REFER(1) General Commands Manual REFER(1)
refer - expand and insert references from a bibliographic database
refer [ -ben ] [ -ar ] [ -cstring ] [ -kx ] [ -lm,n ]
[ -p filename ] [ -skeys ] filename...
This command is available with the Text software installation option.
Refer to for information on how to install optional software.
refer is a preprocessor for nroff(1), or troff(1), that finds and for-
mats references. The input files (standard input by default) are
copied to the standard output, except for lines between `.[' and `.]'
command lines, Such lines are assumed to contain keywords as for look-
bib(1), and are replaced by information from a bibliographic data base.
The user can avoid the search, override fields from it, or add new
fields. The reference data, from whatever source, is assigned to a set
of troff strings. Macro packages such as ms(7) print the finished ref-
erence text from these strings. A flag is placed in the text at the
point of reference. By default, the references are indicated by num-
When refer is used with eqn(1), neqn, or tbl(1), refer should be used
first in the sequence, to minimize the volume of data passed through
-b Bare mode -- do not put any flags in text (neither numbers or
-e Accumulate references instead of leaving the references where
encountered, until a sequence of the form:
is encountered, and then write out all references collected so
far. Collapse references to the same source.
-n Do not search the default file.
-ar Reverse the first r author names (Jones, J. A. instead of J. A.
Jones). If r is omitted, all author names are reversed.
Capitalize (with SMALL CAPS) the fields whose key-letters are in
-kx Instead of numbering references, use labels as specified in a
reference data line beginning with the characters %x; By
default, x is L.
-lm,n Instead of numbering references, use labels from the senior
author's last name and the year of publication. Only the first
m letters of the last name and the last n digits of the date are
used. If either of m or n is omitted, the entire name or date,
respectively, is used.
Take the next argument as a file of references to be searched.
The default file is searched last.
-skeys Sort references by fields whose key-letters are in the keys
string, and permute reference numbers in the text accordingly.
Using this option implies the -e option. The key-letters in
keys may be followed by a number indicating how many such fields
are used, with a + sign taken as a very large number. The
default is AD, which sorts on the senior author and date. To
sort on all authors and then the date, for instance, use the
/usr/dict/papers directory of default publication lists and indexes
/usr/lib/refer directory of programs
addbib(1), eqn(1), indxbib(1), lookbib(1), nroff(1), roffbib(1), sort-
bib(1), tbl(1), troff(1)
21 December 1987 REFER(1)