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 automount(1M)						       automount(1M)
				   autofs



 NAME
      automount - install automatic mount points (autofs) or automatically
      mount NFS file systems; see "Remarks" below in SYNOPSIS.

 SYNOPSIS
      /usr/sbin/automount [-f master-file] [-t duration] [-v]

    Remarks
      This manpage contains two versions of automount.	The autofs version is
      presented first, followed by the previous automounter version.

      The /usr/sbin/automount script checks the AUTOFS variable in
      /etc/rc.config.d/nfsconf.	 If the AUTOFS variable is set to one, then
      /usr/lib/netsvc/fs/autofs/automount is executed.	The first half of
      this manpage represents the autofs automount.

      If the AUTOFS variable is set to 0 (zero) or does not exist in
      /etc/rc.config.d/nfsconf, then the automount daemon is executed in
      /usr/lib/netsvc/fs/automount/automount.  The second half of this
      manpage represents the older automount.

      In future releases, only the autofs version of automount will be
      supported.

 DESCRIPTION
      automount is a command that installs autofs mount points and
      associates an automount map with each mount point.  The autofs
      filesystem monitors attempts to access directories within it and
      notifies the automountd daemon (See automountd(1M)).  The daemon uses
      the map to locate a filesystem, which it then mounts at the point of
      reference within the autofs filesystem.  You can assign a map to an
      autofs mount using an entry in the /etc/auto_master map or a direct
      map.

      If the file system is not accessed within an appropriate interval
      (five minutes by default), the automountd daemon unmounts the file
      system.

      The file /etc/auto_master determines the locations of all autofs mount
      points.  By default, this file contains the following entry:

	   # Master map for automounter
	   #
	   /net	     -hosts	    -soft

      The first field in the master file specifies a directory on which an
      autofs mount will be made, and the second field specifies the
      automounter map to be associated with it.	 Mount options may be
      supplied as an optional third field in the entry.	 These options are
      used for any entries in the map that do not specify mount options
      explicitly.  The automount command is usually run without arguments.



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 automount(1M)						       automount(1M)
				   autofs



      It compares the entries /etc/auto_master with the current list of
      autofs mounts in /etc/mnttab and adds, removes or updates autofs
      mounts to bring the /etc/mnttab up to date with the /etc/auto_master.
      At boot time it installs all autofs mounts from the master map.
      Subsequently, it may be run to install autofs mounts for new entries
      in the master map or a direct map, or to perform unmounts for entries
      that have been removed.

      The automounter maps, including the auto_master map, may be
      distributed by NIS or NIS+.  The Name Service Switch configuration
      file, /etc/nsswitch.conf, determines where the automount command will
      look for the maps.

    Options
      -f master-file Specify a local master file for initialization.

		     When the -f option is used and the master file
		     specified is not found, then automount defaults to
		     /etc/auto_master and then to the NIS auto_master map.

      -t duration    Specify a duration, in seconds, that a file system is
		     to remain mounted when not in use.	 The default is 5
		     minutes.

      -v	     Verbose mode.  Notify of autofs mounts, unmounts or
		     other non-essential information.  Messages are written
		     to stderr.

    Map Entry Format
      A simple map entry (mapping) takes the form:

	   key [ -mount-options ] location...

      where key is the full pathname of the directory to mount when used in
      a direct map, or the simple name of a subdirectory in an indirect map.
      mount-options is a comma-separated list of mount options, and location
      specifies a file system from which the directory may be mounted.	In
      the case of a simple NFS mount, location takes the form:

	   host:pathname

      host is the name of the host from which to mount the file system (it
      may be omitted if the pathname refers to a local device on which the
      filesystem resides) and pathname is the pathname of the directory to
      mount.

      Default mount options can be assigned to an entire map when specified
      as an optional third field in the master map.  These options apply
      only to map entries that have no mount options.





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 automount(1M)						       automount(1M)
				   autofs



    Replicated Filesystems
      Multiple location fields can be specified for replicated NFS
      filesystems, in which case automount chooses a server with preference
      given to a server on the local subnet or net.

      If each location in the list shares the same pathname then a single
      location may be used with a comma-separated list of hostnames:

	   hostname,hostname...:pathname

      The multiple location feature for NFS mounts allows the automountd
      daemon to choose the most appropriate server at mount time.  While
      such a mount is in effect, the daemon does not monitor the status of
      the server.  If the server crashes, automountd will not select an
      alternative server from the list.

      Requests for a server may be weighted, with the weighting factor
      appended to the server name as an integer in parentheses.	 Servers
      without a weighting are assumed to have a value of zero (most likely
      to be selected).	Progressively higher values decrease the chance of
      being selected.  In the example,

	   man -ro alpha,bravo,charlie(1),delta(4):/usr/share/man

      hosts alpha and bravo have the highest priority; host delta, has the
      lowest priority.

      NOTE: Server proximity takes priority in the selection process.  In
      the example above, if the server delta is on the same network segment
      as the client, but the others are on different network segments, then
      delta will be selected - the weighting value is ignored.	The
      weighting has effect only when selecting between servers with the same
      network proximity.

      In cases where each server has a different export point, you can still
      apply the weighting.  For example:

	   man -ro alpha:/usr/man  bravo,charlie(1):/usr/share/man
	     delta(3):/export/man

      A mapping can be continued across input lines by escaping the NEWLINE
      with a `\' (backslash).  Comments begin with a '#' (number sign) and
      end at the subsequent NEWLINE.

    Map Key Substitution
      The '&' (ampersand) character is expanded to the value of the key
      field for the entry in which it occurs.  In this case:

	   amy	rowboatserver:/home/&&amp&amp&





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 automount(1M)						       automount(1M)
				   autofs



      the &&amp&amp& expands to amy.

    Wildcard Key
      The '*' (asterisk) character, when supplied as the key field, is
      recognized as the catch-all entry.  Such an entry will match any key
      not previously matched.  For instance, if the following entry appeared
      in the indirect map for /config:

	   *	&&amp&amp&:/export/config/&&amp&amp&

      this would allow automatic mounts in /config of any remote file system
      whose location could be specified as:

	   hostname:/export/config/hostname

    Variable Substitution
      Client specific variables can be used within an automount map.  For
      instance, if $HOST appeared within a map, automount would expand it to
      its current value for the client's host name. Supported variables are:

      HOST	The output of uname -n.	 The host name. For example
		"rowboat"

      OSNAME	The output of uname -s.	 The OS name. For example "HP-UX"

      OSREL	The output of uname -r.	 The OS release name.  For example
		"B.11.0"

      OSVERS	The output of uname -v.	 The OS version. For example "C"

      If a reference needs to be protected from affixed characters, you can
      surround the variable name with '{}' (curly braces).

    Multiple Mounts
      A multiple mount entry takes the form:

	   key [-mount-options] [[mountpoint] [-mount-options]
	   location...]...

      The initial /[mountpoint] is optional for the first mount and
      mandatory for all subsequent mounts.  The optional mountpoint is taken
      as a pathname relative to the directory named by key.  If mountpoint
      is omitted in the first occurrence, a mountpoint of / (root) is
      implied.

      Given an entry in the indirect map for /src:

	   beta -ro
		/	  svr1,svr2:/export/src/beta
		/1.0	  svr1,svr2:/export/src/beta/1.0
		/1.0/man  svr1,svr2:/export/src/beta/1.0/man



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 automount(1M)						       automount(1M)
				   autofs



      automount would automatically mount /src/beta, /src/beta/1.0, and
      /src/beta/1.0/man, as needed, from either svr1 or svr2, whichever host
      is nearest and responds first.

      The autofs mount points must not be hierarchically related.  automount
      does not allow an autofs mount point to be created within another
      autofs mount.

    Other Filesystem Types
      The automounter assumes NFS mounts as a default filesystem type.
      Other filesystem types can be described using the fstype mount option.
      Other mount options specific to this filesystem type can be combined
      with the fstype option.  The location field must contain information
      specific to the filesystem type.	If the location field begins with a
      slash, a colon character must be prepended, for instance, to mount a
      CD filesystem:

	   cdrom     -fstype=hsfs,ro	 :/dev/sr0

      or to perform an autofs mount:

	   src	-fstype=autofs auto_src

      Mounts using CacheFS are most useful when applied to an entire map as
      map defaults (see cfsadmin(1M)).	The following entry in the master
      map describes cached home directory mounts.  It assumes the default
      location of the cache directory, /cache.

	   /home     auto_home -fstype=cachefs,backfstype=nfs

    Indirect Maps
      An indirect map allows you to specify mappings for the subdirectories
      you wish to mount under the directory indicated in the
      /etc/auto_master map or on the command line.  In an indirect map, each
      key consists of a simple name that refers to the subdirectory where
      one or more filesystems that are to be mounted as needed.

      Entries in both direct and indirect maps can be modified at any time.
      The new information is used when automountd next uses the map entry to
      do a mount.

    Direct Maps
      Entries in a direct map are associated directly with autofs mount
      points.  Each key is the full pathname of an autofs mount point.	The
      direct map as a whole is not associated with any single directory.

      Since each direct map entry results in a new autofs mount, such maps
      should be kept short.

      If a directory contains direct map mount points, then an ls -l in the
      directory will force all the direct map mounts to occur.



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 automount(1M)						       automount(1M)
				   autofs



      Entries in both direct and indirect maps can be modified at any time.
      The new information is used when automountd next uses the map entry to
      do a mount.

      New entries added to a master map or direct map will not be useful
      until the automount command is run to install them as new autofs mount
      points.  New entries added to an indirect map may be used immediately.

      An autofs directory associated with an indirect map shows only
      currently-mounted entries.  This is a deliberate policy to avoid
      inadvertent mounting of every entry in a map via an ls -l of the
      directory.

    Included Maps
      The contents of another map can be included within a map with an entry
      of the form:

	   +mapname

      If mapname begins with a slash then it is assumed to be the pathname
      of a local file.	Otherwise the location of the map is determined by
      the policy of the name service switch according to the entry for the
      automounter in /etc/nsswitch.conf, such as

	   automount: nis files

      If the name service is files then the name is assumed to be that of a
      local file in /etc.  If the key being searched for is not found in the
      included map, the search continues with the next entry.

    Special Maps
      There are two special maps available: -hosts and -null.  The -hosts
      map is used with the /net directory and assumes that the map key is
      the hostname of an NFS server.  The automountd daemon dynamically
      constructs a map entry from the server's list of exported filesystems.
      For instance, a reference to /net/hermes/usr would initiate an
      automatic mount of all exported file systems from hermes that are
      mountable by the client.	References to a directory under /net/hermes
      will refer to the corresponding directory relative to hermes root.

      The -hosts map must mount all of the exported NFS filesystems from a
      server.  If frequent access to just a single filesystem is required,
      it is more efficient to access the filesystem with a map entry that is
      tailored to mount just the filesystem of interest.

      The -null map, when indicated on the command line, cancels a previous
      map for the directory indicated.	This is most useful in the
      /etc/auto_master map for cancelling entries that would otherwise be
      inherited from the +auto_master include entry. To be effective, the
      -null entries must be inserted before the included map entry.




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 automount(1M)						       automount(1M)
				   autofs



    Executable Maps
      Local maps that have the execute bit set in their file permissions
      will be executed by the automounter and provided with a key to be
      looked up as an argument.	 The executable map is expected to return
      the content of an automounter map entry on its stdout or no output if
      the entry cannot be determined.

    Configuration and the auto_master Map
      When initiated without arguments, automount consults the master map
      for a list of autofs mount points and their maps.	 It mounts any
      autofs mounts that are not already mounted, and unmounts autofs mounts
      that have been removed from the master map or direct map.

      The master map is assumed to be called auto_master and its location is
      determined by the name service switch policy.  Normally the master map
      is located initially as a local file, /etc/auto_master.

    Network Information Service (NIS) and Yellow Pages (YP)
      The Network Information Service (NIS) was formerly known as Sun Yellow
      Pages (YP).  The functionality of the two remains the same.

 EXIT STATUS
      automount returns:

	   0 successful

	   1 failure

	   3 map not found

 AUTHOR
      automount was developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc.

 FILES
      /etc/auto_master		    master automount map.

      /etc/nsswitch.conf	    name service switch configuration file.

      /usr/lib/netsvc/fs/autofs/automount
				    autofs automount command.

      /usr/sbin/automount	    previous automounter automount command.

 SEE ALSO
      automountd(1M), cfsadmin(1M), mount(1M).









				    - 7 -	  Formatted:  August 2, 2006






 automount(1M)						       automount(1M)
				 automounter



 NAME
      automount - automatically mount NFS file systems.	 This manpage
      contains two versions of automount.  See "Remarks" below in SYNOPSIS.

 SYNOPSIS
      automount [-nTv] [-D name = value] [-f master-file] [-M mount-
      directory] [-tl duration] [-tm interval] [-tw interval] [directory map
      [-mount-options] ] ...

    Remarks
      This manpage contains two versions of automount.	The autofs version is
      presented first, followed by the previous automounter version.

      The /usr/sbin/automount script checks the AUTOFS variable in
      /etc/rc.config.d/nfsconf.	 If the AUTOFS variable is set to one, then
      /usr/lib/netsvc/fs/autofs/automount is executed.	The first half of
      this manpage represents the autofs automount.

      If the AUTOFS variable is set to 0 (zero) or does not exist in
      /etc/rc.config.d/nfsconf, then the automount daemon is executed in
      /usr/lib/netsvc/fs/automount/automount.  The second half of this
      manpage represents the older automount.

      In future releases, only the autofs version of automount will be
      supported.

 DESCRIPTION
      automount is a daemon that automatically and transparently mounts NFS
      file systems as needed.  It monitors attempts to access directories
      that are associated with an automount map, along with any directories
      or files that reside under them.	When a file is to be accessed, the
      daemon mounts the appropriate NFS file system.  Maps can be assigned
      to a directory by using an entry in a direct automount map, or by
      specifying an indirect map on the command line.

      automount interacts with the kernel in a manner closely resembling an
      NFS server:

	   +  automount uses the map to locate an appropriate NFS file
	      server, exported file system, and mount options.

	   +  It then mounts the file system in a temporary location, and
	      replaces the file system entry for the directory or
	      subdirectory with a symbolic link to the temporary location.

	   +  If the file system is not accessed within an appropriate
	      interval (five minutes by default), the daemon unmounts the
	      file system and removes the symbolic link.

	   +  If the specified directory has not already been created, the
	      daemon creates it, and then removes it upon exiting.



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 automount(1M)						       automount(1M)
				 automounter



      Since name-to-location binding is dynamic, updates to an automount map
      are transparent to the user.  This obviates the need to mount shared
      file systems prior to running applications that contain internally
      hard-coded references to files.

      If the dummy directory (/-) is specified, automount treats the map
      argument that follows as the name of a direct map.  In a direct map,
      each entry associates the full path name of a mount point with a
      remote file system to mount.

      If the directory argument is a path name, the map argument points to
      an indirect map.	An indirect map, contains a list of the
      subdirectories contained within the indicated directory.	With an
      indirect map, it is these subdirectories that are mounted
      automatically.

      A map can be a file or a NIS/NIS+ map; if a file, the map argument
      must be a full path name.

      The -mount-options argument, when supplied, is a comma-separated list
      of options to the mount command (see mount(1M)) preceded by a -.
      However, any conflicting mount options specified in the indicated map
      take precedence.

    Options
      automount recognizes the following options:

	   -m		  Option not supported.

	   -n		  Disable dynamic mounts.  With this option,
			  references through the automount daemon succeed
			  only when the target filesystem has been
			  previously mounted.  This can be used to prevent
			  NFS servers from cross-mounting each other.

	   -T		  Trace.  Expand each NFS call and log it in
			  /var/adm/automount.log file.

	   -v		  Verbose.  Log status messages to the system log
			  file (see syslogd(1M)).

	   -D envar = value
			  Assign value to the indicated automount
			  (environment) variable envar.

	   -f master-file Read the local master_file before reading
			  auto_master map.

	   -M mount-directory
			  Mount temporary file systems in the named
			  directory instead of in /tmp_mnt.



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 automount(1M)						       automount(1M)
				 automounter



	   -tl duration	  Specify a duration (in seconds) that a file system
			  is to remain mounted when not in use.	 The default
			  is 5 minutes.

	   -tm interval	  Specify an interval (in seconds) between attempts
			  to mount a filesystem.  The default is 30 seconds.

	   -tw interval	  Specify an interval (in seconds) between attempts
			  to unmount filesystems that have exceeded their
			  cached times.	 The default is 1 minute.

    Map Entry Format
      A simple map entry (mapping) takes the form:

	   directory [-mount-options] location ...

      where directory is the full path name of the directory to mount, when
      used in a direct map, or the basename of a subdirectory in an indirect
      map.  mount-options is a comma-separated list of mount options, and
      location specifies a remote filesystem from which the directory may be
      mounted.	In the simple case, location takes the form:

	   host:pathname

      Multiple location fields can be specified, in which case automount
      pings all servers in the list and then selects the first host that
      responds to serve that mount point.

      If location is specified in the form:

	   host:path:subdir

      host is the name of the host from which to mount the file system, path
      is the path name of the directory to mount, and subdir, when supplied,
      is the name of a subdirectory to which the symbolic link is made.
      This can be used to prevent duplicate mounts when multiple directories
      in the same remote file system might be accessed.	 Assume a map for
      /home resembling:

	   mike	       hpserver1:/home/hpserver1:mike
	   dianna      hpserver1:/home/hpserver1:dianna

      Attempting to access a file in /home/mike causes automount to mount
      hpserver1:/home/hpserver1 and creates a symbolic link called
      /home/mike to the mike subdirectory in the temporarily-mounted
      filesystem.  A subsequent file access request in /home/dianna results
      in automount simply creating a symbolic link that points to the dianna
      subdirectory because /home/hpserver1 is already mounted.	Given the
      map:





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 automount(1M)						       automount(1M)
				 automounter



	   mike	       hpserver1:/home/hpserver1/mike
	   dianna      hpserver1:/home/hpserver1/dianna

      automount would have to mount the filesystem twice.

      A mapping can be continued across input lines by escaping the newline
      character with a backslash (\).  Comments begin with a # and end at
      the subsequent newline character.

    Directory Pattern Matching
      The &&amp&amp& character is expanded to the value of the directory field for
      the entry in which it occurs.  Given an entry of the form:

	   mike	       hpserver1:/home/hpserver1:&&amp&amp&

      the &&amp&amp& expands to mike.

      The * character, when supplied as the directory field, is recognized
      as the catch-all entry.  Such an entry resolves to any entry not
      previously matched.  For example, if the following entry appeared in
      the indirect map for /home:

	   *   &&amp&amp&:/home/&&amp&amp&

      this would allow automatic mounts in /home of any remote file system
      whose location could be specified as:

	   hostname :/home hostname

    Hierarchical Mappings
      A hierarchical mapping takes the form:

	   directory[/[subdirectory][-mount-options] location ...] ...

      The initial / within the /[subdirectory] is required; the optional
      subdirectory is taken as a file name relative to the directory.  If
      subdirectory is omitted in the first occurrence, the / refers to the
      directory itself.

      Given the direct map entry:

	   /usr/local	\
	       /     -ro,intr	shasta:/usr/local	ranier:/usr/local     \
	       /bin  -ro,intr	ranier:/usr/local/bin	shasta:/usr/local/bin \
	       /man  -ro,intr	shasta:/usr/local/man	ranier:/usr/local/man

      automount automatically mounts /usr/local, /usr/local/bin, and
      /usr/local/man, as needed, from either shasta or ranier, whichever
      host responded first.





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 automount(1M)						       automount(1M)
				 automounter



    Direct Maps
      A direct map contains mappings for any number of directories.  Each
      directory listed in the map is automatically mounted as needed.  The
      direct map as a whole is not associated with any single directory.

    Indirect Maps
      An indirect map allows specifying mappings for the subdirectories to
      be mounted under the directory indicated on the command line.  It also
      obscures local subdirectories for which no mapping is specified.	In
      an indirect map, each directory field consists of the basename of a
      subdirectory to be mounted as needed.

    Included Maps
      The contents of another map can be included within a map with an entry
      of the form:

	   +mapname

      mapname can either be a file name, or the name of an NIS/NIS+ map, or
      one of the special maps described below.	If mapname begins with a
      slash then it is assumed to be the pathname of a local file.
      Otherwise the location of the map is determined by the policy of the
      name service switch according to the entry for the automounter in
      /etc/nsswitch.conf, such as

	   automount: nis files

      If the name service is files then the name is assumed to be that of a
      local file in /etc.  If the key being searched for is not found in the
      included map, the search continues with the next entry.

    Special Maps
      Three special maps, -hosts, -passwd, and -null, are currently
      available: The -hosts map uses the gethostbyname() map to locate a
      remote host when the hostname is specified (see gethostent(3N)).	This
      map specifies mounts of all exported file systems from any host.	For
      example, if the following automount command is already in effect:

	   automount /net -hosts

      a reference to /net/hermes/usr initiates an automatic mount of all
      file systems from hermes that automount can mount, and any subsequent
      references to a directory under /net/hermes refer to the corresponding
      directory on hermes.  The -passwd map uses the passwd(4) database to
      attempt to locate a user's home directory.  For example, if the
      following automount command is already in effect:

	   automount /homes -passwd

      if the home directory for a user has the form /dir/server/username,
      and server matches the host system on which that directory resides,



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 automount(1M)						       automount(1M)
				 automounter



      automount mounts the user's home directory as: /homes /username.

      For this map, the tilde character (~) is recognized as a synonym for
      username.

      The -null map, when indicated on the command line, cancels a previous
      map for the directory indicated.	It can be used to cancel a map given
      in auto_master.

    Configuration and the auto_master Map
      automount normally consults the auto_master configuration map for a
      list of initial automount maps, and sets up automatic mounts for them
      in addition to those given on the command line.  If there are
      duplications, the command-line arguments take precedence.	 This
      configuration database contains arguments to the automount command
      rather than mappings.

      Maps given on the command line, or those given in a local master file
      specified with -f override those in the auto_master map.	For example,
      given the command:

	    automount /homes /etc/auto.homes /- /etc/auto.direct

      and the master map file auto_master containing:

	   /homes -passwd

      automount mounts home directories using the /etc/auto.homes map
      instead of the special -passwd map in addition to the various
      directories specified in the /etc/auto.direct map.

 EXTERNAL INFLUENCES
    Environment Variables
      Environment variables can be used within an automount map.  For
      example, if $HOME appears within a map, automount expands it to the
      current value of the HOME environment variable.

      To protect a reference from affixed characters, surround the variable
      name with curly braces.  Environment variables cannot appear as the
      key entry in maps.

 WARNINGS
      Do not send the SIGKILL signal (kill -9, or kill -KILL) to the
      automount daemon.	 Doing so causes any processes accessing mount
      directories served by automount to hang.	A system reboot may be
      required to recover from this state.

      Do not start an automount daemon while another is still running.	If
      restarting automount, make sure the first daemon and all of its
      children are not running.




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 automount(1M)						       automount(1M)
				 automounter



      When automount receives signal SIGHUP, it rereads the /etc/mnttab file
      to update its internal record of currently mounted file systems.	If a
      file system mounted by automount is unmounted by a umount command,
      automount should be forced to reread the file by sending the SIGHUP
      signal (see kill(1)).

      Shell file name expansion does not apply to objects not currently
      mounted.

      Since automount is single-threaded, any request that is delayed by a
      slow or nonresponding NFS server delays all subsequent automatic mount
      requests until it completes.

      Programs that read /etc/mnttab and then touch files that reside under
      automatic mount points introduce further entries to the file.

      Automatically-mounted file systems are mounted with type ignore; they
      do not appear in the output of either mount or bdf (see mount(1M) and
      bdf(1M)).

 AUTHOR
      automount was developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc.

 FILES
      /tmp_mnt			    directory under which filesystems are
				    dynamically mounted
      /etc/mnttab		    mount table
      /etc/nsswitch.conf	    the name service switch configuration
				    file.

 SEE ALSO
      mount(1M), bdf(1M), passwd(4).






















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