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REFER(1)                    General Commands Manual                   REFER(1)



NAME
       refer - expand and insert references from a bibliographic database

SYNOPSIS
       refer [ -ben ] [ -ar ] [ -cstring ] [ -kx ] [ -lm,n ]
            [ -p filename ] [ -skeys ] filename...

AVAILABILITY
       This  command  is available with the Text software installation option.
       Refer to for information on how to install optional software.

DESCRIPTION
       refer is a preprocessor for nroff(1), or troff(1), that finds and  for-
       mats  references.   The  input  files  (standard  input by default) are
       copied to the standard output, except for lines between `.['  and  `.]'
       command  lines, Such lines are assumed to contain keywords as for look-
       bib(1), and are replaced by information from a bibliographic data base.
       The  user  can  avoid  the  search, override fields from it, or add new
       fields.  The reference data, from whatever source, is assigned to a set
       of troff strings.  Macro packages such as ms(7) print the finished ref-
       erence text from these strings.  A flag is placed in the  text  at  the
       point  of  reference.  By default, the references are indicated by num-
       bers.

       When refer is used with eqn(1), neqn, or tbl(1), refer should  be  used
       first  in  the  sequence, to minimize the volume of data passed through
       pipes.

OPTIONS
       -b     Bare mode -- do not put any flags in text  (neither  numbers  or
              labels).

       -e     Accumulate  references  instead  of leaving the references where
              encountered, until a sequence of the form:
                     .[
                     $LIST$
                     .]

              is encountered, and then write out all references  collected  so
              far.  Collapse references to the same source.

       -n     Do not search the default file.

       -ar    Reverse  the first r author names (Jones, J. A. instead of J. A.
              Jones).  If r is omitted, all author names are reversed.

       -cstring
              Capitalize (with SMALL CAPS) the fields whose key-letters are in
              string.

       -kx    Instead  of  numbering  references, use labels as specified in a
              reference  data  line  beginning  with  the  characters  %x;  By
              default, x is L.

       -lm,n  Instead  of  numbering  references,  use  labels from the senior
              author's last name and the year of publication.  Only the  first
              m letters of the last name and the last n digits of the date are
              used.  If either of m or n is omitted, the entire name or  date,
              respectively, is used.

       -p filename
              Take  the  next argument as a file of references to be searched.
              The default file is searched last.

       -skeys Sort references by fields whose  key-letters  are  in  the  keys
              string,  and  permute reference numbers in the text accordingly.
              Using this option implies the -e  option.   The  key-letters  in
              keys may be followed by a number indicating how many such fields
              are used, with a + sign taken  as  a  very  large  number.   The
              default  is  AD,  which sorts on the senior author and date.  To
              sort on all authors and then the date,  for  instance,  use  the
              options `-sA+T'.

FILES
       /usr/dict/papers    directory of default publication lists and indexes
       /usr/lib/refer      directory of programs

SEE ALSO
       addbib(1),  eqn(1), indxbib(1), lookbib(1), nroff(1), roffbib(1), sort-
       bib(1), tbl(1), troff(1)



                               21 December 1987                       REFER(1)