gated - gateway routing daemon
gated [-b buffer_size] [-c] [-C] [-n] [-N] [-ttrace_options] [-f
gated is a routing daemon that handles multiple routing protocols and
replaces routed, egpup, and any routing daemon that speaks the HELLO
routing protocol. gated currently handles the RIP, BGP, EGP, HELLO,
and OSPF routing protocols. The gated process can be configured to
perform all routing protocols or any subset of them (see WARNINGS
The command-line options are:
Specifies a buffer size for the socket read/write
buffer. The buffer size should not be less than one
MB (megabyte) and should not exceed the available
system memory. If this option is not specified, the
buffer size will be set to the available system
-c Specifies that the configuration file will be parsed
for syntax errors and then gated will exit. gated
will leave a dump file in /var/tmp/gated_dump if
there were no errors. gated does not need to be run
as the superuser to use the -c option but it may not
be possible to read the kernel forwarding table and
interface configuration if not run as superuser. The
-c option implies -tgeneral. All trace_option
clauses in the configuration file will be ignored.
-C Specifies that the configuration file will just be
parsed for syntax errors. gated will exit with a
status 1 if there were any errors and 0 (zero) if
there were not. gated does not need to be run as the
superuser to use the -C option but it may not be
possible to read the kernel forwarding table and
interface configuration if not run as the superuser.
-n Specifies that gated will not modify the kernel
forwarding table. This is used for testing gated
configurations with actual routing data.
-N Specifies that gated will not daemonize. Normally,
if tracing to stderr is not specified gated will
daemonize if the parent process ID is not 1. This
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allows the use of an /etc/inittab-like method of
invoking gated that does not have a PID of 1.
Specifies a comma separated list of trace options to
be enabled on startup. If no flags are specified,
general is assumed. No space is allowed between this
option and it's arguments.
This option must be used to trace events that take
place before the configuration file is parsed, such
as determining the interface configuration and
reading routes from the kernel.
See the GateD Configuration Guide for valid trace
options and a more detailed explanation of tracing.
Use an alternate config file. By default, gated uses
trace_file Trace file in which to place trace information.
If a trace file is specified on the command line, or
no trace flags are specified on the command line,
gated detaches from the terminal and runs in the
background. If trace flags are specified without
specifying a trace file, gated assumes that tracing
is desired to stderr and remains in the foreground.
The following signals may be used to control gated:
SIGHUP Re-read configuration. A SIGHUP causes gated to
reread the configuration file. gated first performs
a clean-up of all allocated policy structures. All
BGP and EGP peers are flagged for deletion and the
configuration file is re-parsed.
If the re-parse is successful, any BGP and EGP peers
that are no longer in the configuration are shut
down, and new peers are started. gated attempts to
determine if changes to existing peers require a
shutdown and restart. OSPF is not capable of
reconfiguring; it is shutdown and restarted during a
reconfiguration. This may have an adverse impact on
the routing system.
It should also be possible to enable/disable any
protocol without restarting gated.
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SIGINT Snap-shot of current state.
The current state of all gated tasks, timers,
protocols and tables are written to
On systems supporting fork(), this is done by forking
a subprocess to dump the table information so as not
to impact gated's routing functions. On systems
where memory management does not support copy-on-
write, this will cause the gated address space to be
duplicated; this may cause a noticeable impact on the
system. On system not supporting fork(), the main
process immediately processes the dump, which may
impact gated's routing functions.
SIGTERM Graceful shutdown.
On receipt of a SIGTERM, gated attempts a graceful
shutdown. All tasks and protocols are asked to
shutdown. Most will terminate immediately, the
exception being EGP peers which wait for
confirmation. It may be necessary to repeat the
SIGTERM once or twice if it this process takes too
All protocol routes are removed from the kernel's
routing table on receipt of a SIGTERM. Interface
routes, routes with RTF_STATIC set (from the route
command where supported) and static routes specifying
retain will remain. To terminate gated with the
exterior routes intact, use SIGKILL.
SIGUSR1 Toggle tracing.
On receipt of a SIGUSR1, gated will close the trace
file. A subsequent SIGUSR1 will cause it to be
reopened. This will allow the file to be moved
It is not possible to use SIGUSR1 if a trace file has
not been specified, or tracing is being performed to
SIGUSR2 Check for interface changes.
On receipt of a SIGUSR2, gated will rescan the kernel
interface list looking for changes.
gated contains provisions for BGP protocol, but it is not officially
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supported by HP at the present time. Some RIP version 2 features
(RFC1388) are not currently supported: MIB and route tag. The
optional OSPF version 2 (RFC1247) feature of TOS (type of service)
based routing is not supported. The route aggregation, generating a
more general route from compressing the specific routes through the
explicit configuration, is not supported in this release.
gated was primarily developed by Cornell University which includes
code from the Regents of the University of California and the
University of Maryland.
This software and associated documentation is Copyright 1990, 1991,
1992 by Cornell University.
gated.conf(4), arp(1M), fork(2), gdc(1M), ifconfig(1M), netstat(1),
ospf_monitor(1M), ripquery(1M), GateD Documentation, GateD
RFC 891 DCN Local-Network Protocols (HELLO)
RFC 904 Exterior Gateway Protocol Formal Specification
RFC 1058 Routing Information Protocol
RFC 1163 A Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
RFC 1164 Application of the Border Gateway Protocol in the
RFC 1247 OSPF Specification, Version 2.
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