uucp - Copies files from one system to another (UNIX-to-UNIX system copy)
uucp [-d | -f] [-g grade] [-cCjmr] [-n user] [-s file] [-x debug_level]
The uucp command copies one or more source files from one system to one or
more destination files on another system.
Interfaces documented on this reference page conform to industry standards
Refer to the standards(5) reference page for more information about indus-
try standards and associated tags.
-c Transfers the source files to the destination on the specified com-
puter. The source files are not copied into the spool directory for
transfer. This saves the system from copying possibly large files to
the spooling directory for transfer. (See the discussion of the -C
-C Copies local files to the spool directory for transfer. Depending on
the configuration of the Poll and Systems files, and on how often the
uusched command is run, the files could be transferred immediately (on
demand polling), or in the future. This option is on by default.
Occasionally, there are problems in transferring a source file; for
example, the remote computer might not be working or the login attempt
might fail. In such a case, the file remains in the spool directory
until it is transferred successfully or removed by the uucleanup com-
-d Creates any intermediate directories needed to copy the source files to
the destination. Instead of first creating a directory and then copying
files to it, the uucp command can be entered with the destination path-
name, and the required directory will be created. This option is on by
-f Suppresses creation of intermediate directories during the file
[Tru64 UNIX] Specifies when the files are to be transmitted during a
particular connection. The grade is a single number (0-9) or ASCII
letter (A-Z, a-z); lowercase ASCII-sequence characters cause the files
to be transmitted earlier than do higher sequence characters. The
number 0 is the highest (earliest) grade; z is the lowest (latest)
grade. The default is N.
-j Displays the job identification number of the transfer operation on
standard output. This job ID can be used by the uustat command to
obtain the status of information about the status of a particular job,
or with uustat -k to terminate the transfer before it is completed.
-m Sends mail to the requester when the transfer to the remote system is
completed. The message is sent to the requester's mailbox, using the
mailx command. No mail is sent for a local transfer.
The -m option works only when sending files or receiving a single file.
It does not work when forwarding files. Receiving multiple files
specified by the shell pattern-matching characters ?, *, and [...] does
not activate the -m option.
Notifies the user specified by user on the designated system that files
were sent. The mail system does not send a message for a local
transfer. Usernames can contain only ASCII characters.
-r Prevents the starting of the file transfer program, uucico, even if the
command was issued at a time when calls to the remote system are per-
mitted. By default, a call to the remote system is attempted if the
command is issued during a time period specified in the Poll and Sys-
[Tru64 UNIX] Reports the status of the transfer to the specified
file. In this case, the file designation must be a full pathname.
[Tru64 UNIX] Displays debugging information on the screen of the
user's terminal. The debug_level is a number between 0 and 9. The
higher number gives a more detailed report.
The uucp command can copy files within a local system, between a local and
a remote system, and between two remote systems.
The uucp command accomplishes the file transfer in two steps: first, by
creating a command (C.*) file in the spooling directory on the local com-
puter, and then by sending the request to the specified computer using the
Command files include information such as the full pathname of the source
and destination files, and the sender's login name. The full pathname of a
command file is a form of the following:
where N is the grade of the request and nnnn is the hexadecimal sequence
If the uucp command is used with the -C option to copy the files to the
spool directory for transfer, uucp creates not only a command file, but
also a data (D.*) file that contains the actual source file. The full
pathname of a data file is a form of the following:
where nnnn is a hexadecimal sequence number and ppp is a subjob ID.
Once the command files (and data files, if necessary) are created, uucp
calls the uucico daemon, which in turn attempts to contact the remote com-
puter to deliver the files.
It is useful to issue the uuname command to determine the exact name of the
remote system before issuing uucp. The uulog command provides information
about uucp activities on a system.
Pathnames for the source and destination of the uucp transfer can contain
only ASCII characters and can be one of the following:
+ A full pathname
+ A relative pathname
+ A pathname preceded by ~user, where user is a login name on the speci-
fied system. The specified user's login directory is then considered
the destination of the transfer. If the user specifies an invalid
login name, the files are transferred to the public directory
/var/spool/uucppublic, which is the default.
+ A pathname preceded by ~/destination, where destination is appended to
This destination is treated as a filename unless more than one file is
being transferred by this request, or the destination is a directory.
To ensure that it is a directory, follow the destination name with a /
(slash). For example, ~/amy/ as the destination creates the directory
/var/spool/uucppublic/amy, if it does not already exist, and puts the
requested files in that directory.
Source and Destination Filenames
A filename can be a pathname on the local system, or can have the following
where system is taken from a list of system names that uucp knows about.
The destination system name (destination) can also be a list of names, such
as the following:
In this case, an attempt is made to send the file along the specified route
to the destination. Make sure that intermediate nodes in this route are
willing to forward information and that they actually talk to the next sys-
The shell pattern-matching characters ?, *, and [...] can be used in the
pathname of the source file; the appropriate system expands them. However,
shell pattern-matching characters cannot be used in the pathname of the
If the destination is a directory rather than a file, uucp uses the last
part of the source name.
The system administrator should restrict the access to local files by users
on other systems.
When transmitting files, uucp preserves execute permissions and grants read
and write permissions to the owner, the group, and all others. (The uucp
command owns the file.)
Sending files to arbitrary destination pathnames on other systems, or get-
ting files from arbitrary source pathnames on other systems, often fails
because of security restrictions. The files specified in the pathname must
give read or write permission not only for the same group of users, but
also for any group.
Protected files and files in protected directories owned by the requester
can be sent by uucp.
1. To copy file f1 from the local system to a remote system named hera,
uucp /u/geo/f1 hera!/u/geo/f1
2. To copy file f2 from the remote system hera and place it in the public
uucp hera!geo/f2 /var/spool/uucppublic/f2
3. To place the f2 file in a directory other than the public directory,
uucp hera!geo/f2 /u/geo/f2
In this case, make sure that the geo login directory allows write per-
mission to other users and other groups; for example, with mode 777.
The following environment variables affect the execution of uucp:
[Tru64 UNIX] Specifies the flow control used on the connection. Per-
mitted values are: HW (hardware), SW (software), HSW (hardware and
software), and NONE. The uugetty on the remote system must also use the
same flow control.
Provides a default value for the internationalization variables that
are unset or null. If LANG is unset or null, the corresponding value
from the default locale is used. If any of the internationalization
variables contains an invalid setting, the utility behaves as if none
of the variables had been defined.
If set to a non-empty string value, overrides the values of all the
other internationalization variables.
Determines the locale for the behavior of ranges, equivalence classes,
and multicharacter colating elements within bracketed file name pat-
Determines the locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of
text data as characters (for example, single-byte as opposed to
multibyte characters in arguments and input files) and the behavior of
character classes within bracketed file name patterns (for example,
Determines the locale that should be used to affect the format and
contents of diagnostic messages written to standard error.
Determines the format of date and time strings output by uucp.
Determines the location of message catalogues for the processing of
TZ Determines the time zone used with date and time strings.
[Tru64 UNIX] Specifies the amount of time (in seconds) for uucico to
try to establish a connection before it times out. A value of 0 (zero)
indicates an unlimited amount of time.
Contains the uucico daemon.
Commands: ct(1), cu(1), mailx(1), rmail(1), tip(1), uucico(8),
uucleanup(8), uuencode(1), uulog(1), uuname(1), uupick(1), uusched(8),
uusend(1), uustat(1), uuto(1), uux(1), uuxqt(1)