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RDIST(1)                    General Commands Manual                   RDIST(1)

       rdist - remote file distribution program

       rdist [ -b ] [ -h ] [ -i ] [ -n ] [ -q ] [ -R ] [ -v ]
            [ -w ] [ -y ] [ -d macro = value ] [ -f distfile ]
            [ -m host ] ... [ package ...  ]

       rdist [ -b ] [ -h ] [ -i ] [ -n ] [ -q ] [ -R ] [ -v ]
            [ -w ] [ -y ] -c pathname ...

       This  command  is  available  with the Networking software installation
       option.  See for information about installing optional software.

       rdist maintains copies of files on multiple hosts.   It  preserves  the
       owner, group, mode, and modification time of the master copies, and can
       update programs that are executing.  Normally, a copy on a remote  host
       is  updated  if its size or modification time differs from the original
       on the local host.  rdist reads the indicated distfile for instructions
       on updating files and/or directories.  If distfile is `-', the standard
       input is used.  If no -f option is present, rdist first  looks  in  its
       working  directory  for  distfile,  and then for Distfile, for instruc-

       rdist updates each package specified on the command line; if  none  are
       given, all packages are updated according to their entries in the dist-

       -b     Binary comparison.  Perform a binary comparison and update files
              if they differ, rather than merely comparing dates and sizes.

       -h     Follow  symbolic  links.   Copy the file that the link points to
              rather than the link itself.

       -i     Ignore unresolved links.  rdist will normally  try  to  maintain
              the  link structure of files being transffered and warn the user
              if all the links cannot be found.

       -n     Print the commands without executing them.  This option is  use-
              ful for debugging a distfile.

       -q     Quiet mode.  Do not display the files being updated on the stan-
              dard output.

       -R     Remove extraneous files.   If  a  directory  is  being  updated,
              remove  files on the remote host that do not correspond to those
              in the master (local) directory.  This is useful for maintaining
              truly identical copies of directories.

       -v     Verify  that  the  files  are  up to date on all the hosts.  Any
              files that are out of date  are  displayed,  but  no  files  are
              updated, nor is any mail sent.

       -w     Whole  mode.  The whole file name is appended to the destination
              directory name.  Normally, only the last component of a name  is
              used  when  renaming files.  This preserves the directory struc-
              ture of the files being copied, instead of flattening the direc-
              tory  structure.  For instance, renaming a list of files such as
              ( dir1/f1 dir2/f2 ) to dir3 would create files dir3/dir1/f1  and
              dir3/dir2/f2 instead of dir3/f1 and dir3/f2.  When the -w option
              is used with a filename that begins with  ~,  everything  except
              the home directory is appended to the destination name.

       -y     Younger mode.  Do not update remote copies that are younger than
              the master copy, but issue a warning message instead.

       -d macro=value
              Define macro to have value.  This option is used  to  define  or
              override  macro  definitions  in the distfile.  value can be the
              empty string, one name, or a list of names surrounded by  paren-
              theses and separated by white space.

       -c pathname ...  [login@]hostname[:destpath]
              Update  each pathname on the named host. (Relative filenames are
              taken as relative to your home directory.)  If the `login@' pre-
              fix is given, the update is performed with the user ID of login.
              If the `:destpath' is  given, the remote file  is  installed  as
              that pathname.

       -f distfile
              Use  the description file distfile.  A `-' as the distfile argu-
              ment denotes the standard input.

       -m host
              Limit which machines are to be updated.  Multiple  -m  arguments
              can be given to limit updates to a subset of the hosts listed in
              the distfile.

       A typical package begins with a label composed of the package name fol-
       lowed by a colon:


       This  label allows you to group any number of file-to-host and file-to-
       timestamp mappings into a single distribution package.  If  no  package
       label  appears  in  the distfile, the default package includes all map-
       pings in the file.

       A file-to-host mapping specifies a list of files or directories to dis-
       tribute,  their destination host(s), and any rdist primitives to use in
       performing the update.  A mapping of this sort takes the form:

              ( pathname ... ) ->> ( hostname  ...  )  primitive  ;  [primitive

       In  this  case,  each  pathname is the full pathname of a local file or
       directory to distribute; each hostname is the name of a remote host  on
       which  those  files are to be copied, and primitive is one of the rdist
       primitive listed under Primitives, below.  If there is only  one  path-
       name  or hostname, the surrounding parentheses can be omitted.  A host-
       name can also take the form:


       in which case the update is performed as the user named login.

       A file-to-timestamp mapping is used to monitor which  local  files  are
       updated  with  respect to a local "timestamp" file.  This mapping takes
       the form:

              ( filename ... ) :: timestamp-file primitive ; [primitive ;]...

       In this case, timestamp-file is the name of a  file,  the  modification
       time of which is compared with each named file on the local host.  If a
       file is newer than time-stamp-file, rdist displays a  message  to  that
       effect.  If there is only one filename, the parentheses can be omitted.

   White Space Characters
       NEWLINE,  TAB,  and  SPACE characters are all treated as white space; a
       mapping continues across input lines until the start of the  next  map-
       ping: either a single filename followed by a `->>' or the opening paren-
       thesis of a filename list.

       Comments begin with # and end with a NEWLINE.

       rdist has a limited macro facility.  Macros are only expanded in  file-
       name  or  hostname  lists,  and in the argument lists of certain primi-
       tives.  Macros cannot be used to stand for primitives or their options,
       or the `->' or `::' symbols.

       A macro definition is a line of the form:

              macro = value

       A macro reference is a string of the form:


       although  (as with make(1)) the braces can be omitted if the macro name
       consists of just one character.

       The shell meta-characters: [, ], {, }, *  and  ?   are  recognized  and
       expanded  (on  the  local  host  only)  just  as  they are with csh(1).
       Metacharacters can be escaped by prepending a backslash.

       The ~ character is also expanded in the same way as with csh,  however,
       it is expanded separately on the local and destination hosts.

       File  names  that  do not begin with / or ~ are taken to be relative to
       user's home directory on each destination host.  Note that they are not
       relative to the current working directory.

       The  following  primitives  can  be used to specify actions rdist is to
       take when updating remote copies of each file.

       install [ -b ] [ -h ] [ -i ] [ -R ] [ -v ] [ -w ] [ -y ] [newname]
              Copy out-of-date files and  directories  (recursively).   If  no
              install primitive appears in the package entry, or if no newname
              option is given, the name of the local  file  is  given  to  the
              remote  host's  copy.   If  absent  from the remote host, parent
              directories in a filename's path are created.  To  help  prevent
              disasters,  a  non-empty  directory  on  a  target  host  is not
              replaced with a regular file or a symbolic link by rdist.   How-
              ever, when using the -R option, a non-empty directory is removed
              if the corresponding filename is completely absent on the master
              host.   The options for install have the same semantics as their
              command line counterparts, but are limited in scope to a partic-
              ular  map.   The  login name used on the destination host is the
              same as the local host unless the destination  name  is  of  the
              format  login@host.  In that case, the update is performed under
              the username login.

       notify address ...
              Send mail to the indicated TCP/IP address of the form:


       that lists the files updated and any errors that may have occurred.  If
       an  address  does  not contain a `@host' suffix, rdist uses the name of
       the destination host to complete the address.

       except filename ...
              Omit from updates the files named as arguments.

       except_patpattern ...
              Omit from updates the filenames that match each  regular-expres-
              sion  pattern (see ed(1) for more information on regular expres-
              sions.  Note that \ and $ characters must be escaped in the dis-
              tfile.   Shell variables can also be used within a pattern, how-
              ever shell filename expansion is not supported.

       special [filename] ...  "command-line"
              Specify a Bourne shell, sh(1) command line  to  execute  on  the
              remote  host  after  each named file is updated.  If no filename
              argument is present, the command-line  is  performed  for  every
              updated  file,  with  the  shell variable FILE set to the file's
              name on the local host.  The quotation marks allow  command-line
              to  span  input  lines  in the distfile; multiple shell commands
              must be separated by semicolons (;).

              The default working directory for the shell executing each  com-
              mand-line is the user's home directory on the remote host.

       The  following  sample  distfile  instructs rdist to maintain identical
       copies of a shared library, a  shared-library  initialized  data  file,
       several  include  files,  and  a  directory,  on hosts named hermes and
       magus.  On magus, commands are executed as root.  rdist  notifies  mer-
       lin@druid  whenever it discovers that a local file has changed relative
       to a timestamp file.

              HOSTS = ( hermes root@magus )

              FILES = ( /usr/local/lib/libcant.so.1.1
                   /usrlocal/lib/libcant.sa.1.1 /usr/local/include/{*.h}
                   /usr/local/bin )

              ${FILES} ->> ${HOSTS}
                   install -R ;
              ${FILES} :: /usr/local/lib/timestamp
                   notify merlin@druid ;

       /tmp/rdist*         temporary file for update lists

       csh(1), ed(1), sh(1), stat(2V)

       A complaint about mismatch of rdist version  numbers  may  really  stem
       from some problem with starting your shell, for example, you are in too
       many groups.

       Source files must reside or be mounted on the local host.

       There is no easy way to have a special command executed only once after
       all files in a directory have been updated.

       Variable expansion only works for name lists; there should be a general
       macro facility.

       rdist aborts on files that have a negative  modification  time  (before
       Jan 1, 1970).

       There  should  be  a  "force"  option to allow replacement of non-empty
       directories by regular files or symlinks.  A  means  of  updating  file
       modes and owners of otherwise identical files is also needed.

       root does not have its accustomed access privileges on NFS mounted file
       systems.  Using rdist to copy to such a file system may  fail,  or  the
       copies may be owned by user "nobody."

                               18 December 1989                       RDIST(1)