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 fsadm_vxfs(1M)						      fsadm_vxfs(1M)




 NAME
      fsadm - resize or reorganize a VxFS file system

 SYNOPSIS
      /usr/sbin/fsadm [-F vxfs] [-V] [-d] [-D] [-e] [-E] [-s] [-v] [-a days]
	   [-l largesize] [-p passes] [-r rawdev] [-t time] mount_point

      /usr/sbin/fsadm [-F vxfs] [-V] [-b newsize] [-r rawdev] mount_point

      /usr/sbin/fsadm [-F vxfs] [-V] [-o largefiles|nolargefiles]
	   mount_point|special

      /usr/sbin/fsadm [-F vxfs] [-V] [-c] mount_point

 DESCRIPTION
      fsadm performs online administration functions on VxFS file systems.
      fsadm supports file-system resizing, extent reorganization, directory
      reorganization, and querying or changing the largefiles flag.  fsadm
      operates on file systems mounted for read/write access, however, the
      -o option can also operate on a special device containing a clean,
      unmounted file system.  Only a privileged user can change the
      largefiles flag on a mounted file system, or resize or reorganize a
      file system.

      VxFS file systems running on HP-UX 10.20 and later contain features
      that are incompatible with earlier versions of HP-UX and applications.
      These features are large files (file sizes greater than two
      gigabytes), and hierarchical storage management via the DMAPI (Data
      Management Applications Programming Interface).

    Options
	   -a days     Consider files not accessed within the specified
		       number of days as aged files.  The default is 14
		       days.  The -d option moves aged files to the end of
		       the directory.  The -a days option applies only with
		       -d.

	   -b newsize  Resize the file system to newsize sectors.

	   -c	       Convert the inode format of files upgraded from the
		       Version 2 disk layout so that they can grow beyond a
		       two-gigabyte offset.  This option is required because
		       some file systems upgraded from the Version 2 disk
		       layout could not be extended past two gigabytes or
		       contain more than 8 million inodes.

	   -D	       Report on directory fragmentation.  If specified in
		       conjunction with the -d option, the fragmentation
		       report is produced both before and after the
		       directory reorganization.




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	   -d	       Reorganize directories.	Directory entries are
		       reordered to place subdirectory entries first, then
		       all other entries in decreasing order of time of last
		       access.	The directory is also compacted to remove
		       free space.

	   -E	       Report on extent fragmentation.	If specified in
		       conjunction with the -e option, the fragmentation
		       report is produced both before and after the extent
		       reorganization.

	   -e	       Reorganize extents.  Minimize file system
		       fragmentation.  Files are reorganized to have the
		       minimum number of extents.

	   -F vxfs     Specify the VxFS file system type.

	   -l largesize
		       Large extent size in file system blocks.	 Indicates
		       the size of extents to be considered as large
		       extents, that is, extents that are immovable while
		       performing an extent defragmentation.  The value must
		       be between 8 and 2048 blocks.  The default is 64
		       blocks.	The -l largesize option applies only with -E
		       or -e.

	   -o specific_options
		       Specify options specific to the vxfs file system
		       type.

		       The following specific_options are valid on a VxFS
		       file system:

		       largefiles
			    Set the largefiles flag for the file system.
			    When this flag is set, large files (greater than
			    two gigabytes) can be created on the file
			    system.

		       nolargefiles
			    Clear the largefiles flag for the file system.
			    When this flag is not set, large files cannot be
			    created on the file system.	 Any attempt to
			    clear the flag fails if a large file exists on
			    the file system.

		       NOTE: Large files are supported on HP-UX 10.20
		       systems and above.  Be careful when implementing
		       large file system capability.  System administration
		       utilities such as backup may not operate correctly if
		       they are not large file aware.



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	   -p passes   Maximum number of passes to run.	 The default is 5
		       passes.	Reorganizations are processed until
		       reorganization is complete, or the specified number
		       of passes are run.

	   -r rawdev   Pathname of raw device to read to determine file
		       layout and fragmentation.  This option can be used
		       when fsadm cannot determine the raw device.

	   -s	       Print a summary of activity at the end of each pass.

	   -t time     Maximum time to run.  Reorganizations are processed
		       until reorganization is complete, or the time limit
		       has expired.  time is specified in seconds.

	   -V	       Echo the completed command line, but do not execute
		       the command.  The command line is generated by
		       incorporating the user-specified options.  This
		       option allows the user to verify the command line.

	   -v	       Specify verbose mode.  Report reorganization
		       activity.

      If no options are specified, fsadm prints the current largefiles flag
      setting, then exits.  The -b, -o largefiles, and -o nolargefiles
      options cannot be specified if any other options are given.  If both
      -e and -d are specified, fsadm first completes the directory
      reorganization, then does the extent reorganization.

    Largefiles Flag
      Files larger than two gigabytes are called large files.  The -o
      largefiles and -o nolargefiles options change the largefiles flag,
      allowing or disallowing large files in the file system.

      Large files can be created only on file systems with disk layout
      Version 3 or above.  A file system with large files cannot be mounted
      on an HP-UX system older than HP-UX 10.20.  Many existing applications
      cannot operate on large files.

      Setting the flag with the -o largefiles option succeeds only if the
      file system has the Version 3 disk layout or above.  See vxupgrade(1M)
      for information on how to upgrade a file system from an older disk
      layout to the current version.  Clearing the flag with the -o
      nolargefiles option succeeds only if the flag is set and there are no
      large files present on the file system.  See mkfs_vxfs(1M) and
      mount_vxfs(1M) for information on creating and mounting file systems
      with large files.

      The -o largefiles and -o nolargefiles options are the only fsadm
      options that can be used on an unmounted file system.  An unmounted
      file system can be specified by invoking fsadm with a special device



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      rather than a mount point.  If an unmounted file system is specified,
      it must be clean.

      Changing the largefiles flag may require changes to /etc/fstab.  For
      example, if fsadm is used to set the largefiles flag, but nolargefiles
      is specified as a mount option in /etc/fstab, the files system is not
      mountable.

    Defragmentation
      For optimal performance, the kernel-extent allocator must be able to
      find large extents when it wants them.  To maintain file-system
      performance, run fsadm periodically against all VxFS file systems to
      reduce fragmentation.  The frequency depends on file system usage and
      activity patterns, and the importance of performance; typically
      between once a day and once a month against each file system.  The -v
      option can be used to examine the amount of work performed by fsadm.
      You can adjust the frequency of reorganization based on the rate of
      file system fragmentation.

      There are two options that are available to control the amount of work
      done by fsadm.  The -t option specifies a maximum length of time to
      run.  The -p option specifies a maximum number of passes to run.	If
      both are specified, fsadm exits if either of the terminating
      conditions is reached.  By default, fsadm runs 5 passes.	If both the
      -e and -d options are specified, fsadm runs all the directory
      reorganization passes before any extent reorganization passes.

      fsadm uses the file .fsadm in the lost+found directory as a lock file.
      When fsadm is invoked, it opens the file lost+found/.fsadm in the root
      of the file system specified by mount_point. If the file does not
      exist, it is created.  The fcntl(2) system call obtains a write lock
      on the file.  If the write lock fails, fsadm assumes that another
      instance of fsadm is running and fails.  fsadm reports the process ID
      of the process holding the write lock on the .fsadm file.

    File System Resizing
      If the -b option is specified, fsadm resizes the file system whose
      mount point is mount_point. If newsize is larger than the current size
      of the file system, the file system is expanded to newsize sectors.
      Similarly, if newsize is smaller than the current size of the file
      system, fsadm shrinks the file system to newsize sectors.

      Increasing the size of a file system requires that the file system
      contain enough free space, prior to the expansion, for the growth of
      the structural files. In the case where a file system has no free
      blocks available, the attempt to increase the size of the file system
      will fail (see extendfs(1M) for an alternate method to increase file
      system size).

      In a Version 3 or above disk layout, if there are file system
      resources in use in the sectors being removed, fsadm relocates those



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      resources to sectors staying within the resized file system.  The time
      needed for relocation depends on the number of blocks being moved.

      In Version 2 disk layouts, file system structural components are
      fixed, so reducing the size of a file system fails if there are file
      system resources in use in the sectors being removed.  In that case, a
      reorganization (using fsadm -e) can free busy resources and allow
      shrinking the file system.  If there are still file system structural
      components within the area to be removed, you must upgrade the file
      system to a Version 3 or above disk layout to do a resize (see
      vxupgrade(1M)).

    Reporting on Directory Fragmentation
      As files are allocated and freed, directories tend to grow and become
      sparse.  In general, a directory is as large as the largest number of
      files it ever contained, even if some files were subsequently removed.

      To obtain a directory fragmentation report, use the command syntax:

      fsadm -D [-r rawdev] mount_point

      The following is some example output from the fsadm -D command:

      # fsadm -F vxfs -D /lhome

      Directory Fragmentation Report
		Dirs	    Total      Immed	Immeds	 Dirs to   Blocks to
		Searched    Blocks     Dirs	to Add	 Reduce	   Reduce
      total	      15	 3	  12	     0	       0	   0

      The column labeled "Dirs Searched" contains the total number of
      directories.  A directory is associated with the extent-allocation
      unit containing the extent in which the directory's inode is located.
      The column labeled "Total Blocks" contains the total number of blocks
      used by directory extents.

      The column labeled "Immed Dirs" contains the number of directories
      that are immediate, meaning that the directory data is in the inode
      itself, as opposed to being in an extent.	 Immediate directories save
      space and speed up pathname resolution.  The column labeled "Immeds to
      Add" contains the number of directories that currently have a data
      extent, but that could be reduced in size and contained entirely in
      the inode.

      The column labeled "Dirs to Reduce" contains the number of directories
      for which one or more blocks could be freed if the entries in the
      directory are compressed to make the free space in the directory
      contiguous.  Since directory entries vary in length, it is possible
      that some large directories may contain a block or more of total free
      space, but with the entries arranged in such a way that the space
      cannot be made contiguous. As a result, it is possible to have a non-



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      zero "Dirs to Reduce" calculation immediately after running a
      directory reorganization.	 The -v (verbose) option of directory
      reorganization reports occurrences of failure to compress free space.

      The column labeled "Blocks to Reduce" contains the number of blocks
      that could be freed if the entries in the directory are compressed.

    Measuring Directory Fragmentation
      If the totals in the columns labeled "Dirs to Reduce" are substantial,
      a directory reorganization can improve performance of pathname
      resolution.  The directories that fragment tend to be the directories
      with the most activity.  A small number of fragmented directories may
      account for a large percentage of name lookups in the file system.

    Directory Reorganization
      If the -d option is specified, fsadm reorganizes the directories on
      the file system whose mount point is mount_point. Directories are
      reorganized in two ways: compression and sorting.

      For compression, fsadm moves valid entries to the front of the
      directory and groups the free space at the end of the directory.	If
      there are no entries in the last block of the directory, the block is
      released and the directory size is reduced.

      If the total space used by all directory entries is small enough,
      fsadm puts the directory in the inode immediate data area.

      fsadm also sorts directory entries to improve pathname lookup
      performance.  Entries are sorted based on the last access time of the
      entry.  The -a option specifies a time interval; 14 days is the
      default if -a is not specified.  The time interval is broken up into
      128 buckets, and all times within the same bucket are considered
      equal.  All access times older than the time interval are considered
      equal, and those entries are placed last.	 Subdirectory entries are
      placed at the front of the directory and symbolic links are placed
      after subdirectories, followed by the most-recently-accessed files.

      The command syntax for reorganizing directories in a file system is:

      fsadm -d [-D] [-v] [-s] [-a days] [-p passes] [-r rawdev] [-t time]
      mount_point

      The following example shows the output of the fsadm -d -D command:

      #fsadm -F vxfs -d -D -s /opt

      Directory Fragmentation Report
		Dirs	    Total      Immed	Immeds	 Dirs to   Blocks to
		Searched    Blocks     Dirs	to Add	 Reduce	   Reduce
      total	  34663	     8800     26655	 2569	   2716	       2836




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      Directory Reorganization Statistics (pass 1 of 2)
		Dirs	   Dirs	     Total    Failed   Blocks	Blocks	 Immeds
		Searched   Changed   Ioctls   Ioctls   Reduced	Changed	 Added
      fset 999	   8008	     3121     5017	  0	 3037	  4428	 2569
      total	   8008	     3121     5017	  0	 3037	  4428	 2569

      Directory Reorganization Statistics (pass 2 of 2)
		Dirs	   Dirs	     Total    Failed   Blocks	Blocks	 Immeds
		Searched   Changed   Ioctls   Ioctls   Reduced	Changed	 Added
      fset 999	   5439	      552     2448	  0	  708	  4188	    0
      total	   5439	      552     2448	  0	  708	  4188	    0

      Directory Fragmentation Report
		Dirs	    Total      Immed	Immeds	 Dirs to  Blocks to
		Searched    Blocks     Dirs	to Add	 Reduce	  Reduce
      total	  34663	     6231     29224	    0	    147	       267

      The column labeled "Dirs Searched" contains the number of directories
      searched.	 Only directories with data extents are reorganized.
      Immediate directories are skipped.  The column labeled "Dirs Changed"
      contains the number of directories for which a change was made.

      The column labeled "Total Ioctls" contains the total number of
      VX_DIRSORT ioctls performed.  Reorganization of directory extents is
      performed using this ioctl.

      The column labeled "Failed Ioctls" contains the number of requests
      that failed for some reason.  The reason for failure is usually that
      the directory being reorganized is active.  A few failures should be
      no cause for alarm.  If the -v option is used, all ioctl calls and
      status returns are recorded.

      The column labeled "Blocks Reduced" contains the total number of
      directory blocks freed by compressing entries.  The column labeled
      "Blocks Changed" contains the total number of directory blocks updated
      while sorting and compressing entries.

      The column labeled "Immeds Added" contains the total number of
      directories with data extents that were compressed into immediate
      directories.

    Reporting on Extent Fragmentation
      As files are created and removed over time, the free extent map for an
      allocation unit changes from having one large free area to having many
      smaller free areas.  This process is known as fragmentation.  Also,
      when files increase in size (particularly when growth occurs in small
      increments) small files can be allocated in multiple extents.  In the
      best case, each file that is not sparse would have exactly one extent
      (containing the entire file), and the free-extent map is one
      continuous range of free blocks.




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      Conversely, in a case of extreme fragmentation, there can be free
      space in the file system, none of which can be allocated.	 For
      example, on Version 2 disk layouts, the indirect-address extent size
      is always 8K long.  This means that to allocate an indirect-address
      extent to a file, an 8K extent must be available.	 If no extent of 8K
      byes or larger is available, even though more than 8K of free space is
      available, an attempt to allocate a file into indirect extents fails
      and returns ENOSPC.

    Determining Fragmentation
      To determine whether a file system is fragmented, the free extents for
      that file system must be examined.  If a large number of small extents
      are free, then there is fragmentation.  If more than half of the
      amount of free space is taken up by small extents (smaller than 64
      blocks), or there is less than 5 percent of total file system space
      available in large extents, then there is serious fragmentation.

    Running the Extent-Fragmentation Report
      The extent-fragmentation report provides detailed information about
      the degree of fragmentation in a given file system.

      The command syntax for an extent-fragmentation report is:

      fsadm -E [-l largesize] [-r rawdev] mount_point

      The extent reorganization facility considers some extents to be
      immovable: that is, if reallocating and consolidating extents does not
      improve performance, those extents are considered immovable.  For
      example, if a file already contains large extents, reallocating and
      consolidating these extents does not improve performance.	 The -l
      option controls when fsadm considers an extent as immovable.  By
      default, largesize is 64 blocks, meaning that any extent larger than
      64 blocks is considered to be immovable.	For the extent-fragmentation
      report, the value for largesize affects which extents are reported as
      being immovable extents.

      The following is an example of the output generated by the fsadm -E
      command:

      # fsadm -F vxfs -E /home

	Extent Fragmentation Report
	      Total    Average	    Average	Total
	      Files    File Blks    # Extents	Free Blks
	       9293	    115		  1	 149352
	  blocks used for indirects: 48
	  % Free blocks in extents smaller than 64 blks: 10.40
	  % Free blocks in extents smaller than	 8 blks: 0.56
	  % blks allocated to extents 64 blks or larger: 91.67
	  Free Extents By Size
		1:	 156		2:	 140		4:	 101



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		8:	 292	       16:	 290	       32:	 241
	       64:	 155	      128:	  94	      256:	  43
	      512:	  33	     1024:	  20	     2048:	   1
	     4096:	   1	     8192:	   1	    16384:	   1
	    32768:	   1	    65536:	   0	   131072:	   0
	   262144:	   0	   524288:	   0	  1048576:	   0
	  2097152:	   0	  4194304:	   0	  8388608:	   0
	 16777216:	   0	 33554432:	   0	 67108864:	   0
	134217728:	   0	268435456:	   0	536870912:	   0
       1073741824:	   0   2147483648:	   0

      The numbers in the column "Total Files" indicate the total number of
      files that have data extents.  The column "Average File Blks" contains
      the average number of blocks belonging to all files.  The column
      "Average # Extents" contains the average number of extents used by
      files in the file system.	 The column "Total Free Blks" contains the
      total number of free blocks in the file system.  The total number of
      blocks used for indirect address extent are reported as "blocks used
      for indirects".

      The general shape of free extent map is also reported.  There are two
      percentages reported: % free extents smaller than 64 blocks and % free
      extents smaller than 8 blocks.  These numbers are typically near zero
      on an unfragmented file system.

      Another metric reported is the percentage of blocks that are part of
      extents 64 blocks or larger.  Files with a single small extent are not
      included in this calculation.  This number is generally large on file
      systems that contain many large files, and is small on file systems
      that contain many small files.

      The figures under the heading "Free Extents By Size" indicate the
      totals for free extents of each size.  The totals are for free extents
      of size 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, ... up to a maximum of the number of data
      blocks in an allocation unit.  The totals are similar to the output of
      the df -o command unless there was recent allocation or deallocation
      activity (because fsadm acts on mounted file systems).  These figures
      provide an indication of fragmentation and extent availability on a
      file system.

    Extent Reorganization
      If the -e option is specified, fsadm reorganizes the data extents on
      the file system whose mount point is mount_point. The primary goal of
      extent reorganization is to defragment the file system.

      To reduce fragmentation, extent reorganization tries to place all
      small files in one contiguous extent.  The -l option specifies the
      size of a file that is considered large.	The default is 64 blocks.
      Extent reorganization also tries to group large files into large
      extents of at least 64 blocks.  Extent reorganization can improve
      performance.  Small files can be read or written in one I/O operation.



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      Large files can approach raw-disk performance for sequential I/O
      operations.

      fsadm performs extent reorganization on all inodes on the file system.
      Each pass through the inodes will move the file system closer to
      optimal organization.

      fsadm reduces both file fragmentation and free extent fragmentation in
      each pass.  In older versions of VxFS, considerable effort was made to
      obtain an optimal file system layout.  In current versions, fsadm
      relies on VxFS kernel allocation mechanisms to reallocate files in a
      more favorable extent geometry.  At the same time, the kernel
      allocation mechanism is prevented from using blocks in areas of the
      free list that fsadm tries to make more contiguous.

      The command syntax to perform extent reorganization is

      fsadm -e [-E] [-v] [-s] [-l largesize] [-p passes] [-r rawdev] [-t
      time] mount_point

      The following example shows the output from the fsadm -F vxfs -e -s -E
      command:

      # fsadm -F vxfs -e -s -E /home

	Extent Fragmentation Report
	      Total    Average	    Average	Total
	      Files    File Blks    # Extents	Free Blks
	       9293	    115		  1	 149352
	  blocks used for indirects: 48
	  % Free blocks in extents smaller than 64 blks: 10.40
	  % Free blocks in extents smaller than	 8 blks: 0.56
	  % blks allocated to extents 64 blks or larger: 91.67
	  Free Extents By Size
		1:	 156		2:	 140		4:	 101
		8:	 292	       16:	 290	       32:	 241
	       64:	 155	      128:	  94	      256:	  43
	      512:	  33	     1024:	  20	     2048:	   1
	     4096:	   1	     8192:	   1	    16384:	   1
	    32768:	   1	    65536:	   0	   131072:	   0
	   262144:	   0	   524288:	   0	  1048576:	   0
	  2097152:	   0	  4194304:	   0	  8388608:	   0
	 16777216:	   0	 33554432:	   0	 67108864:	   0
	134217728:	   0	268435456:	   0	536870912:	   0
       1073741824:	   0   2147483648:	   0

       Pass 1 Statistics
		 Extents    Reallocations   Ioctls		Errors
		 Searched     Attempted	    Issued   FileBusy	NoSpace	  Total
       total	    12547	  287	      158	 0	    0	     0




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       Pass 2 Statistics
		 Extents    Reallocations   Ioctls		Errors
		 Searched     Attempted	    Issued   FileBusy	NoSpace	  Total
       total	    13157	  148	       72	 0	    0	     0

	Extent Fragmentation Report
	      Total    Average	    Average	Total
	      Files    File Blks    # Extents	Free Blks
	       9294	    123		  1	  70400
	  blocks used for indirects: 64
	  % Free blocks in extents smaller than 64 blks: 14.00
	  % Free blocks in extents smaller than	 8 blks: 0.70
	  % blks allocated to extents 64 blks or larger: 92.09
	  Free Extents By Size
		1:	 102		2:	  79		4:	  59
		8:	 192	       16:	 189	       32:	 150
	       64:	  64	      128:	  37	      256:	  22
	      512:	   2	     1024:	   4	     2048:	   4
	     4096:	   4	     8192:	   2	    16384:	   0
	    32768:	   0	    65536:	   0	   131072:	   0
	   262144:	   0	   524288:	   0	  1048576:	   0
	  2097152:	   0	  4194304:	   0	  8388608:	   0
	 16777216:	   0	 33554432:	   0	 67108864:	   0
	134217728:	   0	268435456:	   0	536870912:	   0
       1073741824:	   0   2147483648:	   0

      Note that the default five passes were scheduled, but the
      reorganization finished in two passes.

      This file system had a significant amount of free space although there
      were several free small extents.	The situation was corrected by
      reallocating one or more of the extents on many of the files.  The
      files selected for reallocation in this case are those with extents in
      the heavily fragmented section of the allocation units.  The time it
      takes to complete extent reorganization varies, depending on the
      degree of fragmentation, disk speed, and the number of inodes in the
      file system.  In general, extent reorganization takes approximately
      one minute for every 100 megabytes of disk space.

      In the preceding example, the column "Extents Searched" contains the
      total number of extents examined.	 The column "Reallocations
      Attempted" contains the total number of consolidations or merging of
      extents performed.  The column "Ioctls Issued" contains the total
      number of reorganization request calls made during the pass.  This
      corresponds closely to the number of files that are being operated on
      in that pass as most files can be reorganized with a single ioctl.
      (More than one extent may be consolidated in one operation.)

      The column "FileBusy" (located under the heading "Errors") shows the
      total number of reorganization requests that failed because the file
      was active during reorganization.	 The column "NoSpace" (located under



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 fsadm_vxfs(1M)						      fsadm_vxfs(1M)




      the heading "Errors") contains the total number of reorganization
      requests that failed because an extent presumed free was allocated
      during the reorganization.  The column "Total" (located under the
      heading "Errors") is the total number or errors encountered during the
      reorganization and may include errors that were not included with
      "FileBusy" or "NoSpace."

    Notes
      The online reorganization and online resize features of fsadm are
      available only with the HP OnLineJFS product.

 FILES
      lost+found/.fsadm	       lock file

      /dev/rdsk/*	       file system devices

 SEE ALSO
      fcntl(2), fsadm(1M), mkfs_vxfs(1M), mount_vxfs(1M), vxfsio(7),
      vxupgrade(1M).



































 Hewlett-Packard Company	   - 12 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000