Free Software Foundation Free Software Foundation
rcs - change RCS file attributes
rcs [options] file...
-i Create and initialize a new RCS file, but do not deposit any revision.
If the RCS file has no path prefix, try to place it first into the sub-
directory ./RCS, and then into the current directory. If the RCS file
already exists, print an error message.
Append the login names appearing in the comma-separated list logins to
the access list of the RCS file.
Append the access list of oldfile to the access list of the RCS file.
Erase the login names appearing in the comma-separated list logins from
the access list of the RCS file. If logins is omitted, erase the entire
Set the default branch to rev. If rev is omitted, the default branch
is reset to the (dynamically) highest branch on the trunk.
sets the comment leader to string. The comment leader is printed
before every log message line generated by the keyword $Log$ during
checkout (see co(1)). This is useful for programming languages without
multi-line comments. An initial ci , or an rcs -i without -c, guesses
the comment leader from the suffix of the working file.
Set the default keyword substitution to subst. The effect of keyword
substitution is described in co(1). Giving an explicit -k option to
co, rcsdiff, and rcsmerge overrides this default. Beware rcs -kv,
because -kv is incompatible with co -l. Use rcs -kkv to restore the
normal default keyword substitution.
Lock the revision with number rev. If a branch is given, lock the
latest revision on that branch. If rev is omitted, lock the latest
revision on the default branch. Locking prevents overlapping changes.
A lock is removed with ci or rcs -u (see below).
Unlock the revision with number rev. If a branch is given, unlock the
latest revision on that branch. If rev is omitted, remove the latest
lock held by the caller. Normally, only the locker of a revision may
unlock it. Somebody else unlocking a revision breaks the lock. This
causes a mail message to be sent to the original locker. The message
contains a commentary solicited from the breaker. The commentary is
terminated by end-of-file or by a line containing . by itself.
-L Set locking to strict. Strict locking means that the owner of an RCS
file is not exempt from locking for checkin. This option should be
used for files that are shared.
-U Set locking to non-strict. Non-strict locking means that the owner of
a file need not lock a revision for checkin. This option should not be
used for files that are shared. Whether default locking is strict is
determined by your system administrator, but it is normally strict.
Replace revision rev's log message with msg.
Associate the symbolic name name with the branch or revision rev.
Delete the symbolic name if both : and rev are omitted; otherwise,
print an error message if name is already associated with another
number. If rev is symbolic, it is expanded before association. A rev
consisting of a branch number followed by a . stands for the current
latest revision in the branch. A : with an empty rev stands for the
current latest revision on the default branch, normally the trunk. For
example, rcs -nname: RCS/* associates name with the current latest
revision of all the named RCS files; this contrasts with rcs
-nname:$ RCS/* which associates name with the revision numbers
extracted from keyword strings in the corresponding working files.
Act like -n, except override any previous assignment of name.
deletes (outdates) the revisions given by range. A range consisting of
a single revision number means that revision. A range consisting of a
branch number means the latest revision on that branch. A range of the
form rev1:rev2 means revisions rev1 to rev2 on the same branch, :rev
means from the beginning of the branch containing rev up to and includ-
ing rev, and rev: means from revision rev to the end of the branch con-
taining rev. None of the outdated revisions may have branches or locks.
-q Run quietly; do not print diagnostics.
-I Run interactively, even if the standard input is not a terminal.
Set the state attribute of the revision rev to state. If rev is a
branch number, assume the latest revision on that branch. If rev is
omitted, assume the latest revision on the default branch. Any iden-
tifier is acceptable for state. A useful set of states is Exp (for
experimental), Stab (for stable), and Rel (for released). By default,
ci(1) sets the state of a revision to Exp.
Write descriptive text from the contents of the named file into the RCS
file, deleting the existing text. The file pathname may not begin with
-. If file is omitted, obtain the text from standard input, terminated
by end-of-file or by a line containing . by itself. Prompt for the text
if interaction is possible; see -I. With -i, descriptive text is
obtained even if -t is not given.
Write descriptive text from the string into the RCS file, deleting the
-Vn Emulate RCS version n. See co(1) for details.
Use suffixes to characterize RCS files. See ci(1) for details.
rcs creates new RCS files or changes attributes of existing ones. An RCS
file contains multiple revisions of text, an access list, a change log,
descriptive text, and some control attributes. For rcs to work, the
caller's login name must be on the access list, except if the access list
is empty, the caller is the owner of the file or the superuser, or the -i
option is present.
Pathnames matching an RCS suffix denote RCS files; all others denote work-
ing files. Names are paired as explained in ci(1). Revision numbers use the
syntax described in ci(1).
The -brev option generates an RCS file that cannot be parsed by RCS version
3 or earlier.
The -ksubst options (except -kkv) generate an RCS file that cannot be
parsed by RCS version 4 or earlier.
Use rcs -Vn to make an RCS file acceptable to RCS version n by discarding
information that would confuse version n.
RCS version 5.5 and earlier does not support the -x option, and requires a
,v suffix on an RCS pathname.
The separator for revision ranges in the -o option used to be - instead of
:, but this leads to confusion when symbolic names contain -. For back-
wards compatibility rcs -o still supports the old - separator, but it warns
about this obsolete use.
Symbolic names need not refer to existing revisions or branches. For exam-
ple, the -o option does not remove symbolic names for the outdated revi-
sions; you must use -n to remove the names.
rcs accesses files much as ci(1) does, except that it uses the effective
user for all accesses, it does not write the working file or its directory,
and it does not even read the working file unless a revision number of $ is
options prepended to the argument list, separated by spaces. See ci(1)
The RCS pathname and the revisions outdated are written to the diagnostic
output. The exit status is zero if and only if all operations were success-
Author: Walter F. Tichy.
Revision Number: 188.8.131.52; Release Date: 1993/10/07.
Copyright © 1982, 1988, 1989 by Walter F. Tichy.
Copyright © 1990, 1991 by Paul Eggert.
co(1), ci(1), ident(1), rcsdiff(1), rcsintro(1), rcsmerge(1), rlog(1),
Walter F. Tichy, RCS--A System for Version Control, Software--Practice &
Experience 15, 7 (July 1985), 637-654.