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TIP(1C)                                                                TIP(1C)



NAME
       tip - connect to remote system

SYNOPSIS
       tip [ -v ] [ -speed-entry ] hostname | phone-number

DESCRIPTION
       tip  establishes  a  full-duplex  terminal connection to a remote host.
       Once the connection is established, a remote session using tip  behaves
       like an interactive session on a local terminal.

       The  remote  file  (described  in  the  remote(5) manual page) contains
       entries describing remote systems and line speeds used by tip.

       Each host has a default baud rate for the connection, or you can  spec-
       ify a speed with the -speed-entry command line argument.

       When  phone-number  is  specified, tip looks for an entry in the remote
       file of the form:

               tip -speed-entry

       When it finds such an entry, it sets the connection speed  accordingly.
       If  it finds no such entry, tip interprets -speed-entry as if it were a
       system name, resulting in an error message.

       If you omit -speed-entry, tip uses the tip0 entry to set  a  speed  for
       the connection.

       When  establishing the connection tip sends a connection message to the
       remote system.  The default value for this message can be found in  the
       remote file.

       When  tip  attempts to connect to a remote system, it opens the associ-
       ated device with an exclusive-open ioctl(2) call.  Thus only  one  user
       at  a  time may access a device.  This is to prevent multiple processes
       from sampling the terminal line.  In addition, tip honors  the  locking
       protocol used by uucp(1C).

       When  tip starts up it reads commands from the file .tiprc in your home
       directory.

OPTIONS
       -v     Display commands from the .tiprc file as they are executed.

USAGE
       Typed characters  are  normally  transmitted  directly  to  the  remote
       machine (which does the echoing as well).

       At any time that tip prompts for an argument (for example, during setup
       of a file transfer) the line typed may  be  edited  with  the  standard
       erase  and kill characters.  A null line in response to a prompt, or an
       interrupt, aborts the dialogue and returns you to the remote machine.

   Commands
       A tilde (~) appearing as the first character of a  line  is  an  escape
       signal  which  directs  tip to perform some special action.  tip recog-
       nizes the following escape sequences:

       ~^D
       ~.     Drop the connection and exit (you may still be logged in on  the
              remote machine).

       ~c [name]
              Change  directory  to  name  (no argument implies change to your
              home directory).

       ~!     Escape to an interactive shell on the local machine (exiting the
              shell returns you to tip).

       ~>>     Copy file from local to remote.

       ~<&lt;     Copy file from remote to local.

       ~p from [ to ]
              Send  a file to a remote host running the UNIX system.  When you
              use the put command, the remote system runs the command string

                     cat >&gt; to

              while tip sends it the from file.  If the to file is not  speci-
              fied,  the  from  file name is used.  This command is actually a
              UNIX-system-specific version of the `~>&gt;' command.

       ~t from [ to ]
              Take a file from a remote host running the UNIX system.   As  in
              the put command the to file defaults to the from file name if it
              is not specified.  The remote host executes the command string

                     cat from;  echo ^A

              to send the file to tip.

       ~|     Pipe the output from a remote command to a local  process.   The
              command  string  sent  to  the  local system is processed by the
              shell.

       ~C     Connect a program to the remote  machine.   The  command  string
              sent  to  the  program  is  processed by the shell.  The program
              inherits file descriptors 0 as remote line input,  1  as  remote
              line output, and 2 as tty standard error.

       ~$     Pipe  the  output  from a local process to the remote host.  The
              command string sent to the local  system  is  processed  by  the
              shell.

       ~#     Send a BREAK to the remote system.

       ~s     Set a variable (see the discussion below).

       ~^Z    Stop  tip  (only  available when run under a shell that supports
              job control, such as the C shell).

       ~^Y    Stop only the "local side" of tip (only available when run under
              a  shell  that  supports  job control, such as the C shell); the
              "remote side" of tip, the side that  displays  output  from  the
              remote host, is left running.

       ~?     Get a summary of the tilde escapes.

       Copying files requires some cooperation on the part of the remote host.
       When a ~>&gt; or ~<&lt; escape is used to send a file, tip prompts for  a  file
       name  (to  be  transmitted or received) and a command to be sent to the
       remote system, in case the file is being transferred  from  the  remote
       system.  The default end of transmission string for transferring a file
       from the local system to the remote is specified as the  oe  capability
       in  the  remote(5)  file, but may be changed by the set command.  While
       tip is transferring a file the number of lines transferred will be con-
       tinuously  displayed on the screen. A file transfer may be aborted with
       an interrupt.

AUTO-CALL UNITS
       tip may be used to dial up remote systems using a number  of  auto-call
       unit's  (ACU's).   When  the  remote system description contains the du
       capability, tip uses the call-unit (cu), ACU type (at), and phone  num-
       bers  (pn)  supplied.   Normally  tip  displays  verbose messages as it
       dials.  See remote(5) for details of the remote host specification.

       Depending on the type of auto-dialer being used to establish a  connec-
       tion  the  remote host may have garbage characters sent to it upon con-
       nection.  The user should never assume that the first characters  typed
       to  the  foreign  host  are the first ones presented to it.  The recom-
       mended practice is to immediately type a kill character upon establish-
       ing  a  connection (most UNIX systems either support @ or CTRL-U as the
       initial kill character).

       tip currently supports the Ventel MD-212+ modem and DC Hayes-compatible
       modems.

REMOTE HOST DESCRIPTIONS
       Descriptions  of  remote  hosts are normally located in the system-wide
       file /etc/remote.  However, a user may  maintain  personal  description
       files  (and  phone  numbers) by defining and exporting the REMOTE shell
       variable.  The remote file must be readable by  tip,  but  a  secondary
       file  describing  phone  numbers may be maintained readable only by the
       user.  This secondary phone number  file  is  /etc/phones,  unless  the
       shell  variable  PHONES  is  defined  and  exported.   As  described in
       remote(5), the phones file is read when the  host  description's  phone
       number(s)  capability  is an `@'.  The phone number file contains lines
       of the form:

              system-name phone-number

       Each phone number found for a system is tried until either a connection
       is  established,  or an end of file is reached.  Phone numbers are con-
       structed from `0123456789-=*', where the `=' and `*' are used to  indi-
       cate a second dial tone should be waited for (ACU dependent).

TIP INTERNAL VARIABLES
       tip  maintains  a  set of variables which are used in normal operation.
       Some of these variables are read-only to normal users (root is  allowed
       to  change  anything  of interest).  Variables may be displayed and set
       through the ~s escape.  The syntax for  variables  is  patterned  after
       vi(1)  and mail(1).  Supplying all as an argument to the ~s escape dis-
       plays all variables that the user can read.   Alternatively,  the  user
       may  request  display of a particular variable by attaching a ?  to the
       end.  For example `~s escape?'  displays the current escape character.

       Variables are numeric, string, character, or Boolean  values.   Boolean
       variables  are  set merely by specifying their name.  They may be reset
       by prepending a !  to the  name.   Other  variable  types  are  set  by
       appending  an = and the value.  The entire assignment must not have any
       blanks in it.  A single set command may be used to interrogate as  well
       as set a number of variables.

       Variables may be initialized at run time by placing set commands (with-
       out the ~s prefix) in a .tiprc file in one's home  directory.   The  -v
       option  makes tip display the sets as they are made.  Comments preceded
       by a # sign can appear in the .tiprc file.

       Finally, the variable names must either be completely specified  or  an
       abbreviation  may be given.  The following list details those variables
       known to tip.

       beautify
              (bool) Discard unprintable characters when a  session  is  being
              scripted;  abbreviated  be.   If  the  nb capability is present,
              beautify is initially set to off; otherwise,  beautify  is  ini-
              tially set to on.

       baudrate
              (num)  The  baud  rate  at which the connection was established;
              abbreviated ba.  If a baud rate was  specified  on  the  command
              line,  baudrate  is initially set to the specified value; other-
              wise, if the br capability is present, baudrate is initially set
              to  the  value of that capability; otherwise, baudrate is set to
              300 baud.  Once tip has been started, baudrate can only  changed
              by the super-user.

       dialtimeout
              (num) When dialing a phone number, the time (in seconds) to wait
              for a connection to be established; abbreviated dial.  dialtime-
              out  is initially set to 60 seconds, and can only changed by the
              super-user.

       disconnect
              (str) The string to send to the remote host to  disconnect  from
              it; abbreviated di.  If the di capability is present, disconnect
              is initially set to the value  of  that  capability;  otherwise,
              disconnect is set to a null string ("").

       echocheck
              (bool)  Synchronize with the remote host during file transfer by
              waiting for the echo of the last character transmitted; abbrevi-
              ated  ec.   If  the  ec capability is present, echocheck is ini-
              tially set to on; otherwise, echocheck is initially set to off.

       eofread
              (str) The set of characters which signify an end-of-transmission
              during  a ~<&lt; file transfer command; abbreviated eofr.  If the ie
              capability is present, eofread is initially set to the value  of
              that  capability;  otherwise,  eofread  is  set to a null string
              ("").

       eofwrite
              (str) The string sent to indicate end-of-transmission  during  a
              ~>&gt;  file transfer command; abbreviated eofw.  If the oe capabil-
              ity is present, eofread is initially set to the  value  of  that
              capability; otherwise, eofread is set to a null string ("").

       eol    (str)  The set of characters which indicate an end-of-line.  tip
              will recognize escape characters only after an end-of-line.   If
              the  el capability is present, eol is initially set to the value
              of that capability; otherwise, eol is set to a null string ("").

       escape (char) The command prefix (escape)  character;  abbreviated  es.
              If  the es capability is present, escape is initially set to the
              value of that capability; otherwise, escape is set to `~'.

       etimeout
              (num) The amount of time, in seconds, that tip should  wait  for
              the  echo-check  response when echocheck is set; abbreviated et.
              If the et capability is present, etimeout is  initially  set  to
              the  value  of that capability; otherwise, etimeout is set to 10
              seconds.

       exceptions
              (str) The set of characters which should not be discarded due to
              the beautification switch; abbreviated ex.  If the ex capability
              is present, exceptions is initially set to  the  value  of  that
              capability; otherwise, exceptions is set to `\t\n\f\b'.

       force  (char)  The  character  used to force literal data transmission;
              abbreviated fo.  If the fo capability is present, force is  ini-
              tially  set to the value of that capability; otherwise, force is
              set to \377 (which disables it).

       framesize
              (num) The amount of data (in bytes) to buffer between file  sys-
              tem  writes  when  receiving  files;  abbreviated fr.  If the fs
              capability is present, framesize is initially set to  the  value
              of that capability; otherwise, framesize is set to 1024.

       halfduplex
              (bool)  Do local echoing because the host is half-duplex; abbre-
              viated hdx.  If the hd capability is present, halfduplex is ini-
              tially set to on; otherwise, halfduplex is initially set to off.

       hardwareflow
              (bool)  Do  hardware  flow  control;  abbreviated hf.  If the hf
              capability is present, hardwareflow is initially set to on; oth-
              erwise, hardwareflowcontrol is initially set to off.

       host   (str)  The name of the host to which you are connected; abbrevi-
              ated ho.  host is permanently set to the name given on the  com-
              mand line or in the HOST environment variable.

       localecho
              (bool) A synonym for halfduplex; abbreviated le.

       log    (str)  The  name  of  the file to which to log information about
              outgoing phone calls.  log is initially set to  /var/adm/aculog,
              and can only be inspected or changed by the super-user.

       parity (str) The parity to be generated and checked when talking to the
              remote host; abbreviated par.  The possible values are:

                     none
                     zero   Parity is not checked on input, and the parity bit
                            is set to zero on output.

                     one    Parity is not checked on input, and the parity bit
                            is set to one on output.

                     even   Even parity is checked for on input and  generated
                            on output.

                     odd    Odd  parity  is checked for on input and generated
                            on output.

              If the pa capability is present, parity is initially set to  the
              value of that capability; otherwise, parity is set to none.

       phones The file in which to find hidden phone numbers.  If the environ-
              ment variable PHONES is set, phones  is  set  to  the  value  of
              PHONES;  otherwise,  phones is set to /etc/phones.  The value of
              phones cannot be changed from within tip.

       prompt (char) The character  which  indicates  an  end-of-line  on  the
              remote  host; abbreviated pr.  This value is used to synchronize
              during data transfers.  The count of lines transferred during  a
              file transfer command is based on receipt of this character.  If
              the pr capability is present, prompt is  initially  set  to  the
              value of that capability; otherwise, prompt is set to \n.

       raise  (bool)  Upper case mapping mode; abbreviated ra.  When this mode
              is enabled, all lower case letters will be mapped to upper  case
              by  tip for transmission to the remote machine.  If the ra capa-
              bility is present, raise is  initially  set  to  on;  otherwise,
              raise is initially set to off.

       raisechar
              (char)  The  input  character  used to toggle upper case mapping
              mode;  abbreviated  rc.   If  the  rc  capability  is   present,
              raisechar is initially set to the value of that capability; oth-
              erwise, raisechar is set to \377 (which disables it).

       rawftp (bool) Send all characters during file transfers; do not  filter
              non-printable  characters, and do not do translations like \n to
              \r.  Abbreviated raw.  If the rw capability is  present,  rawftp
              is  initially  set  to on; otherwise, rawftp is initially set to
              off.

       record (str) The name  of  the  file  in  which  a  session  script  is
              recorded;  abbreviated  rec.   If  the re capability is present,
              record is initially set to the value of that capability;  other-
              wise, record is set to tip.record.

       remote The  file  in  which to find descriptions of remote systems.  If
              the environment variable REMOTE is set, remote  is  set  to  the
              value  of  REMOTE; otherwise, remote is set to /etc/remote.  The
              value of remote cannot be changed from within tip.

       script (bool) Session scripting mode; abbreviated sc.  When  script  is
              on, tip will record everything transmitted by the remote machine
              in the script record file specified in record.  If the  beautify
              switch  is  on, only printable ASCII characters will be included
              in the script file (those characters between 040 and 0177).  The
              variable  exceptions is used to indicate characters which are an
              exception to the normal beautification rules.  If the  sc  capa-
              bility  is  present,  script  is initially set to on; otherwise,
              script is initially set to off.

       tabexpand
              (bool) Expand TAB characters to  SPACE  characters  during  file
              transfers;  abbreviated  tab.  When tabexpand is on, each tab is
              expanded to  8  SPACE  characters.   If  the  tb  capability  is
              present,  tabexpand is initially set to on; otherwise, tabexpand
              is initially set to off.

       tandem (bool) Use XON/XOFF flow control to limit the rate that data  is
              sent  by  the remote host; abbreviated ta.  If the nt capability
              is present, tandem is initially set to off; otherwise, tandem is
              initially set to on.

       verbose
              (bool)  Verbose  mode;  abbreviated  verb;  When verbose mode is
              enabled, tip prints messages while dialing,  shows  the  current
              number  of  lines transferred during a file transfer operations,
              and more.  If the nv capability is present, verbose is initially
              set to off; otherwise, verbose is initially set to on.

       SHELL  (str)  The name of the shell to use for the ~!  command; default
              value is /bin/sh, or taken from the environment.

       HOME   (str) The home directory to use  for  the  ~c  command;  default
              value is taken from the environment.

EXAMPLES
       An example of the dialogue used to transfer files is given below.
              arpa% tip monet
              [connected]
              ...(assume we are talking to a UNIX system)...
              ucbmonet login: sam
              Password:
              monet% cat >&gt; sylvester.c
              ~>&gt; Filename: sylvester.c
              32 lines transferred in 1 minute 3 seconds
              monet%
              monet% ~<&lt; Filename: reply.c
              List command for remote host: cat reply.c
              65 lines transferred in 2 minutes
              monet%
              ...(or, equivalently)...
              monet% ~p sylvester.c
              ...(actually echoes as ~[put] sylvester.c)...
              32 lines transferred in 1 minute 3 seconds
              monet%
              monet% ~t reply.c
              ...(actually echoes as ~[take] reply.c)...
              65 lines transferred in 2 minutes
              monet%
              ...(to print a file locally)...
              monet% ~|Local command: pr -h sylvester.c | lpr
              List command for remote host: cat sylvester.c
              monet% ~^D
              [EOT]
              ...(back on the local system)...

ENVIRONMENT
       The following environment variables are read by tip.

       REMOTE    The location of the remote file.

       PHONES    The location of the file containing private phone numbers.

       HOST      A default host to connect to.

       HOME      One's log-in directory (for chdirs).

       SHELL     The shell to fork on a `~!'  escape.

FILES
       ~/.tiprc                 initialization file
       /var/spool/locks/LCK ..* lock file to avoid conflicts with UUCP
       /var/adm/aculog          file in which outgoing calls are logged
       /etc/phones
       /etc/remote

SEE ALSO
       cu(1C), mail(1), uucp(1C), vi(1), ioctl(2), phones(5), remote(5)

BUGS
       There  are  two  additional  variables chardelay and linedelay that are
       currently not implemented.



                                16 August 1988                         TIP(1C)