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ps(1)                            User Commands                           ps(1)



NAME
       ps - report process status

SYNOPSIS
       ps  [-aAcdefjlLPy]  [-g grplist] [-n namelist]  [-o format]... [-p pro-
       clist] [-s sidlist] [-t term] [-u uidlist] [-U uidlist] [-G gidlist]

DESCRIPTION
       The ps command  prints  information  about  active  processes.  Without
       options,  ps  prints  information  about  processes  that have the same
       effective user ID and the same controlling terminal as the invoker. The
       output  contains  only  the process ID, terminal identifier, cumulative
       execution time, and the command name. Otherwise, the  information  that
       is displayed is controlled by the options.

       Some  options  accept lists as arguments. Items in a list can be either
       separated by commas or else enclosed in quotes and separated by  commas
       or spaces. Values for proclist and grplist must be numeric.

OPTIONS
       The following options are supported:

       -a              Lists  information  about all processes most frequently
                       requested: all those except session  leaders  and  pro-
                       cesses not associated with a terminal.



       -A              Lists  information  for all processes. Identical to -e,
                       below.



       -c              Prints information in a format that reflects  scheduler
                       properties  as  described in priocntl(1). The -c option
                       affects the  output  of  the  -f  and  -l  options,  as
                       described below.



       -d              Lists  information  about  all processes except session
                       leaders.



       -e              Lists information about every process now running.



       -f              Generates a full listing. (See below  for  significance
                       of columns in a full listing.)



       -g grplist      Lists  only  process  data whose group leader's ID num-
                       ber(s) appears in grplist. (A group leader is a process
                       whose  process  ID  number  is identical to its process
                       group ID number.)



       -G gidlist      Lists information for processes  whose  real  group  ID
                       numbers  are  given  in  gidlist. The gidlist must be a
                       single argument in the form of a blank- or  comma-sepa-
                       rated list.



       -j              Prints session ID and process group ID.



       -l              Generates a long listing. (See below.)



       -L              Prints  information  about  each  light  weight process
                       (lwp) in each selected process. (See below.)



       -n namelist     Specifies the name of an  alternative  system  namelist
                       file  in  place of the default. This option is accepted
                       for compatibility, but is ignored.



       -o format       Prints information according to the  format  specifica-
                       tion  given  in format. This is fully described in DIS-
                       PLAY FORMATS. Multiple -o options can be specified; the
                       format  specification will be interpreted as the space-
                       character-separated concatenation  of  all  the  format
                       option-arguments.



       -p proclist     Lists  only  process  data whose process ID numbers are
                       given in proclist.



       -P              Prints the number of the processor to which the process
                       or  lwp  is  bound,  if any, under an additional column
                       header, PSR.



       -s sidlist      Lists information on  all  session  leaders  whose  IDs
                       appear in sidlist.



       -t term         Lists  only process data associated with term. Terminal
                       identifiers are specified as a device file name, and an
                       identifier. For example, term/a, or pts/0.



       -u uidlist      Lists  only process data whose effective user ID number
                       or login name is given in uidlist. In the listing,  the
                       numerical  user  ID will be printed unless you give the
                       -f option, which prints the login name.



       -U uidlist      Lists information for processes whose real user ID num-
                       bers  or  login names are given in uidlist. The uidlist
                       must be a single argument in the form of  a  blank-  or
                       comma-separated list.



       -y              Under  a  long  listing  (-l), omits the obsolete F and
                       ADDR columns and includes an RSS column to  report  the
                       resident  set size of the process. Under the -y option,
                       both RSS and SZ (see below) will be reported  in  units
                       of kilobytes instead of pages.



       -z              Lists  only processes in the specified zones. Zones can
                       be specified either by name or ID. This option is  only
                       useful when executed in the global zone.



       -Z              Prints  the  name of the zone with which the process is
                       associated under an additional column header, ZONE.



       Many of the options shown are used to select processes to list. If  any
       are  specified, the default list will be ignored and ps will select the
       processes represented by the inclusive OR of all the selection-criteria
       options.

DISPLAY FORMATS
       Under  the  -f option, ps tries to determine the command name and argu-
       ments given when the process was created by examining the  user  block.
       Failing  this,  the  command name is printed, as it would have appeared
       without the -f option, in square brackets.

       The column headings and the meaning of the columns in a ps listing  are
       given  below;  the  letters  f and l indicate the option (full or long,
       respectively) that causes the  corresponding  heading  to  appear;  all
       means  that  the heading always appears. Note: These two options deter-
       mine only what information is provided  for  a  process;  they  do  not
       determine which processes will be listed.

       F    (l)        Flags  (hexadecimal  and  additive) associated with the
                       process. These flags are available for historical  pur-
                       poses; no meaning should be currently ascribed to them.



       S (l)           The state of the process:


                       O        Process is running on a processor.




                       S        Sleeping:  process  is waiting for an event to
                                complete.



                       R        Runnable: process is on run queue.



                       Z        Zombie state: process  terminated  and  parent
                                not waiting.



                       T        Process  is  stopped,  either by a job control
                                signal or because it is being traced.



       UID (f,l)       The effective user ID number of the process (the  login
                       name is printed under the -f option).



       PID  (all)      The  process ID of the process (this datum is necessary
                       in order to kill a process).



       PPID (f,l)      The process ID of the parent process.



       C    (f,l)      Processor utilization for  scheduling  (obsolete).  Not
                       printed when the -c option is used.



       CLS  (f,l)      Scheduling  class.  Printed  only when the -c option is
                       used.



       PRI  (l)        The priority of the process.  Without  the  -c  option,
                       higher numbers mean lower priority. With the -c option,
                       higher numbers mean higher priority.



       NI   (l)        Nice value, used in priority computation.  Not  printed
                       when  the -c option is used. Only processes in the cer-
                       tain scheduling classes have a nice value.



       ADDR (l)        The memory address of the process.



       SZ   (l)        The total  size  of  the  process  in  virtual  memory,
                       including  all  mapped files and devices, in pages. See
                       pagesize(1).



       WCHAN     (l)   The address of an event for which the process is sleep-
                       ing (if blank, the process is running).



       STIME     (f)   The  starting time of the process, given in hours, min-
                       utes, and seconds. (A process begun more  than  twenty-
                       four  hours  before the ps inquiry is executed is given
                       in months and days.)



       TTY  (all)      The controlling terminal for the process (the  message,
                       ?, is printed when there is no controlling terminal).



       TIME (all)      The cumulative execution time for the process.



       CMD  (all)      The  command  name (the full command name and its argu-
                       ments, up to a limit  of  80  characters,  are  printed
                       under the -f option).



       The  following two additional columns are printed when the -j option is
       specified:

       PGID     The process ID of the process group leader.



       SID      The process ID of the session leader.



       The following two additional columns are printed when the -L option  is
       specified:

       LWP      The lwp ID of the lwp being reported.



       NLWP     The number of lwps in the process (if -f is also specified).



       Under  the  -L  option, one line is printed for each lwp in the process
       and the time-reporting fields STIME and TIME show the  values  for  the
       lwp,  not  the  process. A traditional single-threaded process contains
       only one lwp.

       A process that has exited and has a parent, but has not yet been waited
       for by the parent, is marked <&lt;defunct>&gt;.

   -o format
       The  -o option allows the output format to be specified under user con-
       trol.

       The format specification must be a list of names presented as a  single
       argument,  blank-  or  comma-separated.  Each  variable  has  a default
       header. The default header can be overridden  by  appending  an  equals
       sign  and the new text of the header. The rest of the characters in the
       argument will be used as the header text. The fields specified will  be
       written  in  the  order  specified  on  the command line, and should be
       arranged in columns in the output. The field widths will be selected by
       the  system to be at least as wide as the header text (default or over-
       ridden value). If the header text is null, such as -o user=, the  field
       width  will  be  at  least  as  wide as the default header text. If all
       header text fields are null, no header line will be written.

       The following names are recognized in the POSIX locale:

       user            The effective user ID of the process. This will be  the
                       textual  user  ID,  if it can be obtained and the field
                       width permits, or a decimal representation otherwise.



       ruser           The real user ID of the process. This will be the  tex-
                       tual user ID, if it can be obtained and the field width
                       permits, or a decimal representation otherwise.



       group           The effective group ID of the process. This will be the
                       textual  group  ID, if it can be obtained and the field
                       width permits, or a decimal representation otherwise.



       rgroup          The real group ID of the process. This will be the tex-
                       tual  group  ID,  if  it  can be obtained and the field
                       width permits, or a decimal representation otherwise.



       pid             The decimal value of the process ID.



       ppid            The decimal value of the parent process ID.



       pgid            The decimal value of the process group ID.



       pcpu            The ratio of CPU time used recently to CPU time  avail-
                       able in the same period, expressed as a percentage. The
                       meaning of ``recently'' in this context is unspecified.
                       The  CPU time available is determined in an unspecified
                       manner.



       vsz             The total size of the process  in  virtual  memory,  in
                       kilobytes.



       nice            The  decimal value of the system scheduling priority of
                       the process. See nice(1).



       etime           In the POSIX locale, the elapsed time since the process
                       was started, in the form:

                       [[dd-]hh:]mm:ss

                       where

                       dd       is the number of days




                       hh       is the number of hours



                       mm        is the number of minutes



                       ss       is the number of seconds



                       The  dd field will be a decimal integer. The hh, mm and
                       ss fields will be two-digit decimal integers padded  on
                       the left with zeros.


       time            In  the  POSIX  locale,  the cumulative CPU time of the
                       process in the form:

                       [dd-]hh:mm:ss

                       The dd, hh, mm, and  ss fields will be as described  in
                       the etime specifier.



       tty             The name of the controlling terminal of the process (if
                       any) in the same format used by the who(1) command.



       comm            The name of the command being executed (argv[0]  value)
                       as a string.



       args            The  command  with  all  its arguments as a string. The
                       implementation may truncate this  value  to  the  field
                       width;  it is implementation-dependent whether any fur-
                       ther truncation occurs. It is unspecified  whether  the
                       string represented is a version of the argument list as
                       it was passed to the command when it started, or  is  a
                       version of the arguments as they may have been modified
                       by the application. Applications cannot depend on being
                       able to modify their argument list and having that mod-
                       ification be  reflected  in  the  output  of  ps.   The
                       Solaris  implementation  limits the string to 80 bytes;
                       the string is the version of the argument  list  as  it
                       was passed to the command when it started.



       The following names are recognized in the Solaris implementation:

       f               Flags  (hexadecimal  and  additive) associated with the
                       process.



       s               The state of the process.



       c               Processor utilization for scheduling (obsolete).



       uid             The effective user ID number of the process as a  deci-
                       mal integer.



       ruid            The  real  user  ID  number of the process as a decimal
                       integer.



       gid             The effective group ID number of the process as a deci-
                       mal integer.



       rgid            The  real  group  ID number of the process as a decimal
                       integer.



       projid          The project ID number of the process as a decimal inte-
                       ger.



       project         The  project  ID  of  the process as a textual value if
                       that value can be obtained;  otherwise,  as  a  decimal
                       integer.



       zoneid          The zone ID number of the process as a decimal integer.



       zone            The  zone  ID of the process as a textual value if that
                       value can be obtained; otherwise, as a decimal integer.



       sid             The process ID of the session leader.



       taskid          The task ID of the process.



       class           The scheduling class of the process.



       pri             The priority of the process. Higher numbers mean higher
                       priority.



       opri            The  obsolete  priority  of  the process. Lower numbers
                       mean higher priority.



       lwp             The decimal value of the lwp ID. Requesting  this  for-
                       matting  option  causes one line to be printed for each
                       lwp in the process.



       nlwp            The number of lwps in the process.



       psr             The number of the processor to which the process or lwp
                       is bound.



       pset            The  ID of the processor set to which  the  process  or
                       lwp is bound.



       addr            The memory address of the process.



       osz             The total size of the process  in  virtual  memory,  in
                       pages.



       wchan           The address of an event for which the process is sleep-
                       ing (if -, the process is running).



       stime           The starting time or date of the process, printed  with
                       no blanks.



       rss             The resident set size of the process, in kilobytes. The
                       rss value reported by ps is  an  estimate  provided  by
                       proc(4)  that may underestimate the actual resident set
                       size. Users who wish to get more accurate usage  infor-
                       mation  for  capacity  planning  should  use pmap(1) -x
                       instead.



       pmem            The ratio of the process's resident  set  size  to  the
                       physical memory on the machine, expressed as a percent-
                       age.



       fname           The first 8 bytes of the base  name  of  the  process's
                       executable file.



       ctid            The  contract ID of the process contract the process is
                       a member of as a decimal integer.



       Only comm and args are allowed to contain blank characters; all others,
       including the Solaris implementation variables, are not.

       The  following  table  specifies  the  default header to be used in the
       POSIX locale corresponding to each format specifier.


       tab() box; lw(1.375000i)  lw(1.375000i)|  lw(1.375000i)  lw(1.375000i).
       FormatDefaultFormatDefault SpecifierHeaderSpecifierHeader argsCOMMANDp-
       pidPPID commCOMMANDrgroupRGROUP etimeELAPSEDruserRUSER  groupGROUPtime-
       TIME niceNIttyTT pcpu%CPUuserUSER pgidPGIDvszVSZ pidPID


       The  following table lists the Solaris implementation format specifiers
       and the default header used with each.


       tab() box; lw(1.375000i)  lw(1.375000i)|  lw(1.375000i)  lw(1.375000i).
       FormatDefaultFormatDefault  SpecifierHeaderSpecifierHeader addrADDRpro-
       jidPROJID cCprojectPROJECT classCLSpsrPSR fFrgidRGID fnameCOMMANDrssRSS
       gidGIDruidRUID  lwpLWPsS  nlwpNLWPsidSID opriPRIstimeSTIME oszSZtaskid-
       TASKID pmem%MEMuidUID priPRIwchanWCHAN ctidCTID


EXAMPLES
       Example 1: Using ps Command

       The command:

       example% ps -o user,pid,ppid=MOM -o args

       writes the following in the POSIX locale:

        USER  PID   MOM   COMMAND
       helene  34    12   ps -o uid,pid,ppid=MOM -o args

       The contents of the COMMAND field need not be the same due to  possible
       truncation.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       See  environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment variables
       that affect the execution of ps: LANG, LC_ALL,  LC_CTYPE,  LC_MESSAGES,
       LC_TIME, and NLSPATH.

       COLUMNS                 Override  the system-selected horizontal screen
                               size, used to determine the number of text col-
                               umns to display.



EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values are returned:

       0                       Successful completion.



       >&gt;0                      An error occurred.



FILES
       /dev/pts/*



       /dev/term/*             terminal (``tty'') names searcher files



       /etc/passwd             UID information supplier



       /proc/*                 process control files



ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:


       tab()     allbox;     cw(2.750000i)|    cw(2.750000i)    lw(2.750000i)|
       lw(2.750000i).   ATTRIBUTE  TYPEATTRIBUTE   VALUE   AvailabilitySUNWcsu
       CSIEnabled (see USAGE) Interface StabilityStandard


SEE ALSO
       kill(1),  nice(1), pagesize(1), pgrep(1), pmap(1), priocntl(1), who(1),
       getty(1M),  proc(4),  ttysrch(4),  attributes(5),   environ(5),   stan-
       dards(5), zones(5)

NOTES
       Things  can  change  while ps is running. The snapshot it gives is true
       only for a split-second, and it may not be accurate by the time you see
       it. Some data printed for defunct processes is irrelevant.

       If  no  options  to  select processes are specified, ps will report all
       processes associated with the controlling terminal. If there is no con-
       trolling terminal, there will be no report other than the header.

       ps  -ef  or  ps -o stime may not report the actual start of a tty login
       session, but rather an earlier time, when a getty was last respawned on
       the tty line.

       ps is CSI-enabled except for login names (usernames).



SunOS 5.10                        14 Jul 2004                            ps(1)