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rmformat(1)                      User Commands                     rmformat(1)



NAME
       rmformat - removable rewritable media format utility

SYNOPSIS
       rmformat  [-DeHpUv]  [-b  label] [-c blockno] [-Fquick | long | force ]
       [-R enable | disable ] [-s filename] [-w enable | disable] [-W enable |
       disable] [devname]

       rmformat -V read | write devname

       rmformat -l [devname]

DESCRIPTION
       The  rmformat  utility is used to format, label, partition, and perform
       other miscellaneous  functions  on  removable,  rewritable  media  that
       include  floppy  drives, IOMEGA Zip/Jaz products, and the PCMCIA memory
       and ata cards. In addition, the rmformat utility should  also  be  used
       with  all  USB  mass  storage  devices, including USB hard drives. This
       utility can also be used for the verification and surface analysis  and
       for repair of the bad sectors found during verification if the drive or
       the driver supports bad block management.

       rmformat provides functionality to read/write protect the media with or
       without  a  password.  The password protection enabling or disabling is
       possible only with  selective  rewritable  media  such  as  the  IOMEGA
       Zip/Jaz products.

       After  formatting,  rmformat  writes  the  label, which covers the full
       capacity of the media as one slice on floppy and PCMCIA memory cards to
       maintain  compatibility  with  the  behavior  of  fdformat.  On Zip/Jaz
       devices, the driver exports one slice covering the full capacity of the
       disk  as  default.  rmformat does not write the label on Zip/Jaz media,
       unless explicitly requested. The partition information can  be  changed
       with the help of other options provided by rmformat.

OPTIONS
       The following options are supported:

       -b label

           Labels  the  media with a SUNOS label. A SUNOS volume label name is
           restricted to 8 characters. For writing a  DOS  Volume  label,  the
           user should use mkfs_pcfs(1M).



       -c blockno

           Corrects  and  repairs  the  given  block.  This correct and repair
           option may not be applicable to all devices supported by  rmformat,
           as some devices may have a drive with bad block management capabil-
           ity and others may have this option implemented in the  driver.  If
           the drive or driver supports bad block management, a best effort is
           made to rectify the bad block. If the bad  block  still  cannot  be
           rectified,  a  message  is  displayed  to  indicate  the failure to
           repair. The block number can be  provided  in  decimal,  octal,  or
           hexadecimal format.

           The  normal  floppy  and PCMCIA memory and ata cards do not support
           bad block management.



       -D

           Formats a 720KB (3.5 inch) double density  diskette.  This  is  the
           default  for  double  density type drives. This option is needed if
           the drive is a high or extended-density type.



       -e

           Ejects the media upon completion. This feature may not be available
           if the drive does not support motorized eject.



       -F quick | long | force

           Formats the media.

           The  quick  option  starts a format without certification or format
           with limited certification of certain tracks on the media.

           The long option starts a complete format.  For  some  devices  this
           might  include  the  certification  of the whole media by the drive
           itself.

           The force option to format is provided to start a long format with-
           out  user  confirmation  before  the  format is started. For drives
           which have a password protection mechanism, it clears the  password
           while  formatting.  This  feature  is  useful when a password is no
           longer available.  On those media which do not have  such  password
           protection, force starts a long format.

           In  legacy  media  such  as floppy drives, all options start a long
           format depending on the mode (Extended Density mode,  High  Density
           mode,  or Double Density mode) with which the floppy drive operates
           by default. On PCMCIA memory cards, all options start a  long  for-
           mat.



       -H

           Formats  a  1.44  MB  (3.5 inch) high density diskette. This is the
           default for high density type drives. It is needed if the drive  is
           the Extended Density type.



       -l

           Lists  all  removable  devices.  By  default,  without any options,
           rmformat also lists all  removable  devices.  If  the  dev_name  is
           given,  rmformat lists the device associated with the dev_name. The
           output shows the  device  pathname,  vendor  information,  and  the
           device type.



       -p

           Prints  the  protection  status  of  the  media. This option prints
           information whether the media is  write,  read,  or  password  pro-
           tected.



       -R enable | disable

           Enables read/write protection with a password or disables the pass-
           word read/write protection. This always works in interactive  mode,
           as the password is requested from the user in an interactive manner
           to maintain security.

           A password length of 32 bytes (maximum) is allowed for  the  IOMEGA
           products  that support this feature. This option is applicable only
           for IOMEGA products. IOMEGA products do not allow  read/write  pro-
           tection  without  a password. On the devices which do not have such
           software read/write protect facility, warnings indicating the  non-
           availability of this feature are provided.



       -s filename

           Enables  the user to lay out the partition information in the SUNOS
           label.

           The user should provide a file as input with information about each
           slice  in  a format providing byte offset, size required, tags, and
           flags, as follows:


           slices: n = offset, size [, flags, tags]

           where n is the slice number, offset is the byte offset at which the
           slice  n  starts,  and  size is the required size for slice n. Both
           offset and size must be a multiple of 512 bytes. These numbers  can
           be represented as decimal, hexadecimal, or octal numbers. No float-
           ing point numbers are accepted. Details  about  maximum  number  of
           slices  can be obtained from the System Administration Guide: Basic
           Administration.

           To specify the size or offset in  kilobytes,  megabytes,  or  giga-
           bytes,  add  KB, MB, GB, respectively. A number without a suffix is
           assumed to be a byte offset. The flags are represented as follows:


           wm = read-write, mountable
           wu = read-write, unmountable
           ru = read-only, unmountable

           The tags are represented as follows: unassigned, boot, root,  swap,
           usr, backup, stand, var, home, alternates.

           The  tags  and  flags can be omitted from the four tuple when finer
           control on those values is not required. It  is  required  to  omit
           both  or  include  both. If the tags and flags are omitted from the
           four tuple for a particular slice, a  default  value  for  each  is
           assumed.  The  default  value for flags is wm and for tags is unas-
           signed.

           Either full tag names can be provided or an  abbreviation  for  the
           tags  can  be  used. The abbreviations can be the first two or more
           letters from the standard tag names. rmformat is  case  insensitive
           in handling the defined tags & flags.

           Slice specifications are separated by :

           For example:


           slices: 0 = 0, 30MB, "wm", "home" :
                   1 = 30MB, 51MB :
                   2 = 0, 100MB, "wm", "backup" :
                   6 = 81MB, 19MB

           rmformat does the necessary checking to detect any overlapping par-
           titions or illegal requests to addresses beyond the capacity of the
           media  under consideration. There can be only one slice information
           entry for each slice n. If multiple slice information  entries  for
           the same slice n are provided, an appropriate error message is dis-
           played. The slice 2 is the backup slice  covering  the  whole  disk
           capacity.  The  pound  sign character, #, can be used to describe a
           line of comments in the input file. If the line starts with #, then
           rmformat  ignores  all  the characters following # until the end of
           the line.

           Partitioning some of the media with very small capacity is  permit-
           ted, but be cautious in using this option on such devices.



       -U

           Performs   umount  on  any  file  systems  and  then  formats.  See
           mount(1M). This option unmounts all the mounted slices and issues a
           long format on the device requested.



       -V read | write

           Verifies  each  block of media after format. The write verification
           is a destructive mechanism. The user is  queried  for  confirmation
           before  the verification is started. The output of this option is a
           list of block numbers, which are identified as bad.

           The read verification only  verifies  the  blocks  and  report  the
           blocks which are prone to errors.

           The  list of block numbers displayed can be used with the -c option
           for repairing.



       -w enable | disable

           Enables or disables the write protection on media. On devices  that
           do not have a software write protect facility, a message indicating
           non-availability of this feature is displayed.



       -W enable | disable

           Enables or disables write protection  with  password.  This  option
           always  works  in interactive mode, as a password is requested from
           the user to maintain security.

           A maximum password length of 32 bytes is allowed for  IOMEGA  prod-
           ucts  that  support  this  feature. On devices that do not have the
           write protection with password, the software  displays  appropriate
           messages indicating the non-availability of such features.



OPERANDS
       The following operand is supported:

       devname         devname  can be provided as absolute device pathname or
                       relative pathname for the device from the current work-
                       ing directory or the nickname as exported by the System
                       Volume manager. See vold(1M).

                       For floppy devices,  to  access  the  first  drive  use
                       /dev/rdiskette0 (for systems without volume management)
                       or floppy0 (for systems with volume management).  Spec-
                       ify /dev/rdiskette1 (for systems without volume manage-
                       ment) or floppy1 (for systems with  volume  management)
                       to use the second drive.

                       For systems without volume management running, the user
                       can  also  provide  the  absolute  device  pathname  as
                       /dev/rdsk/c?t?d?s?  or  the appropriate relative device
                       pathname from the current working directory.



EXAMPLES
       Example 1: Formatting a diskette

       example$ rmformat -F quick /dev/rdiskette
       Formatting will erase all the data on disk.
       Do you want to continue? (y/n)y

       Example 2: Formatting a Zip drive

       example$ rmformat -F quick /vol/dev/aliases/zip0
       Formatting will erase all the data on disk.
       Do you want to continue? (y/n)y

       Example 3: Formatting a diskette for a UFS file system

       The following example formats a diskette and creates a UFS file system:

       example$ rmformat -F quick /vol/dev/aliases/floppy0
       Formatting will erase all the data on disk.
       Do you want to continue? (y/n)y
       example$ su
       # /usr/sbin/newfs /vol/dev/aliases/floppy0
       newfs: construct a new file system /dev/rdiskette: (y/n)? y
       /dev/rdiskette: 2880 sectors in 80 cylinders of 2 tracks, 18 sectors
                1.4MB in 5 cyl groups (16 c/g, 0.28MB/g, 128 i/g)
        super-block backups (for fsck -F ufs -o b=#) at:
         32, 640, 1184, 1792, 2336,
       #

       Example 4: Formatting removable media for a PCFS file system

       The following example shows how to create an alternate fdisk partition:

       example$ rmformat -F quick /dev/rdsk/c0t4d0s2:c
       Formatting will erase all the data on disk.
       Do you want to continue? (y/n)y
       example$ su
       # fdisk /dev/rdsk/c0t4d0s2:c
       # mkfs -F pcfs /dev/rdsk/c0t4d0s2:c
       Construct a new FAT file system on /dev/rdsk/c0t4d0s2:c: (y/n)? y
       #

       The following example describes how to create a PCFS file system  with-
       out an fdisk partition:

       example$ rmformat -F quick /dev/rdiskette
       Formatting will erase all the data on disk.
       Do you want to continue? (y/n)y
       example$ su
       # mkfs -F pcfs -o nofdisk,size=2 /dev/rdiskette
       Construct a new FAT file system on /dev/rdiskette: (y/n)? y
       #

       Example 5: Enabling or disabling read or write protection

       The  following  example  shows how to enable write protection and set a
       password on a Zip drive:

       example$ rmformat -W enable /vol/dev/aliases/zip0
       Please enter password (32 chars maximum): xxx
       Please reenter password: xxx

       The following example shows how to disable write protection and  remove
       the password on a Zip drive:

       example$ rmformat -W disable /vol/dev/aliases/zip0
       Please enter password (32 chars maximum): xxx

       The  following  example  shows  how to enable read protection and set a
       password on a Zip drive:

       example$ rmformat -R enable /vol/dev/aliases/zip0
       Please enter password (32 chars maximum): xxx
       Please reenter password: xxx

       The following example shows how to disable read protection  and  remove
       the password on a Zip drive:

       example$ rmformat -R disable /vol/dev/aliases/zip0
       Please enter password (32 chars maximum): xxx

       Example 6: Listing all removable devices

       The  following example shows how to list removable devices. This output
       shows that vold is on.

       example$ rmformat -l
       Looking for devices...
         1. Volmgt Node: /vol/dev/aliases/rmdisk1
         Logical Node: /dev/rdsk/c5t0d0s2
         Physical Node: /pci@1e,600000/usb@b/hub@2/storage@4/disk@0,0
         Connected Device: TEAC     FD-05PUB         1026
         Device Type: Floppy drive

FILES
       /vol/dev/diskette0              Directory providing block device access
                                       for the media in floppy drive 0.



       /vol/dev/rdiskette0             Directory  providing  character  device
                                       access for the media in floppy drive 0.



       /vol/dev/aliases                Directory providing symbolic  links  to
                                       the character devices for the different
                                       media under the control of volume  man-
                                       agement using appropriate alias.



       /vol/dev/aliases/floppy0        Symbolic  link  to the character device
                                       for the media in floppy drive 0.



       /vol/dev/aliases/zip0           Symbolic link to the  character  device
                                       for the media in Zip drive 0.



       /vol/dev/aliases/jaz0           Symbolic  link  to the character device
                                       for the media in Jaz drive 0.



       /dev/rdiskette                  Symbolic   link   providing   character
                                       device access for the media in the pri-
                                       mary floppy drive, usually drive 0.



       /vol/dev/dsk                    Directory providing block device access
                                       for the PCMCIA memory and ata cards and
                                       removable media devices.



       /vol/dev/rdsk                   Directory  providing  character  device
                                       access  for  the  PCMCIA memory and ata
                                       cards and removable media devices.



       /vol/dev/aliases/pcmemS         Symbolic link to the  character  device
                                       for the PCMCIA memory card in socket S,
                                       where S represents a PCMCIA socket num-
                                       ber.



       /vol/dev/aliases/rmdisk0        Symbolic  link to the generic removable
                                       media device that is not  a  Zip,  Jaz,
                                       CD-ROM,  floppy, DVD-ROM, PCMCIA memory
                                       card, and so forth.



       /dev/rdsk                       Directory  providing  character  device
                                       access  for  the  PCMCIA memory and ata
                                       cards and other removable devices.



       /dev/dsk                        Directory providing block device access
                                       for the PCMCIA memory and ata cards and
                                       other removable media devices.



ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:


       tab() allbox; lw(2.750000i)|  lw(2.750000i).   ATTRIBUTE  TYPEATTRIBUTE
       VALUE AvailabilitySUNWcsu


SEE ALSO
       cpio(1),  eject(1),  fdformat(1),  tar(1),  volcancel(1),  volcheck(1),
       volmissing(1),  volrmmount(1),  format(1M),  mkfs_pcfs(1M),  mount(1M),
       newfs(1M),   prtvtoc(1M),   rmmount(1M),  rpc.smserverd(1M),  vold(1M),
       rmmount.conf(4),  vold.conf(4),  attributes(5),  scsa2usb(7D),  sd(7D),
       pcfs(7FS), udfs(7FS)

       System Administration Guide: Basic Administration

NOTES
       A  rewritable media or PCMCIA memory card or PCMCIA ata card containing
       a ufs file system created on a SPARC-based system (using newfs(1M))  is
       not  identical to a rewritable media or PCMCIA memory card containing a
       ufs file system created on an x86 based system. Do not interchange  any
       removable  media containing ufs between these platforms; use cpio(1) or
       tar(1) to transfer files on diskettes or  memory  cards  between  them.
       For interchangeable filesystems refer to pcfs(7FS) and udfs(7FS).

BUGS
       Currently,  bad  sector mapping is not supported on floppy diskettes or
       PCMCIA memory cards. Therefore, a diskette or memory card  is  unusable
       if rmformat finds an error (bad sector).



SunOS 5.10                        3 Sep 2004                       rmformat(1)