedIncludeFileInWritableDir
		       LinkedMapInWritableDir
		       LinkedServiceSwitchFileInWritableDir
		       FileDeliveryToHardLink
		       FileDeliveryToSymLink
		       WriteMapToHardLink
		       WriteMapToSymLink
		       WriteStatsToHardLink
		       WriteStatsToSymLink
		       RunProgramInUnsafeDirPath
		       RunWritableProgram

	   DontInitGroups=True|False
		       This can be set to true to prevent program deliveries
		       from picking up extra group privileges.

	   MaxRecipientsPerMessage=no_of_recipients
		       This option limits the number of recipients,
		       no_of_recipients that will be accepted in a single
		       SMTP transaction.  After this number is reached,
		       sendmail starts returning "452 Too many recipients"
		       to all RCPT commands.  This can be used to limit the
		       number of recipients per envelope (in particular, to
		       discourage use of the server for spamming).  Note: a
		       better approach is to restrict relaying entirely.

	   MaxHeadersLength=max_header_length
		       This option allows to specify a maximum length of the
		       sum of all headers, max_header_length . This can be
		       used to prevent a Denial-of-Service(DoS) attack.

	   RunAsUser=user
		       If set, causes sendmail to do a setuid to that user
		       early in processing to avoid potential security
		       problems.  However, this means that /var/spool/mqueue
		       directory owned by the user and all .forward and
		       :include: files must be readable by that user, and
		       all files to be written must be writable by that
		       user, and all programs will be executed by that user.
		       It is also incompatible with the SafeFileEnvironment
		       option.	In other words, it may not actually add much
		       to security.  However, it should be useful on
		       firewalls and other places where users do not have
		       accounts and the aliases file is well constrained.





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 sendmail(1M)							sendmail(1M)




	   SafeFileEnvironment=option
		       If set, files named as delivery targets must be
		       regular files in addition to the regular checks.
		       Also, if the option is non-null, then it is used as
		       the name of a directory that is used as a chroot(2)
		       environment for the delivery; the file names listed
		       in an alias or forward should include the name of
		       this root.

	   QueueSortOrder=option
		       This option can take two values (host or priority and
		       time ). Based on that, the queue will be sorted.

		       host	   This makes better use of the connection
				   cache, but may delay more ``interactive''
				   messages behind large backlogs under some
				   circumstances.  This is a good option if
				   you have high speed links or do not do
				   lots of ``batch'' messages, but less good
				   if you are using something like PPP on a
				   14.4 modem.

		       time	   This option causes the queue to be sorted
				   strictly on the time of submission.	This
				   may cause a bad behaviour over slow lines
				   and on nodes with heavy traffic.  Also,
				   this does not guarantee that jobs will be
				   delivered in submission order unless you
				   also set DeliveryMode=queue.	 In general,
				   it should probably only be used on the
				   command line, and only in conjunction
				   with -qRhost.domain.

	   PrivacyOptions=flag
		       The available values for flag are

		       public		   Allow open access.

		       needmailhelo	   Insist on HELO (or EHLO) before
					   the MAIL command.

		       needexpnhelo	   Insist on HELO (or EHLO) before
					   the EXPN command.

		       noexpn		   Disallow EXPN command totally.

		       needvrfyhelo	   Insist on HELO (or EHLO) before
					   the VRFY command.

		       novrfy		   Disallow VRFY command totally.




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 sendmail(1M)							sendmail(1M)




		       restrictmailq	   Restrict mailq command.

		       restrictqrun	   Restrict -q command-line flag.

		       noreceipts	   Don't return success DSN's.

		       goaway		   Disallow essentially all SMTP
					   status queries.

		       authwarnings	   Put X-Authentication-Warning
					   headers in messages if HELO was
					   not used inside SMTP transaction.

		       noverb		   flag to disable the SMTP VERB
					   command.

		       noetrn		   flag to disable the SMTP ETRN
					   command.

    Aliases
      You can set up system aliases and user forwarding.  The alias and
      .forward files are described in the aliases(5) manpage.

 EXIT STATUS
      sendmail returns an exit status describing what it did.  The codes are
      defined in <sysexits.h>:

	   EX_OK		 Successful completion on all addresses.

	   EX_NOUSER		 User name not recognized.

	   EX_UNAVAILABLE	 Catchall meaning necessary resources were
				 not available.

	   EX_SYNTAX		 Syntax error in address.

	   EX_SOFTWARE		 Internal software error, including bad
				 arguments.

	   EX_OSERR		 Temporary operating system error, such as
				 ``cannot fork'' .

	   EX_NOHOST		 Host name not recognized.

	   EX_TEMPFAIL		 Message could not be sent immediately, but
				 was queued.

 AUTHOR
      The sendmail command was developed by the University of California,
      Berkeley, and originally appeared in BSD 4.2.  This version of HP-UX
      sendmail originally came from sendmail 8.9.3.



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 sendmail(1M)							sendmail(1M)




 FILES
      $HOME/.forward			 User's mail forwarding file

      $HOME/dead.letter			 User's failed message file

      Except for the /etc/mail/sendmail.cf file and the daemon process ID
      file, the below mentioned default pathnames are all specified in the
      configuration file, /etc/mail/sendmail.cf.  These default file names
      can be overridden in the configuration file.

      /etc/mail/aliases			 raw data for alias names
      /etc/mail/aliases.db		 data base of alias names
      /etc/mail/sendmail.cf		 configuration file
      /usr/share/lib/sendmail.hf	      help file
      /etc/mail/sendmail.st		 collected statistics
      /var/spool/mqueue/*		 mail queue files
      /etc/mail/sendmail.pid		 The process id of the daemon
      /etc/mail/sendmail.cw		 The list of all hostnames that are
					 recognized as local, which causes
					 sendmail to accept mail for these
					 hosts and attempt local delivery
      /etc/nsswitch.conf		 configuration file for the name-
					 service switch

 SEE ALSO
      aliases(5), convert_awk(1M), elm(1), expand_alias(1), identd(1M),
      idlookup(1), killsm(1M), mail(1), mailq(1), mailstats(1), mailx(1),
      mtail(1M), newaliases(1M), praliases(1), smrsh(1M).


























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