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 restore(1M)							 restore(1M)




 NAME
      restore, rrestore - restore file system incrementally, local or across
      network

 SYNOPSIS
      /usr/sbin/restore key [name ...]

      /usr/sbin/rrestore key [name ...]

 DESCRIPTION
      The restore and rrestore commands read tapes previously dumped by the
      dump or rdump command (see dump(1M) and rdump(1M)).  Actions taken are
      controlled by the key argument where key is a string of characters
      containing not more than one function letter and possibly one or more
      function modifiers.  One or more name arguments, if present, are file
      or directory names specifying the files that are to be restored.
      Unless the h modifier is specified (see below), the appearance of a
      directory name refers to the files and (recursively) subdirectories of
      that directory.

    Function Portion of key
      The function portion of the key is specified by one of the following
      letters:

	   r	 Read the tape and load into the current directory.  r
		 should be used only after careful consideration, and only
		 to restore a complete dump tape onto a clear file system,
		 or to restore an incremental dump tape after a full level
		 zero restore.	Thus,

		      /usr/sbin/newfs -F hfs /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0
		      /usr/sbin/mount /dev/dsk/c0t0d0 /mnt
		      cd /mnt
		      restore r

		 is a typical sequence to restore a complete dump.  Another
		 restore or rrestore can then be performed to restore an
		 incremental dump on top of this.  Note that restore and
		 rrestore leave a file restoresymtab in the root directory
		 of the file system to pass information between incremental
		 restore passes.  This file should be removed when the last
		 incremental tape has been restored.  A dump or rdump
		 followed by a newfs and a restore or rrestore is used to
		 change the size of a file system (see newfs(1M)).

	   R	 restore and rrestore request a particular tape of a
		 multivolume set on which to restart a full restore (see r
		 above).  This provides a means for interrupting and
		 restarting restore and rrestore.





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 restore(1M)							 restore(1M)




	   x	 Extract the named files from the tape.	 If the named file
		 matches a directory whose contents had been written onto
		 the tape, and the h modifier is not specified, the
		 directory is recursively extracted.  The owner,
		 modification time, and mode are restored (if possible).  If
		 no file argument is given, the root directory is extracted,
		 which results in the entire contents of the tape being
		 extracted, unless h has been specified.

	   t	 Names of the specified files are listed if they occur on
		 the tape.  If no file argument is given, the root directory
		 is listed, which results in the entire content of the tape
		 being listed, unless h has been specified.

	   s	 The next argument to restore is used as the dump file
		 number to recover.  This is useful if there is more than
		 one dump file on a tape.

	   i	 This mode allows interactive restoration of files from a
		 dump tape.  After reading in the directory information from
		 the tape, restore and rrestore provide a shell-like
		 interface that allows the user to move around the directory
		 tree selecting files to be extracted.	The available
		 commands are given below; for those commands that require
		 an argument, the default is the current directory.

		      add [arg]	     The current directory or specified
				     argument is added to the list of files
				     to be extracted.  If a directory is
				     specified, it and all its descendents
				     are added to the extraction list
				     (unless the h key is specified on the
				     command line).  File names on the
				     extraction list are displayed with a
				     leading * when listed by ls.

		      cd [arg]	     Change the current working directory to
				     the specified argument.

		      delete [arg]   The current directory or specified
				     argument is deleted from the list of
				     files to be extracted.  If a directory
				     is specified, it and all its
				     descendents are deleted from the
				     extraction list (unless h is specified
				     on the command line).  The most
				     expedient way to extract files from a
				     directory is to add the directory to
				     the extraction list, then delete
				     unnecessary files.




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 restore(1M)							 restore(1M)




		      extract	     All files named on the extraction list
				     are extracted from the dump tape.
				     restore and rrestore ask which volume
				     the user wants to mount.  The fastest
				     way to extract a few files is to start
				     with the last volume, then work toward
				     the first volume.

		      help	     List a summary of the available
				     commands.

		      ls [arg]	     List the current or specified
				     directory.	 Entries that are
				     directories are displayed with a
				     trailing /.  Entries marked for
				     extraction are displayed with a leading
				     *.	 If the verbose key is set, the
				     inode number of each entry is also
				     listed.

		      pwd	     Print the full path name of the current
				     working directory.

		      quit	     restore and rrestore immediately exit,
				     even if the extraction list is not
				     empty.

		      set-modes	     Set the owner, modes, and times of all
				     directories that are added to the
				     extraction list.  Nothing is extracted
				     from the tape.  This setting is useful
				     for cleaning up after a restore aborts
				     prematurely.

		      verbose	     The sense of the v modifier is toggled.
				     When set, the verbose key causes the ls
				     command to list the inode numbers of
				     all entries.  It also causes restore
				     and rrestore to print out information
				     about each file as it is extracted.

    Function Modifiers
      The following function modifier characters can be used in addition to
      the letter that selects the function desired:

	   b	 Specify the block size of the tape in kilobytes.  If the -b
		 option is not specified, restore and rrestore try to
		 determine the tape block size dynamically.

	   f	 Specify the name of the archive instead of /dev/rmt/0m.  If
		 the name of the file is -, restore reads from standard



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 restore(1M)							 restore(1M)




		 input.	 Thus, dump and restore can be used in a pipeline to
		 dump and restore a file system with the command

		      dump 0f - /usr | (cd /mnt; restore xf -)

		 When using rrestore, this key should be specified, and the
		 next argument supplied should be of the form
		 machine:device.

	   h	 Extract the actual directory, rather than the files to
		 which it refers.  This prevents hierarchical restoration of
		 complete subtrees from the tape, rather than the files to
		 which it refers.

	   m	 Extract by inode numbers rather than by file name.  This is
		 useful if only a few files are being extracted and one
		 wants to avoid regenerating the complete path name to the
		 file.

	   v	 Type the name of each file restore and rrestore treat,
		 preceded by its file type.  Normally restore and rrestore
		 do their work silently; the v modifier specifies verbose
		 output.

	   y	 Do not ask whether to abort the operation if restore and
		 rrestore encounters a tape error.  restore and rrestore
		 attempt to skip over the bad tape block(s) and continue.

	   rrestore creates a server, either /usr/sbin/rmt or /etc/rmt, on
	   the remote machine to access the tape device.

 DIAGNOSTICS
      restore and rrestore complain about bad key characters.

      restore and rrestore complain if a read error is encountered.  If the
      y modifier has been specified, or the user responds y, restore and
      rrestore attempt to continue the restore.

      If the dump extends over more than one tape, restore and rrestore ask
      the user to change tapes.	 If the x or i function has been specified,
      restore and rrestore also ask which volume the user wants to mount.
      The fastest way to extract a few files is to start with the last
      volume and work towards the first volume.

      There are numerous consistency checks that can be listed by restore
      and rrestore.  Most checks are self-explanatory or can ``never
      happen''.	 Here are some common errors:

	   filename: not found on tape
		The specified file name was listed in the tape directory but
		not found on the tape.	This is caused by tape read errors



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 restore(1M)							 restore(1M)




		while looking for the file, and from using a dump tape
		created on an active file system.

	   expected next file inumber, got inumber
		A file not listed in the directory showed up.  This can
		occur when using a dump tape created on an active file
		system.

	   Incremental tape too low
		When doing an incremental restore, a tape that was written
		before the previous incremental tape, or that has too low an
		incremental level has been loaded.

	   Incremental tape too high
		When doing an incremental restore, a tape that does not
		begin its coverage where the previous incremental tape left
		off, or that has too high an incremental level has been
		loaded.

	   Tape read error while restoring filename
	   Tape read error while skipping over inode inumber
	   Tape read error while trying to resynchronize
		A tape read error has occurred.	 If a file name is
		specified, the contents of the restored files are probably
		partially wrong.  If restore is skipping an inode or is
		trying to resynchronize the tape, no extracted files are
		corrupted, although files may not be found on the tape.

	   Resync restore, skipped num blocks
		After a tape read error, restore and rrestore may have to
		resynchronize themselves.  This message indicates the number
		of blocks skipped over.

 WARNINGS
      restore and rrestore can get confused when doing incremental restores
      from dump tapes that were made on active file systems.

      A level zero dump (see dump(1M)) must be done after a full restore.
      Since restore runs in user code, it has no control over inode
      allocation; thus a full dump must be done to get a new set of
      directories reflecting the new inode numbering, even though the
      contents of the files are unchanged.

 AUTHOR
      restore and rrestore were developed by the University of California,
      Berkeley.

 FILES
      /dev/rmt/0m	       Default tape drive.
      /tmp/rstdr*	       File containing directories on the tape.




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 restore(1M)							 restore(1M)




      /tmp/rstmd*	       Owner, mode, and time stamps for directories.
      ./restoresymtab	       Information passed between incremental
			       restores.

 SEE ALSO
      dump(1M), mkfs(1M), mount(1M), newfs(1M), rmt(1M).
















































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