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 named(1M)							   named(1M)

      named - Internet domain name server

      named [-d debuglevel] [-p port_number] [[-(b|c)] config_file] [-f] [-q]
	   [-r] [-u user_name] [-g group_name] [-t directory] [-w directory]

      named is the Internet domain name server.	 See RFC1033, RFC1034 and
      RFC1035 for more information on the Domain Name System.  Without any
      arguments, named reads the default configuration file /etc/named.conf,
      reads any initial data, and listens for queries.

      Options are:

	   -d debuglevel
		     Print debugging information.  A number after the d
		     determines the level of messages printed. If negative,
		     debuglevel is set to ``1''.

		     NOTE: The new debugging framework is considerably more
		     sophisticated than it was in older versions  of NAMED.
		     The configuration file's logging statement allows for
		     multiple, distinct levels of debugging for each of a
		     large set of categories of events (such as queries,
		     transfers in or out, etc.).

	   -p port_number
		     Use a different port number.

		     NOTE: Previously, the syntax: " -p port#[/localport#] "
		     was supported; the first port was that used when
		     contacting remote servers, and the second one was the
		     service port bound by the local instance of NAMED.	 The
		     current usage is equivalent to the old usage without
		     the localport# specified; this functionality can be
		     specified with the listen-on clause of the
		     configuration file's options statement.

	   -(b|c) config_file
		     Use a config_file other than /etc/named.conf.

	   -f	     Run this process in the foreground; don't fork(2) and
		     daemonize.	 (The default is to daemonize.)

	   -q	     Trace all incoming queries, if NAMED has been compiled
		     with QRYLOG defined.

		     NOTE: This option is deprecated in favor of the queries
		     logging category of the configuration file's logging

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	   -r	     Turns recursion off in the server.	 Answers can only
		     come from local (primary or secondary) zones.  This can
		     be used on root servers.  The default is to use

		     NOTE: This option can be overridden by and is
		     deprecated in favor of the recursion clause of the
		     configuration file's options statement.

	   -u user_name
		     Specifies the user the server should run as after it
		     initializes.  The value specified may be either a
		     username or a numeric user id.  If the -g flag is not
		     specified, then the group id used will be the primary
		     group of the user specified (initgroups() is called, so
		     all of the user's groups  will be available to the

	   -g group_name
		     Specifies the group the server should run as after it
		     initializes.  The value specified may be either a
		     groupname or a numeric group id.

	   -t directory
		     Specifies the directory the server should chroot() into
		     as soon as it is finished processing command line

	   -w directory
		     Sets the working directory of the server. The directory
		     clause of the configuration file's options statement
		     overrides any value specified on the command line. The
		     default working directory is the current directory (.).

      Any additional argument is taken as the name of the configuration
      file.  The configuration file contains information about where the
      name server gets its initial data. If multiple configuration files are
      specified, only the last is used. Lines in the configuration file
      cannot be continued on subsequent lines.	The following is a small

	   /*	  configuration file for name server	 */
	   options {
		   directory "/usr/local/domain";
		   forwarders {;;

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 named(1M)							   named(1M)

		   noforward {
		   sortlist {;;

	   zone "." {
		   type hint;
		   file "db.cache";

	   zone "berkeley.edu" {
		   type master;
		   file "db.berkeley";

	   zone "32.128.in-addr.arpa" {
		   type master;
		   file "db.128.32";

	   zone "cc.berkeley.edu" {
		   type slave;
		   file "db.cc";
		   masters {;


      The directory statement causes the server to change its working
      directory to the directory specified.  This can be important for the
      correct processing of $INCLUDE files (described later) in primary
      server's master files.

      Files referenced in the configuration file contain data in the master
      file format described in RFC1035.

      The forwarders line specifies the addresses of sitewide servers that
      will accept recursive queries from other servers.	 If the
      configuration file specifies one or more forwarders, then the server
      will send all queries for data not in the cache or in its
      authoritative data to the forwarders first.  Each forwarder will be
      asked in turn until an answer is returned or the list is exhausted.
      If no answer is forthcoming from a forwarder, the server will continue

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      as it would have without the forwarders line unless it is in
      forward-only mode.  The forwarding facility is useful to cause a large
      sitewide cache to be generated on a master, and to reduce traffic over
      links to outside servers.

      The noforward line specifies that the DNS server will not forward any
      request for something in or below the listed domains, even if the
      forwarders directive exists.

      The sortlist line can be used to indicate networks that are preferred
      over other, unlisted networks.  Address sorting only happens when the
      query is from a host on the same network as the server.  The best
      address is placed first in the response.	The address preference is
      local network addresses, then addresses on the sort list, then other

      A server can access information from servers in other domains given a
      list of root name servers and their addresses.  The zone "." line
      specifies that data in db.cache is to be placed in the backup cache.
      Its use is to prime the server with the locations of root domain
      servers.	This information is used to find the current root servers
      and their addresses.  The current root server information is placed in
      the operating cache.  Data for the root nameservers in the backup
      cache are never discarded.

      The zone "berkeley.edu" line states that the master file db.berkeley
      contains authoritative data for the berkeley.edu zone.  A server
      authoritative for a zone has the most accurate information for the
      zone.  All domain names are relative to the origin, in this case,
      berkeley.edu (see below for a more detailed description).

      The zone "32.128.in-addr.arpa" line states that the file db.128.32
      contains authoritative data for the domain 32.128.in-addr.arpa.  This
      domain is used to translate addresses in network 128.32 to hostnames.

      The zone "cc.berkeley.edu" line specifies that all authoritative data
      in the cc.berkeley.edu zone is to be transferred from the name server
      at Internet address and will be saved in the backup file
      db.cc.  Up to 10 addresses can be listed on this line.  If a transfer
      fails, it will try the next address in the list.	The secondary copy
      is also authoritative for the specified domain.  The first non-
      Internet address on this line will be taken as a filename in which to
      backup the transferred zone.  The name server will load the zone from
      this backup file (if it exists) when it boots, providing a complete
      copy, even if the master servers are unreachable.	 Whenever a new copy
      of the domain is received from one of the master servers, this file is
      updated.	If no file name is given, a temporary file will be used and
      will be deleted after each successful zone transfer.  This is not
      recommended because it causes a needless waste of bandwidth.

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 named(1M)							   named(1M)

    Master File Format
      The master file consists of control information and a list of resource
      records for objects in the zone of the forms:

	   $INCLUDE filename  opt_domain
	   $ORIGIN domain
	   domain  opt_ttl  opt_class  type  resource_record_data


	   domain	  is .	for root, @ for the current origin, or a
			  standard domain name. If domain is a standard
			  domain name that does not end with ``.'', the
			  current origin is appended to the domain.  Domain
			  names ending with ``.'' are unmodified.

	   opt_domain	  This field is used to define an origin for the
			  data in an included file.  It is equivalent to
			  placing an $ORIGIN statement before the first line
			  of the included file. The field is optional.
			  Neither the opt_domain field nor $ORIGIN
			  statements in the included file modify the current
			  origin for this file.

	   opt_ttl	  An optional integer number for the time-to-live
			  field. It defaults to zero, meaning the minimum
			  value specified in the SOA record for the zone.

	   opt_class	  The object address type; currently only one type
			  is supported, IN, for objects connected to the
			  DARPA Internet.

	   type		  This field contains one of the following tokens;
			  the data expected in the resource_record_data
			  field is in parentheses:

			  A	  a host address (dotted-quad IP address)

			  NS	  an authoritative name server (domain)

			  MX	  a mail exchanger (domain), preceded by a
				  preference value (0..32767), with lower
				  numeric values representing higher logical

			  CNAME	  the canonical name for an alias (domain)

			  SOA	  marks the start of a zone of authority
				  (domain of originating host, domain
				  address of maintainer, a serial number and
				  the following parameters in seconds:

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				  refresh, retry, expire and minimum TTL
				  (see RFC 883)).

			  NULL	  a null resource record (no format or data)

			  RP	  a Responsible Person for some domain name
				  (mailbox, TXT-referral)

			  PTR	  a domain name pointer (domain)

			  HINFO	  host information (cpu_type OS_type)

			  TXT	  text data (string)

			  WKS	  a well known service description (IP
				  address followed by a list of services)

      Resource records normally end at the end of a line, but may be
      continued across lines between opening and closing parentheses.
      Comments are introduced by semicolons and continue to the end of the

      NOTE: There are other resource record types not shown here. You should
      consult the BIND Operations Guide (``BOG'')  for	the  complete  list.
      Some resource record types may have been standardized in newer RFC's
      but not yet implemented in this version of BIND.

    SOA Record Format
      Each master zone file should begin with an SOA record for the zone.
      An example SOA record is as follows:

	   @   IN      SOA     ucbvax.Berkeley.EDU.  rwh.ucbvax.Berkeley.EDU. (
						 1989020501	 ; serial
						 10800	 ; refresh
						 3600	 ; retry
						 3600000 ; expire
						 86400 ) ; minimum

      The SOA specifies a serial number, which should be changed each time
      the master file is changed. Note that the serial number can be given
      as a dotted number, but this is a very unwise thing to do since the
      translation to normal integers is via concatenation rather than
      multiplication and addition. You can spell out the year, month, day of
      month, and 0..99 version number and still fit inside the unsigned 32-
      bit size of this field. (It's true that we will have to rethink this
      strategy in the year 4294.)

      Secondary servers check the serial number at intervals specified by
      the refresh time in seconds; if the serial number changes, a zone
      transfer will be done to load the new data. If a master server cannot
      be contacted when a refresh is due, the retry time specifies the

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      interval at which refreshes should be attempted. If a master server
      cannot be contacted within the interval given by the expire time, all
      data from the zone is discarded by secondary servers. The minimum
      value is the time-to-live (``TTL'') used by records in the file with
      no explicit time-to-live value.

      NOTE: The boot file directives domain and suffixes have been obsoleted
      by a more useful, resolver-based implementation of suffixing for
      partially-qualified domain names. The prior mechanisms could fail
      under a number of situations, especially when then local nameserver
      did not have complete information.

      The following signals have the specified effect when sent to the
      server process using the kill(1) command:

	   SIGHUP	  Causes server to read named.conf and reload
			  database. If the server is built with the
			  FORCED_RELOAD compile-time option, then SIGHUP
			  will also cause the server to check the serial
			  number on all secondary zones; normally, the
			  serial numbers are only checked at the SOA-
			  specified intervals.

	   SIGINT	  Dumps current data base and cache to

	   SIGILL	  Dumps statistics data into named.stats if the
			  server is compiled with -DSTATS.  Statistics data
			  is appended to the file.

	   SIGSYS	  Dumps the profiling data in /var/tmp if the server
			  is compiled with profiling (server forks, chdirs
			  and exits).

	   SIGTERM	  Dumps the primary and secondary database files.
			  Used to save modified data on shutdown if the
			  server is compiled with dynamic updating enabled.

	   SIGUSR1	  Turns on debugging; each SIGUSR1 increments debug

	   SIGUSR2	  Turns off debugging completely.

	   SIGWINCH	  Toggles the logging of all incoming queries via
			  syslog() (requires server to have been built with
			  the QRYLOG option).

      sig_named(1M) can also be used for sending signals to the server

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      named checks for symbolic or hard links while writing to the following

      If any of these files is linked to a different file before named
      writes into them, named will delete that file and create it afresh.

      Any errors encountered by named in the configuration file, master
      files, or in normal operation are logged with syslog and in the debug
      file, /var/tmp/named.run, if debugging is on.

      named was developed by the University of California, Berkeley.

      /etc/named.conf		       name server configuration file
      /var/run/named.pid	       process ID
      /var/tmp/named.run	       debug output
      /var/tmp/named_dump.db	       dump of the name server database
      /var/tmp/named.stats	       nameserver statistics data

      kill(1), hosts_to_named(1M), named-xfer(1M), sig_named(1M), signal(2),
      gethostent(3N), resolver(3N), resolver(4), hostname(5),

      RFC 882, RFC 883, RFC 973, RFC 974, RFC 1032, RFC 1033, RFC 1034, RFC
      1035, RFC 1123.

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