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 tr(1)								       tr(1)

      tr - translate characters

      tr [-Acs] string1 string2

      tr -s [-Ac] string1

      tr -d [-Ac] string1

      tr -ds [-Ac] string1 string1

      tr copies the standard input to the standard output with substitution
      or deletion of selected characters.  Input characters from string1 are
      replaced with the corresponding characters in string2.  If necessary,
      string1 and string2 can be quoted to avoid pattern matching by the

      tr recognizes the following command line options:

	   -A		  Translates on a byte-by-byte basis. When this flag
			  is specified tr does not support extended

	   -c		  Complements the set of characters in string1,
			  which is the set of all characters in the current
			  character set, as defined by the current setting
			  of LC_CTYPE, except for those actually specified
			  in the string1 argument. These characters are
			  placed in the array in ascending collation
			  sequence, as defined by the current setting of

	   -d		  Deletes all occurrences of input characters or
			  collating elements found in the array specified in

			  If -c and -d are both specified, all characters
			  except those specified by string1 are deleted. The
			  contents of string2 are ignored, unless -s is also
			  specified. Note, however, that the same string
			  cannot be used for both the -d and the -s flags;
			  when both flags are specified, both string1 (used
			  for deletion) and string2 (used for squeezing) are

			  If -d is not specified, each input character or
			  collating element found in the array specified by
			  string1 is replaced by the character or collating
			  element in the same relative position specified by

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 tr(1)								       tr(1)


	   -s		  Replaces any character specified in string1 that
			  occurs as a string of two or more repeating
			  characters as a single instance of the character
			  in string2.

			  If the string2 contains a character class, the
			  argument's array contains all of the characters in
			  that character class. For example:

			  tr -s '[:space:]'

			  In a case conversion, however, the string2 array
			  contains only those characters defined as the
			  second characters in each of the toupper or
			  tolower character pairs, as appropriate. For

			  tr -s '[:upper:]' '[:lower:]'

      The following abbreviation conventions can be used to introduce ranges
      of characters, repeated characters or single-character collating
      elements into the strings:

	   c1-c2 or	  Stands for the range of collating elements c1
	   [c1-c2]	  through c2, inclusive, as defined by the current
			  setting of the LC_COLLATE locale category.

	   [:class:]or	  Stands for all the characters belonging to the
	   [[:class:]]	  defined character class, as defined by the current
			  setting of LC_CTYPE locale category. The following
			  character class names will be accepted when
			  specified in string1: alnum, alpha, blank, cntrl.
			  digit, graph, lower, print, punct, space, upper,
			  or xdigit, Character classes are expanded in
			  collation order.

			  When the -d and -s flags are specified together,
			  any of the character class names are accepted in
			  string2; otherwise, only character class names
			  lower or upper are accepted in string2 and then
			  only if the corresponding character class (upper
			  and lower, respectively) is specified in the same
			  relative position in string1.	 Such a
			  specification is interpreted as a request for case

			  When [:lower:] appears in string1 and [:upper:]
			  appears in string2, the arrays contain the
			  characters from the toupper mapping in the

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 tr(1)								       tr(1)

			  LC_CTYPE category of the current locale. When
			  [:upper:] appears in string1 and [:lower:] appears
			  in string2, the arrays contain the characters from
			  the tolower mapping in the LC_CTYPE category of
			  the current locale.

	   [=c=]or	  Stands for all the characters or collating
	   [[=c=]]	  elements belonging to the same equivalence class
			  as c, as defined by the current setting of
			  LC_COLLATE locale category. An equivalence class
			  expression is allowed only in string1, or in
			  string2 when it is being used by the combined -d
			  and -s options.

	   [a*n]	  Stands for n repetitions of a.  If the first digit
			  of n is 0, n is considered octal; otherwise, n is
			  treated as a decimal value.  A zero or missing n
			  is interpreted as large enough to extend string2-
			  based sequence to the length of the string1-based

      The escape character \ can be used as in the shell to remove special
      meaning from any character in a string.  In addition, \ followed by 1,
      2, or 3 octal digits represents the character whose ASCII code is
      given by those digits.

      An ASCII NUL character in string1 or string2 can be represented only
      as an escaped character; i.e. as \000, but is treated like other
      characters and translated correctly if so specified.  NUL characters
      in the input are not stripped out unless the option -d "\000" is

    Environment Variables
      LANG provides a default value for the internationalization variables
      that are unset or null. If LANG is unset or null, the default value of
      "C" (see lang(5)) is used. If any of the internationalization
      variables contains an invalid setting, tr will behave as if all
      internationalization variables are set to "C".  See environ(5).

      LC_ALL If set to a non-empty string value, overrides the values of all
      the other internationalization variables.

      LC_CTYPE determines the interpretation of text as single and/or
      multi-byte characters, the classification of characters as printable,
      and the characters matched by character class expressions in regular

      LC_MESSAGES determines the locale that should be used to affect the
      format and contents of diagnostic messages written to standard error
      and informative messages written to standard output.

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 tr(1)								       tr(1)

      NLSPATH determines the location of message catalogues for the
      processing of LC_MESSAGES.

      tr exits with one of the following values:

	    0	All input was processed successfully.

	   >&gt&gt>0	An error occurred.

      For the ASCII character set and default collation sequence, create a
      list of all the words in file1, one per line in file2, where a word is
      taken to be a maximal string of alphabetics.  Quote the strings to
      protect the special characters from interpretation by the shell (012
      is the ASCII code for a new-line (line feed) character):

	   tr -cs "[A-Z][a-z]" "[\012*]" <&lt&lt&lt;file1 >&gt&gt&gt;file2

      Same as above, but for all character sets and collation sequences:

	   tr -cs "[:alpha:]" "[\012*]" <&lt&lt&lt;file1 >&gt&gt&gt;file2

      Translate all lower case characters in file1 to upper case and write
      the result to standard output.

	   tr "[:lower:]" "[:upper:]" <&lt&lt&lt;file1

      Use an equivalence class to identify accented variants of the base
      character e in file1, strip them of diacritical marks and write the
      result to file2:

	   tr "[=e=]" "[e*]" <&lt&lt&lt;file1 >&gt&gt&gt;file2

      Translate each digit in file1 to a # (number sign), and write the
      result to file2.

	   tr "0-9" "[#*]" <&lt&lt&lt;file1 >&gt&gt&gt;file2

      The * (asterisk) tells tr to repeat the # (number sign) enough times
      to make the second string as long as the first one.

      tr was developed by OSF and HP.

      ed(1), sh(1), ascii(5), environ(5), lang(5), regexp(5).

      tr: SVID2, SVID3, XPG2, XPG3, XPG4, POSIX.2

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