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 sed(1)								      sed(1)




 NAME
      sed - stream text editor

 SYNOPSIS
      sed [-n] script [file ...]

      sed [-n] [-e script] ... [-f script_file] ... [file ...]

 DESCRIPTION
      sed copies the named text files (standard input default) to the
      standard output, edited according to a script containing up to 100
      commands.	 Only complete input lines are processed.  Any input text at
      the end of a file that is not terminated by a new-line character is
      ignored.

    Options
      sed recognizes the following options:

	   -f script_file Take script from file script_file.

	   -e script	  Edit according to script.  If there is just one -e
			  option and no -f options, the flag -e can be
			  omitted.

	   -n		  Suppress the default output.

      sed interprets all -escript and -fscript_file arguments in the order
      given.  Use caution, if mixing -e and -f options, to avoid
      unpredictable or incorrect results.

    Command Scripts
      A script consists of editor commands, one per line, of the following
      form:

	   [address [, address]] function [arguments]

      In normal operation, sed cyclically copies a line of input into a
      pattern space (unless there is something left after a D command),
      applies in sequence all commands whose addresses select that pattern
      space, and, at the end of the script, copies the pattern space to the
      standard output (except under -n) and deletes the pattern space.

      Some of the commands use a hold space to save all or part of the
      pattern space for subsequent retrieval.

    Command Addresses
      An address is either a decimal number that counts input lines
      cumulatively across files, a $ which addresses the last line of input,
      or a context address; that is, a /regular expression/ in the style of
      ed(1) modified thus:




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 sed(1)								      sed(1)




	   +  In a context address, the construction \?regular expression?,
	      where ? is any character, is identical to /regular
	      expression/.  Note that in the context address \xabc\xdefx,
	      the second x stands for itself, so that the regular expression
	      is abcxdef.

	   +  The escape sequence \n matches a new-line character embedded
	      in the pattern space.

	   +  A period (.) matches any character except the terminal new-
	      line of the pattern space.

	   +  A command line with no addresses selects every pattern space.

	   +  A command line with one address selects each pattern space
	      that matches the address.

	   +  A command line with two addresses selects the inclusive range
	      from the first pattern space that matches the first address
	      through the next pattern space that matches the second (if the
	      second address is a number less than or equal to the line
	      number first selected, only one line is selected).  Thereafter
	      the process is repeated, looking again for the first address.

      sed supports Basic Regular Expression syntax (see regexp(5)).

      Editing commands can also be applied to only non-selected pattern
      spaces by use of the negation function ! (described below).

    Command Functions
      In the following list of functions, the maximum number of permissible
      addresses for each function is indicated in parentheses.	Other
      function elements are interpreted as follows:

	   text	       One or more lines, all but the last of which end with
		       \ to hide the new-line.	Backslashes in text are
		       treated like backslashes in the replacement string of
		       an s command, and can be used to protect initial
		       blanks and tabs against the stripping that is done on
		       every script line.

	   rfile       Must terminate the command line, and must be preceded
		       by exactly one blank.

	   wfile       Must terminate the command line, and must be preceded
		       by exactly one blank.  Each wfile is created before
		       processing begins.  There can be at most 10 distinct
		       wfile arguments.

      sed recognizes the following functions:




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 sed(1)								      sed(1)




      (1)a\
      text	  Append.  Place text on the output before reading next
		  input line.

      (2)b label  Branch to the : command bearing label.  If no label is
		  specified, branch to the end of the script.

      (2)c\
      text	  Change.  Delete the pattern space.  With 0 or 1 address or
		  at the end of a 2-address range, place text on the output.
		  Start the next cycle.

      (2)d	  Delete pattern space and start the next cycle.

      (2)D	  Delete initial segment of pattern space through first
		  new-line and start the next cycle.

      (2)g	  Replace contents of the pattern space with contents of the
		  hold space.

      (2)G	  Append contents of hold space to the pattern space.

      (2)h	  Replace contents of the hold space with contents of the
		  pattern space.

      (2)H	  Append the contents of the pattern space to the hold
		  space.

      (1)i\
      text	  Insert.  Place text on the standard output.

      (2)l	  List the pattern space on the standard output in an
		  unambiguous form.  Non-printing characters are spelled in
		  three-digit octal number format (with a preceding
		  backslash), and long lines are folded.

      (2)n	  Copy the pattern space to the standard output if the
		  default output has not been suppressed (by the -n option
		  on the command line or the #n command in the script file).
		  Replace the pattern space with the next line of input.

      (2)N	  Append the next line of input to the pattern space with an
		  embedded new-line.  (The current line number changes.)

      (2)p	  Print.  Copy the pattern space to the standard output.

      (2)P	  Copy the initial segment of the pattern space through the
		  first new-line to the standard output.

      (1)q	  Quit.	 Branch to the end of the script.  Do not start a
		  new cycle.



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 sed(1)								      sed(1)




      (1)r rfile  Read contents of rfile and place on output before reading
		  the next input line.

      (2)s/regular expression/replacement/flags
		  Substitute replacement string for instances of regular
		  expression in the pattern space.  Any character can be
		  used instead of /.  For a fuller description see ed(1).
		  flags is zero or more of:

		     n		 n=1-2048 (LINE_MAX).  Substitute for just
				 the nth occurrence of regular expression in
				 the pattern space.

		     g		 Global.  Substitute for all non-overlapping
				 instances of regular expression rather than
				 just the first one.

		     p		 Print the pattern space if a replacement
				 was made and the default output has been
				 suppressed (by the -n option on the command
				 line or the #n command in the script file).

		     w wfile	 Write.	 Append the pattern space to wfile
				 if a replacement was made.

      (2)t label  Test.	 Branch to the : command bearing the label if any
		  substitutions have been made since the most recent reading
		  of an input line or execution of a t.	 If label is empty,
		  branch to the end of the script.

      (2)w wfile  Write.  Append the pattern space to wfile.

      (2)x	  Exchange the contents of the pattern and hold spaces.

      (2)y/string1/string2/
		  Transform.  Replace all occurrences of characters in
		  string1 with the corresponding character in string2.	The
		  lengths of string1 and string2 must be equal.

      (2)! function
		  Don't.  Apply the function (or group, if function is {)
		  only to lines not selected by the address or addresses.

      (0): label  This command does nothing; it bears a label for b and t
		  commands to branch to.

      (1)=	  Place the current line number on the standard output as a
		  line.

      (2){	  Execute the following commands through a matching } only
		  when the pattern space is selected.  The syntax is:



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 sed(1)								      sed(1)




		       { cmd1
		       cmd2
		       cmd3
			.
			.
			.
		       }

      (0)	  An empty command is ignored.

      (0)#	  If a # appears as the first character on the first line of
		  a script file, that entire line is treated as a comment
		  with one exception: If the character after the # is an n,
		  the default output is suppressed.  The rest of the line
		  after #n is also ignored.  A script file must contain at
		  least one non-comment line.

 EXTERNAL INFLUENCES
    Environment Variables
      LANG provides a default value for the internationalization variables
      that are unset or null. If LANG is unset or null, the default value of
      "C" (see lang(5)) is used. If any of the internationalization
      variables contains an invalid setting, sed will behave as if all
      internationalization variables are set to "C".  See environ(5).

      LC_ALL If set to a non-empty string value, overrides the values of all
      the other internationalization variables.

      LC_CTYPE determines the interpretation of text as single and/or
      multi-byte characters, the classification of characters as printable,
      and the characters matched by character class expressions in regular
      expressions.

      LC_MESSAGES determines the locale that should be used to affect the
      format and contents of diagnostic messages written to standard error
      and informative messages written to standard output.

      NLSPATH determines the location of message catalogues for the
      processing of LC_MESSAGES.

    International Code Set Support
      Single- and multi-byte character code sets are supported.

 EXAMPLES
      Make a simple substitution in a file from the command line or from a
      shell script, changing abc to xyz:

	   sed 's/abc/xyz/' file1 >&gt&gt>file1.out

      Same as above but use shell or environment variables var1 and var2 in
      search and replacement strings:



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 sed(1)								      sed(1)




	   sed "s/$var1/$var2/" file1 >&gt&gt>file1.out

      or

	   sed 's/'$var1'/'$var2'/' file1 >&gt&gt>file1.out

      Multiple substitutions in a single command:

	   sed -e 's/abc/xyz/' -e 's/lmn/rst/' file1 >&gt&gt>file1.out

      or

	   sed -e 's/abc/xyz/' \
	   -e 's/lmn/rst/' \
	   file1 >&gt&gt>file1.out

 WARNINGS
      sed limits command scripts to a total of not more than 100 commands.

      The hold space is limited to 8192 characters.

      sed processes only text files.  See the glossary for a definition of
      text files and their limitations.

 AUTHOR
      sed was developed by OSF and HP.

 SEE ALSO
      awk(1), ed(1), grep(1), environ(5), lang(5), regexp(5).

      sed: A Non-Interactive Streaming Editor tutorial in the Text
      Processing Users Guide.

 STANDARDS CONFORMANCE
      sed: SVID2, SVID3, XPG2, XPG3, XPG4, POSIX.2



















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