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SORT(1V)                                                              SORT(1V)

       sort - sort and collate lines

       sort [ -bdfiMnr ] [ -tc ] [ sort-field ...] [ -cmu ] [ -o[ ]output-file
       ] [ -T directory ]
        [ -y kmem ] [ -z recsz ] filename...

       /usr/5bin/sort [ -bdfiMnr ] [ -tc ]  [  sort-field  ...]  [  -cmu  ]  [
       -o[ ]output-file  ]  [  -T  directory  ] [ -y kmem ] [ -z recsz ] file-

       The System V version of this command is available  with  the  System  V
       software  installation  option.   Refer  to  for  information on how to
       install optional software.

       The sort program sorts and collates lines contained in the named files,
       and  writes  the result onto the standard output.  If no filename argu-
       ment is given, or if `-' appears as an  argument,  sort  accepts  input
       from the standard input.

       Output  lines  are  normally  sorted on a character-by-character basis,
       from left to right within a line.  The default  collating  sequence  is
       the  ASCII  character  set.   Lines can also be sorted according to the
       contents of one or more fields specified by  a  sort-field,  specifica-
       tion,  using  the  +sw  (starting-word), -ew (end-at-word), and the -tc
       (set-TAB-character/word delimiter) options, as described under  OPTIONS
       below.   When  no  word  delimiter  is  specified, one or more adjacent
       white-space characters (SPACE and TAB) signify the end of the  previous
       word; the lines:
              ^^^ xyz
              ^^^   xyz

       are collated as:
              ^^^   xyz
              ^^^ xyz

       Each  sort-field  is  evaluated in command-line order; later fields are
       applied to the sorting sequence only when all  earlier  fields  compare
       equally.  When all specified fields compare equally between two or more
       lines, that subset of  lines  is  sorted  on  a  character-by-character
       basis, from left to right.

       When  no fields are specified in the command line, the System V version
       of sort treats leading blanks as significant, even with the -n (numeric
       collating sequence) option; the lines:

       are collated as:

   Collating Flags
       -b     Ignore  leading  SPACE  characters when determining the starting
              and ending positions of a field.

       -d     Dictionary order.  Only  letters,  digits  and  the  white-space
              characters SPACE and TAB are significant in comparisons.

       -f     Fold in lower case.  Treat upper- and lower-case letters equally
              in collating comparisons.

       -i     Ignore characters outside  the  ASCII  range  040-0176  in  non-
              numeric comparisons.

       -M     Month  order.  The first three non-blank characters of the field
              are folded to upper case and collated according to the sequence:
              JAN  FEB  ...  DEC.  Field values outside this range appear ear-
              lier than JAN.  The -M option implies the -b option.

       -n     Numeric collating sequence.  An initial numeric string, consist-
              ing  of  optional blanks, optional minus signs, and zero or more
              digits with an optional decimal point, is sorted  by  arithmetic
              value.   The  -n  option implies the -b option, but only when at
              least one sort-field is specified on the command line.

       -r     Reverse the current collating sequence.

   Field Specification Options
       -tc  Use c as the word delimiter character; unlike white-space  charac-
            ters, adjacent delimiters indicate word breaks; if : is the delim-
            iter character, :: delimits an empty word.

            This is a combination of options that specifies  a  field,  within
            each line, to sort on.  A sort-field specification can take either
            of the following forms:
                   +sw -ew[cf]

            where sw is the number of the starting word (beginning  with  `0')
            to include in the field, ew is the number of the word before which
            to end the field, and cf is a string  containing  collating  flags
            (without a leading `-'.)  When included in a sort-field specifica-
            tion, these flags apply only to the  field  being  specified,  and
            when given, override other collating flags given in separate argu-
            ments (which otherwise apply to an entire line).

            If the -ew option is omitted, the field continues to the end of  a

            You  can  apply a character offset to sw and ew to indicate that a
            field is to start or end a given number  of  characters  within  a
            word, using the notation: `w.c'.  A starting position specified in
            the form: `+w.c' indicates the character in position c  (beginning
            with  0  for  the  first  character), within word w (1 and 1.0 are
            equivalent).  An ending position specified  in  the  form:  `-w.c'
            indicates that the field ends at the character just prior to posi-
            tion c (beginning with 0 for the delimiter just prior to the first
            character),  within  word  w.   If  the -b flag is in effect, c is
            counted from the first non-white-space or non-delimiter  character
            in the field, otherwise, delimiter characters are counted.

   Other Options
       -c     Check  that  the  input file is sorted according to the ordering
              rules; give no output unless the file is out of sort.

       -m     Merge only, the input files are already sorted.

       -u     Unique.  Emit only the first line in each set of lines for which
              all sorting fields compare equally.

       -o output-file
              Direct  output  to the file specified as output-file, instead of
              the standard output.  This file may be the same as  one  of  the
              input files.

       -y kmem
              The amount of main memory used by the sort has a large impact on
              its performance.  Sorting a small file in a large amount of mem-
              ory  is a waste.  If this option is omitted, sort begins using a
              system default memory  size,  and  continues  to  add  space  as
              needed.   If  this  option is given sort starts with kmem, kilo-
              bytes of memory, if allowed, or as close to that amount as  pos-
              sible.  Supplying -y0 guarantees that sort starts with a minimum
              of memory.  By convention, -y (with  no  argument)  starts  with
              maximum memory.

       -z recsz
              The  size of the longest line read is recorded in the sort phase
              so that buffers can be allocated during the merge phase.  If the
              sort  phase is omitted because either of the -c or -m options is
              in effect, a default size of 1024 bytes is used.   Lines  longer
              than  the  buffer size terminate sort abnormally.  Supplying the
              actual number of bytes in the longest line to be merged (or some
              larger value) avoids this.

       -T directory
              The  directory  argument  is the name of a directory in which to
              place temporary files.

       Sort the contents of input-file with word number 1 (the second word) as
       the sort key:

              sort +1 -2 input-file

       Sort,  in  reverse  order, the contents of input-file1 and input-file2,
       placing the output in output-file and using the first character of  the
       second field as the sort key:

              sort -r -o output-file +1.0 -1.1 input-file1 input-file2

       Sort,  in  reverse  order,  the contents of input-file1 and input-file2
       using the first non-blank character of the second  field  as  the  sort

              sort -r +1.0b -1.1b input-file1 input-file2

       Print  the password file (passwd(5)) sorted by the numeric user ID (the
       third colon-separated field):

              sort -t: +2n -3 /etc/passwd

       Print the lines of the already sorted file input-file, suppressing  all
       but  the  first  occurrence  of  lines having the same third field (the
       options -mu with just one input file make the choice of a unique repre-
       sentative from a set of equal lines predictable):

              sort -mu +2 -3 input-file


       comm(1), join(1), rev(1), uniq(1)

       Comments  and exits with non-zero status for various trouble conditions
       (such as when input lines are too long), and for  disorders  discovered
       under the -c option.

       When  the last line of an input file is missing a NEWLINE, sort appends
       one, prints a warning message, and continues.

                               19 September 1989                      SORT(1V)