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 hosts_to_named(1M)					  hosts_to_named(1M)




 NAME
      hosts_to_named - translate host table to name server file format

 SYNOPSIS
      hosts_to_named -d domain -n network-number [options]

 DESCRIPTION
      hosts_to_named translates the host table, /etc/hosts, into files that
      are usable by the name server named(1M).	The format of these files is
      defined in RFC1035.  The files are created in the current directory.
      Once the host table is translated, the name server files can be
      maintained directly, or the translation can be repeated after each
      change to the host table.

      If a line in the host table contains no domain names, all names on the
      line are assumed to be in the default domain.  The first domain listed
      is the "default domain".	If data is being created for more than 1
      domain or if certain options are used, there must be domain names in
      the host table to determine which names belong in which domain.

      The name server data is referred to as "resource records".

      Options are:

	   -a network-number
			  Add the information about hosts in the local
			  domain from network network-number.  This is the
			  same as the -n option except that no pointer (PTR)
			  data is created.  This is useful when there are
			  multiple domains on a network and a different
			  server is handling the address-to-name mapping for
			  network-number.

	   -b bootfile	  Name the boot file bootfile.	The default is
			  named.boot (if named is 4.x) or named.conf (if
			  named is 8.x) in the current directory.

	   -c subdomain	  Create alias (CNAME) records for hosts in
			  subdomain of the default domain.  When a subdomain
			  is delegated, it is useful to create aliases for
			  the old names in the default domain that point to
			  the new names in the subdomain.  After creating
			  the alias (CNAME) records, ignore lines in the
			  host table that contain names in the subdomain.
			  This option can be used more than once on the
			  command line.	 This option requires domain names
			  in the host table.  When the old names in this
			  domain are no longer used, they can be ignored
			  with the -e option.  If the subdomain name does
			  not have dots, the default domain is appended to
			  subdomain.



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	   -d domain	  Create data for domain.  This option can be used
			  more than once on the command line if data is
			  being created for more than 1 domain.	 The first
			  domain listed is the "default domain".  This
			  option requires domain names in the host table for
			  all hosts in domains except the default domain.

	   -e subdomain	  Eliminate lines from the host table that contain
			  names in the subdomain before translating.  If the
			  subdomain name does not have dots, the default
			  domain is appended.  This option may be used more
			  than once on the command line.  This option
			  requires domain names in the host table.

	   -f file	  Read command line options from file.	The -f
			  option is not allowed within a file.

	   -h host	  Declare host to be the host in the start of
			  authority (SOA) record that the name server data
			  was created on.  Also use host for the electronic
			  mail address of the responsible user in the SOA
			  record.  The default is the host this command is
			  run on.

	   -m weight:mailhub
			  For each canonical hostname from the host table,
			  create mail exchanger (MX) records with the
			  specified weight and mail hub.  The weight is a
			  positive integer.  The mail hub is a hostname.  If
			  the mail hub name has no dots, the default domain
			  is appended.	This option can be used more than
			  once on the command line.

	   -n network-number[:mask]
			  Create data for network-number.  See below for
			  description of network-number.  If only one domain
			  is listed with -d, all data for network-number is
			  assumed to be in domain.  The optional subnet mask
			  mask can be used instead of supplying each
			  network-number for a subnet using multiple -n
			  options.  mask must be in dot notation.

	   -o refresh:retry:expire:min
			  Set the values in the start-of-authority (SOA)
			  record to those specified.  See below for
			  description of the start-of-authority (SOA)
			  record.

	   -p domain	  Create only pointer (PTR) data for hosts in
			  domain.  This is useful when there are multiple
			  domains on a network and a different server is



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			  responsible for domain, but this server is
			  responsible for the address-to-name mapping.	This
			  option can be used more than once on the command
			  line.	 This option requires domain names in the
			  host table.

	   -q		  Run quietly.	No messages are printed.

	   -r		  Create name server data indicating that the name
			  server is authoritative for . (the root of the
			  domain tree).	 The file created is db.root.  Use
			  this only when your network is isolated from the
			  Internet.  If other root servers exist for the
			  isolated network, they must be added manually.

	   -s server	  Create name server (NS) records that declare
			  server is an authoritative name server for all of
			  the domains created.	If more than 1 server is
			  authoritative, each needs to be declared.  If the
			  server name does not have any dots in it, the
			  default domain is appended.  The default server is
			  the host this script is run on.  This option can
			  be used more than once on the command line.

	   -t		  Create text (TXT) records from the comments that
			  appear with host data.  The comments will all be
			  in lower case because the host table is translated
			  to lower case.  If [no smtp] appears in a comment,
			  it is omitted.  The [no smtp] is used to control
			  mail exchanger (MX) data.

	   -u user	  Declare user to be the electronic mail address of
			  the person responsible for this domain.  This is
			  used in the start of authority (SOA) record.	The
			  format required in the name server data is
			  user.host (host must be a domain name).  If given
			  as user, the host on which this script is run is
			  appended.  If given as user@host, the @ is
			  replaced with a dot (.).  The default user is
			  root.

	   -w		  Create well known services (WKS) data declaring
			  that the host provides the SMTP service.  This is
			  done only when mail exchanger (MX) data is also
			  being created and only for hosts without [no smtp]
			  in a comment.

	   -z internet-address
			  Create a secondary boot file, boot.sec.save (if
			  named is 4.x) or conf.sec.save (if named is 8.x),
			  from the primary boot file listing internet-



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			  address as the server to load the data from.	The
			  boot file has the server back up the data on disk.
			  The internet-address defaults to the value used
			  with -Z.  This option can be used more than once.

	   -A		  Do not create name server data for aliases in the
			  host table.

	   -C file	  Create resource records from strings in the
			  comment field of the host table.  Each string in
			  the comment field (except [no smtp] ) is searched
			  for in file.	The format of file is a string, a
			  colon, and a resource record.	 If the string in
			  the comment field matches the string before the
			  colon in file, a resource record is added
			  consisting of the name of the host followed by
			  everything after the colon from the matching line
			  in file.  For example, host information (HINFO)
			  records can be created by adding 360:IN HINFO
			  hp9000s360 hp-ux to file and adding 360 to
			  comments in the host table.

	   -D		  Do not create name server data for domain names in
			  the host table.

	   -F		  By default, the serial number is incremented for a
			  domain only if the data has changed (pointer (PTR)
			  data only).  This option forces the serial number
			  to be incremented, even if the data has not
			  changed.

	   -H host-file	  Use host-file instead of /etc/hosts.

	   -M		  Do not create mail exchanger (MX) records for
			  hosts in the host table.

	   -N mask	  Apply the default subnet mask mask to each
			  network-number specified with -n except for ones
			  with their subnet masks already provided.  mask
			  must be in dot notation.  This is the same as
			  supplying each network-number for a subnet using
			  multiple -n options.

	   -S server	  This option is the same as the -s option, but it
			  only applies to the last domain specified with -d
			  or the last network-number specified with -n.
			  This option is for when server is backing up some,
			  but not all, of the domains.

	   -Z internet-address
			  Create a secondary boot file, boot.sec (if named



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			  is 4.x) or conf.sec (if named is 8.x), from the
			  primary boot file listing internet-address as the
			  server to load the data from.	 The boot file does
			  not have the server back up the data on disk.	 The
			  internet-address defaults to value used with -z.
			  This option can be used more than once.

	   -1		  This option is obsolete.

      hosts_to_named translates the host table to lower case to help
      eliminate duplicate data.	 Since the name server treats uppercase and
      lowercase as equivalent, names that differ only in case are considered
      the same.

      Alias (CNAME) records are created for subdomains delegated with -c.
      Lines from the host table that contain names in subdomains from -c and
      -e are removed from the lowercase copy of the host table.

      The host table is then used to create the name server data for each
      network-number declared on the command line.  Do not include the
      trailing 0's in the network number.  No distinction is made between
      class A, B, or C addresses nor is there any understanding of subnets
      unless a subnet mask is supplied.	 Example network numbers are: 10
      (for all addresses of the form 10.*.*.*), 10.1 (for addresses of the
      form 10.1.*.*), or 10.2.2 (for addresses of the form 10.2.2.*).

      Address (A) records are created for mapping hostnames to IP addresses.
      Alias (CNAME) records are created for aliases of hosts that are not
      multi-homed.  The data are placed in a file named db.DOMAIN where
      DOMAIN is the first part of the domain from the command line.  For the
      domain div.inc.com, the file is named db.div.  All other name server
      data goes in this file except the pointer (PTR) records described
      below.

      Pointer (PTR) records are created for mapping IP addresses to host
      names.  PTR records are placed in a file named db.NET where NET is the
      network number from the command line.  Network 10 data is placed in
      db.10.  Network 10.1 data are placed in "db.10.1".

      Mail exchanger (MX) records are created unless the -M option is used.
      The default MX record has a weight of 10 with the host itself as its
      mail exchanger.  No default MX record is created for a host if [no
      smtp] is in the comment section of that line in the host table.  MX
      records for each mail hub declared with the -m option are added for
      each host even if [no smtp] is in the comment section.

      Well known services (WKS) records are created for each host that
      handles SMTP mail (does not have [no smtp]) if -w is used.  The only
      service listed is SMTP.





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      Text (TXT) records are created for comments associated with hosts in
      the host table if -t is used.  The comments do not include [no smtp].

      For each domain, a start of authority (SOA) record is created.  The
      SOA record requires 2 domain names: the host that the data is created
      on and the electronic mail address of the person responsible.  The -h
      and -u options influence the names.  In addition, the SOA record
      requires 5 values: a serial number, a refresh time, a retry time, an
      expire time, and a minimum ttl (time to live).  The first time the
      data is created, the serial number is set to 1, the refresh time is
      set to 3 hours, the retry time is set to 1 hour, the expire time is
      set to 1 week, and the minimum ttl is set to 1 day.  The -o option
      changes these values except for the serial number.  Each subsequent
      time hosts_to_named is run, the serial number is incremented.  If any
      of the other fields in the SOA record are modified, the changed values
      are retained.

      If there are files named spcl.DOMAIN or spcl.NET in the current
      directory, $INCLUDE directives are added to the corresponding
      db.DOMAIN or db.NET file for the spcl file.  In this way, special data
      can be added to the data generated by hosts_to_named.

      The first time hosts_to_named is run, it creates a default boot file
      for a primary name server.  Each subsequent time hosts_to_named is
      run, the boot file is updated if necessary.  New entries are made in
      the boot file for any additional networks or domains not already in
      the boot file.  No entries are deleted from the boot file.

      The boot file for a caching-only server, boot.cacheonly (if bind is
      4.x) or conf.cacheonly (if bind is 8.x), is created if it does not
      exist.  The boot files for secondary servers, (boot.sec.save or
      conf.sec.save) and (boot.sec or conf.sec), are created if the -z or -Z
      options are used.	 The boot files for secondary servers are created
      new each time from the primary server boot file so that they are
      equivalent.

 EXAMPLES
      Create name server data for networks 15.19.8 and 15.19.9 in
      div.inc.com.

	   hosts_to_named -d div.inc.com -n 15.19.8 -n 15.19.9

      Create name server data for networks 15.19.8 and 15.19.9 in
      div.inc.com. Ignore aliases in the host table and include 2 mail hubs
      - aaa.div.inc.com and bbb.mkt.inc.comk.  Put all of the options in a
      file.

	   hosts_to_named -f option_file

      Option_file contains the following lines:




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	   -d div.inc.com
	   -n 15.19.8 -n 15.19.9
	   -m 20:aaa
	   -m 30:bbb.mkt.inc.com
	   -A

      Network 15.19.15 has hosts in the xx.inc.com domain and the
      div.inc.com domain.  Create name server data for xx.inc.com.  Create
      only pointer (PTR) data for hosts in div.inc.com on network 15.19.15
      (this requires the hosts in div.inc.com to have the canonical name or
      an alias of the form x.div.inc.com).

	   hosts_to_named -d xx.inc.com -n 15.19.15 -p div.inc.com

      Create name server data for network 15.19.8 in div.inc.com.  Include
      div.inc.com data from network 15.19.15 but do not create pointer (PTR)
      data for 15.19.15 since that is being handled by the xx.inc.com
      server.

	   hosts_to_named -d div.inc.com -n 15.19.8 -a 15.19.15

 AUTHOR
      hosts_to_named was developed by HP.

 FILES
      /etc/hosts		    The host table

      named.boot		    Primary server boot file (4.x)
      named.conf		    Primary server boot file (8.x)

      boot.cacheonly		    Caching only server boot file (4.x)
      conf.cacheonly		    Caching only server boot file (8.x)

      boot.sec.save		    Secondary server boot file (4.x)
      conf.sec.save		    Secondary server boot file (8.x)

      boot.sec			    Secondary server boot file (4.x)
      conf.sec			    Secondary server boot file (8.x)

      db.127.0.0		    Pointer information for 127.0.0.1

      db.cache			    Stub cache file for root server
				    addresses

      db.root			    Data for servers for the root domain

      db.DOMAIN			    Address and other data for a domain

      db.DOMAIN.in-addr		    Pointer data for all network-numbers





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      db.NET			    Pointer data for a network-number

 SEE ALSO
      named(1M), RFC1034, RFC1035.


















































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