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 od(1)								       od(1)




 NAME
      od, xd - octal and hexadecimal dump

 SYNOPSIS
      od [-v] [-A address_base] [-j skip] [-N count] [-t type_string] ...
	   [file ...]

      xd [-v] [-A address_base] [-j skip] [-N count] [-t type_string] ...
	   [file ...]

    Supported Pre-POSIX Usage
      od [-bcdosx] [file] [[+][0x]offset[.][b]]

      xd [-bcdosx] [file] [[+][0x]offset[.][b]]

 DESCRIPTION
      od and xd concatenate one or more input files and write their contents
      to standard output in a user-specified format.  If file is not
      specified, the standard input is used.

    Options and Arguments
      od and xd recognize the following options and command-line arguments:

	   -A address_base   Specify the input offset base.  address_base is
			     a single character that defines which format
			     the offset base is written in:

				  d    Decimal format.
				  o    Octal format.
				  x    Hexadecimal format.
				  n    Do not write the offset.

	   -j skip	     Jump over skip bytes from the beginning of the
			     input.  od seeks past the first skip bytes in
			     the concatenated input files.  If the combined
			     input is not at least skip bytes long, od
			     writes a diagnostic message to standard error
			     and exits with a non-zero exit status.  By
			     default, skip is interpreted as a decimal
			     number.  If skip has a leading 0x or 0X, it is
			     interpreted as a hexadecimal number; a leading
			     0 indicates that skip is an octal number.

			     If the value of skip is followed by a b, k, or
			     m, it is interpreted as a multiple of 512,
			     1024, or 1048576, respectively.

	   -N count	     Format no more than count bytes of input.

			     By default, count is interpreted as a decimal
			     number.  A leading 0x or 0X indicates that



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			     count is a hexadecimal number; a leading 0
			     identifies an octal value.

			     If count bytes of input are not available
			     (after successfully skipping if -jskip is
			     specified), the input that is available is
			     formatted.

	   -t type_string    type_string is a string defining the types to
			     be used when writing the input data.

			     The string can contain any of the following
			     type-specification characters:

				  a	  named character ,
				  c	  character ,
				  d	  signed decimal ,
				  f	  floating point ,
				  o	  octal ,
				  u	  unsigned decimal ,
				  x	  hexadecimal ,

			     Type specification characters d, f, o, u, and x
			     can be followed by an optional unsigned decimal
			     integer specifying the number of bytes to be
			     transformed by each instance of the output
			     type, or by an optional C, S, I, or L
			     indicating that the conversion should be
			     applied to an item of type char, short, int, or
			     long, respectively.

			     Type specification character f can be followed
			     by an optional F, D, or L indicating that the
			     conversion should be applied to an item of type
			     float, double, or long double, respectively.

			     Multiple types can be concatenated within the
			     same type_string and multiple -t options can be
			     specified.	 Output lines are written for each
			     type specified in the order in which the type
			     specification characters appear.

	   -v		     Write all input data.  Without the -v option,
			     any number of groups of output lines, that
			     would be identical to the immediately preceding
			     group of output lines (except for the byte
			     offsets), are replaced with a line containing
			     only an asterisk (*).

	   file		     Pathname of one or more input files to be
			     processed.	 If file is not specified, the



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 od(1)								       od(1)




			     standard input is used.

			     Input files can be any file type.

 DESCRIPTION OF PRE-POSIX USAGE
      od and xd dump file in one or more formats as selected by the first
      argument.	 If the first argument is missing, the default is -o for od;
      -x for xd.  An offset field is inserted at the beginning of each line.
      For od, the offset is in octal, for xd, the offset is in hexadecimal.

    Options
      od and xd recognize the following format options:

	   -b	 Interpret bytes in octal (hexadecimal).

	   -c	 Interpret bytes in ASCII.  Certain non-graphic characters
		 appear as C escapes: null=\0, backspace=\b, form-feed=\f,
		 new-line=\n, return=\r, tab=\t; others appear as 3-digit
		 octal numbers.

	   -d	 Interpret 16-bit words in decimal.

	   -o	 Interpret 16-bit words in octal.

	   -s	 Interpret 16-bit words in signed decimal.

	   -x	 Interpret 16-bit words in hexadecimal.

      file specifies which file is to be dumped.  If file is not specified,
      the standard input is used.

      offset specifies the offset in the file where dumping is to commence,
      and is normally interpreted as octal bytes.  Interpretation can be
      altered as follows:

	   +	 offset must be preceded by + if the file argument is
		 omitted.
	   +	 offset preceded by 0x is interpreted in hexadecimal.
	   +	 offset followed by . is interpreted in decimal.
	   +	 offset followed by b is interpreted in blocks of 512 bytes.

      Dumping continues until end-of-file.

 EXAMPLES
      Write hexadecimal bytes and the corresponding octal values to the
      standard output in blocks of 16 bytes in one line, by transforming the
      data from the input file file1:

	   od -tx1oC file1





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 od(1)								       od(1)




      The following commands write one line each of the types character,
      signed decimal integer, and float, in the order given, transforming
      100 bytes of data starting from fifteenth byte offset in the file
      file1:

	   od -j14 -N100 -tc -tdfF file1
	   od -j0xe -N100 -tcd4fF file1

      Write one line each of the types unsigned integer, named character,
      and long double, with the offsets written in hexadecimal and forcing a
      write, even on lines that are identical to the immediately preceding
      group of output lines:

	   od -v -Ax -tuafL file1

 WARNINGS
      When the output format is of floating-point type; i.e., when using the
      -t fD, -t fL, or -t f options:

	   +  If the input bytes cannot be transformed into a valid floating
	      point number, a floating point exception might occur.  In that
	      case, the output is printed as a string containing some non-
	      numeric characters and program execution continues.

	   +  When the number of input bytes used for transformation is set
	      to 1 with the type specifier characters d, o, u, or x, only
	      the least-significant seven bits of each byte are used.

	   +  When one or more of the -A, -j, -N, or -t options is
	      specified, an operand starting with the first character as a
	      plus-sign (+) or the first character as numeric is interpreted
	      as a file name.

      (XPG4 only. Multiple types can be specified by using multiple -bcdox
      options. Output lines are written for each type specified in the order
      in which the types are specified.)

 EXTERNAL INFLUENCES
    Environment Variables
      LANG provides a default value for the internationalization variables
      that are unset or null. If LANG is unset or null, the default value of
      "C" (see lang(5)) is used. If any of the internationalization
      variables contains an invalid setting, od will behave as if all
      internationalization variables are set to "C".  See environ(5).

      LC_ALL If set to a non-empty string value, overrides the values of all
      the other internationalization variables.

      LC_CTYPE determines the interpretation of text as single and/or
      multi-byte characters, the classification of characters as printable,
      and the characters matched by character class expressions in regular



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 od(1)								       od(1)




      expressions.

      LC_MESSAGES determines the locale that should be used to affect the
      format and contents of diagnostic messages written to standard error
      and informative messages written to standard output.

      NLSPATH determines the location of message catalogues for the
      processing of LC_MESSAGES.

    International Code Set Support
      Single- and multi-byte character code sets are supported.	 Multi-byte
      data is displayed as multi-byte values.

 RETURN VALUE
      Exit values are:

       0   Successful completion.
      >&gt&gt>0   Error condition occurred.

 SEE ALSO
      adb(1).

 STANDARDS CONFORMANCE
      od: SVID2, SVID3, XPG2, XPG3, XPG4, POSIX.2






























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