dump, rdump - incremental file system dump, local or across network
/usr/sbin/dump [option [argument ...] filesystem]
/usr/sbin/rdump [option [argument ...] filesystem]
The dump and rdump commands copy to magnetic tape all files in the
filesystem that have been changed after a certain date. This
information is derived from the files /var/adm/dumpdates and
/etc/fstab. option specifies the date and other options about the
dump. option consists of characters from the set 0123456789bdfnsuWw.
The dump and rdump commands work only on file systems of type hfs. If
the given file system is not of type hfs, dump and rdump will abort
after printing an error message.
0-9 This number is the "dump level". All files modified
since the last date stored in file /var/adm/dumpdates
for the same file system at lesser levels will be
dumped. If no date is determined by the level, the
beginning of time is assumed. Thus, the option 0
causes the entire file system to be dumped.
b The blocking factor is taken from the next argument
(default is 10 if not specified). Block size is
defined as the logical record size times the blocking
factor. dump writes logical records of 1024 bytes.
When dumping to tapes with densities of 6250 BPI or
greater without using the b option, the default
blocking factor is 32.
d The density of the tape (expressed in BPIs) is taken
from the next argument. This is used in calculating
the amount of tape used per reel. The default value of
1600 assumes a reel tape.
f Place the dump on the next argument file instead of the
tape. If the name of the file is -, dump writes to the
standard output. When using rdump, this option should
be specified, and the next argument supplied should be
of the form machine:device.
n Whenever dump and rdump require operator attention,
notify all users in group operator by means similar to
that described by wall(1).
s The size of the dump tape is specified in feet. The
number of feet is taken from the next argument. When
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the specified size is reached, dump and rdump wait for
reels to be changed. The default tape size value of
2300 feet assumes a reel tape.
u If the dump completes successfully, write on file
/var/adm/dumpdates the date when the dump started.
This file records a separate date for each file system
and each dump level. The format of /var/adm/dumpdates
is user-readable and consists of one free-format record
per line: file system name, increment level, and dump
date in ctime(3C) format. The file /var/adm/dumpdates
can be edited to change any of the fields if necessary.
W For each file system in /var/adm/dumpdates, print the
most recent dump date and level, indicating which file
systems should be dumped. If the W option is set, all
other options are ignored and dump exits immediately.
w Operates like W, but prints only file systems that need
to be dumped.
If no arguments are given, option is assumed to be 9u and a default
file system is dumped to the default tape.
Sizes are based on 1600-BPI blocked tape; the raw magnetic tape device
must be used to approach these densities. Up to 32 read errors on the
file system are ignored. Each reel requires a new process; thus
parent processes for reels already written remain until the entire
tape is written.
The rdump command creates a server, /usr/sbin/rmt or /etc/rmt, on the
remote machine to access the tape device.
dump and rdump require operator intervention for any of the following
+ end of tape,
+ end of dump,
+ tape-write error,
+ tape-open error, or
+ disk-read error (if errors exceed threshold of 32).
In addition to alerting all operators implied by the n option, dump
and rdump interact with the control terminal operator by posing
questions requiring yes or no answers when it can no longer proceed or
if something is grossly wrong.
Since making a full dump involves considerable time and effort, dump
and rdump each establish a checkpoint at the start of each tape
volume. If, for any reason, writing that volume fails, dump and rdump
will, with operator permission, restart from the checkpoint after the
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old tape has been rewound and removed and a new tape has been mounted.
dump and rdump periodically report information to the operator,
including typically low estimates of the number of blocks to write,
the number of tapes it will require, the time needed for completion,
and the time remaining until tape change. The output is verbose to
inform other users that the terminal controlling dump and rdump is
busy and will be for some time.
Access Control Lists (ACLs)
The optional entries of a file's access control list (ACL) are not
backed up with dump and rdump. Instead, the file's permission bits
are backed up and any information contained in its optional ACL
entries is lost (see acl(5)).
In the following example, assume that the file system /mnt is to be
attached to the file tree at the root directory, (/). This example
causes the entire file system (/mnt) to be dumped on
/dev/rmt/c0t0d0BEST and specifies that the density of the tape is 6250
/usr/sbin/dump 0df 6250 /dev/rmt/c0t0d0BEST /mnt
dump will not backup a file system containing large files.
Tapes created from file systems containing files with UID/GIDs greater
than 60,000 will have a new magic number in the header to prevent
older versions of restore(1M) from incorrectly restoring ownerships
for these files.
dump and rdump were developed by the University of California,
/dev/rdsk/c0d0s0 Default file system to dump from.
/dev/rmt/0m Default tape unit to dump to.
/var/adm/dumpdates New format-dump-date record.
/etc/fstab Dump table: file systems and
/etc/group Used to find group operator.
restore(1M), rmt(1M), fstab(4), acl(5).
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