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 ps(1)								       ps(1)




 NAME
      ps - report process status

 SYNOPSIS
      ps [-adeflPx] [-g grplist] [-p proclist] [-R prmgrplist] [-t termlist]
      [-u uidlist]

    XPG4 Synopsis
      ps [-aAcdefHjlPx] [-C cmdlist] [-g grplist] [-G gidlist] [-n namelist]
      [-o format] [-p proclist] [-R prmgrplist] [-s sidlist] [-t termlist]
      [-u uidlist] [-U uidlist]

 DESCRIPTION
      ps prints information about selected processes.  Use options to
      specify which processes to select and what information to print about
      them.

    Process Selection Options
      Use the following options to choose which processes should be
      selected.

      NOTE: If an option is used in both the default (standard HP-UX) and
      XPG4 environments, the description provided here documents the default
      behavior.	 Refer to the UNIX95 variable under EXTERNAL INFLUENCES for
      additional information on XPG4 behavior.

	   (none)	  Select those processes associated with the current
			  terminal.

	   -A		  (XPG4 Only.)	Select all processes.  (Synonym for
			  -e.)

	   -a		  Select all processes except process group leaders
			  and processes not associated with a terminal.

	   -C cmdlist	  (XPG4 Only.)	Select processes executing a command
			  with a basename given in cmdlist.

	   -d		  Select all processes except process group leaders.

	   -e		  Select all processes.

	   -g grplist	  Select processes whose process group leaders are
			  given in grplist.

	   -G gidlist	  (XPG4 Only.)	Select processes whose real group ID
			  numbers or group names are given in gidlist.

	   -n namelist	  (XPG4 Only.)	This option is ignored; its presence
			  is allowed for standards compliance.




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	   -p proclist	  Select processes whose process ID numbers are
			  given in proclist.

	   -R prmgrplist  Select processes belonging to PRM process resource
			  groups whose names or ID numbers are given in
			  prmgrplist.  See DEPENDENCIES.

	   -s sidlist	  (XPG4 Only.)	Select processes whose session
			  leaders are given in sidlist.	 (Synonym for -g).

	   -t termlist	  Select processes associated with the terminals
			  given in termlist.  Terminal identifiers can be
			  specified in one of two forms: the device's file
			  name (such as tty04) or if the device's file name
			  starts with tty, just the rest of it (such as 04).
			  If the device's file is in a directory other than
			  /dev or /dev/pty, the terminal identifier must
			  include the name of the directory under /dev that
			  contains the device file (such as pts/5).

	   -u uidlist	  Select processes whose effective user ID numbers
			  or login names are given in uidlist.

	   -U uidlist	  (XPG4 Only.)	Select processes whose real user ID
			  numbers or login names are given in uidlist.

      If any of the -a, -A, -d, or -e options is specified, the -C, -g, -G,
      -p, -R, -t, -u, and -U options are ignored.

      If more than one of -a, -A, -d, and -e are specified, the least
      restrictive option takes effect.

      If more than one of the -C, -g, -G, -p, -R, -t, -u, and -U options are
      specified, processes will be selected if they match any of the options
      specified.

      The lists used as arguments to the -C, -g, -G, -p, -R, -t, -u, and -U
      options can be specified in one of two forms:

	   +  A list of identifiers separated from one another by a comma.

	   +  A list of identifiers enclosed in quotation marks (") and
	      separated from one another by a comma and/or one or more
	      spaces.

    Output Format Options
      Use the following options to control which columns of data are
      included in the output listing.  The options are cumulative.

	   (none)	  The default columns are: pid, tty, time, and comm,
			  in that order.



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	   -f		  Show columns user, pid, ppid, cpu, stime, tty,
			  time, and args, in that order.

	   -l		  Show columns flags, state, uid, pid, ppid, cpu,
			  intpri, nice, addr, sz, wchan, tty, time, and
			  comm, in that order.

	   -fl		  Show columns flags, state, user, pid, ppid, cpu,
			  intpri, nice, addr, sz, wchan, stime, tty, time,
			  and args, in that order.

	   -c		  (XPG4 Only.)	Remove columns cpu and nice; replace
			  column intpri with columns cls and pri.

	   -j		  (XPG4 Only.)	Add columns pgid and sid after
			  column ppid (or pid, if ppid is not being
			  displayed).

	   -P		  Add column prmid (for -l) or prmgrp (for -f or
			  -fl) immediately before column pid.  See
			  DEPENDENCIES.

	   -o format	  (XPG4 Only.) format is a comma- or space-separated
			  list of the columns to display, in the order they
			  should be displayed.	(Valid column names are
			  listed below.)  A column name can optionally be
			  followed by an equals sign (=) and a string to use
			  as the heading for that column.  (Any commas or
			  spaces after the equals sign will be taken as a
			  part of the column heading; if more columns are
			  desired, they must be specified with additional -o
			  options.)  The width of the column will be the
			  greater of the width of the data to be displayed
			  and the width of the column heading.	If an empty
			  column heading is specified for every heading, no
			  heading line will be printed.	 This option
			  overrides options -c, -f, -j, -l, and -P; if they
			  are specified, they are ignored.

	   -H		  (XPG4 Only.)	Shows the process hierarchy.  Each
			  process is displayed under its parent, and the
			  contents of the args or comm column for that
			  process is indented from that of its parent.	Note
			  that this option is expensive in both memory and
			  speed.

	   -x		  Shows the command line in extended format.

      The column names and their meanings are given below.  Except where
      noted, the default heading for each column is the uppercase form of
      the column name.



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	   addr		  The memory address of the process, if resident;
			  otherwise, the disk address.

	   args		  The command line given when the process was
			  created.  This column should be the last one
			  specified, if it is desired.	Only a subset of the
			  command line is saved by the kernel; as much of
			  the command line will be displayed as is
			  available.  The output in this column may contain
			  spaces.  The default heading for this column is
			  COMMAND if -o is specified and CMD otherwise.

	   cls		  Process scheduling class, see rtsched(1).

	   comm		  The command name.  The output in this column may
			  contain spaces.  The default heading for this
			  column is COMMAND if -o is specified and CMD
			  otherwise.

	   cpu		  Processor utilization for scheduling.	 The default
			  heading for this column is C.

	   etime	  Elapsed time of the process.	The default heading
			  for this column is ELAPSED.

	   flags	  Flags (octal and additive) associated with the
			  process:

				0   Swapped
				1   In core
				2   System process
				4   Locked in core (e.g., for physical I/O)
			       10   Being traced by another process
			       20   Another tracing flag

			  The default heading for this column is F.

	   intpri	  The priority of the process as it is stored
			  internally by the kernel.  This column is provided
			  for backward compatibility and its use is not
			  encouraged.

	   gid		  The group ID number of the effective process
			  owner.

	   group	  The group name of the effective process owner.

	   nice		  Nice value; used in priority computation (see
			  nice(1)).  The default heading for this column is
			  NI.




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	   pcpu		  The percentage of CPU time used by this process
			  during the last scheduling interval.	The default
			  heading for this column is %CPU.

	   pgid		  The process group ID number of the process group
			  to which this process belongs.

	   pid		  The process ID number of the process.

	   ppid		  The process ID number of the parent process.

	   pri		  The priority of the process.	The meaning of the
			  value depends on the process scheduling class; see
			  cls, above, and rtsched(1).

	   prmid	  The PRM process resource group ID number.

	   prmgrp	  The PRM process resource group name.

	   rgid		  The group ID number of the real process owner.

	   rgroup	  The group name of the real process owner.

	   ruid		  The user ID number of the real process owner.

	   ruser	  The login name of the real process owner.

	   sid		  The session ID number of the session to which this
			  process belongs.

	   state	  The state of the process:

			       0    Nonexistent
			       S    Sleeping
			       W    Waiting
			       R    Running
			       I    Intermediate
			       Z    Terminated
			       T    Stopped
			       X    Growing

			  The default heading for this column is S.

	   stime	  Starting time of the process.	 If the elapsed time
			  is greater than 24 hours, the starting date is
			  displayed instead.

	   sz		  The size in physical pages of the core image of
			  the process, including text, data, and stack
			  space.  Physical page size is defined by
			  _SC_PAGE_SIZE in the header file <&lt&lt&lt;unistd.h>&gt&gt&gt; (see



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			  sysconf(2) and unistd(5)).

	   time		  The cumulative execution time for the process.

	   tty		  The controlling terminal for the process.  The
			  default heading for this column is TT if -o is
			  specified and TTY otherwise.

	   uid		  The user ID number of the effective process owner.

	   user		  The login name of the effective process owner.

	   vsz		  The size in kilobytes (1024 byte units) of the
			  core image of the process.  See column sz, above.

	   wchan	  The event for which the process is waiting or
			  sleeping; if there is none, a hyphen (-) is
			  displayed.

    Notes
      ps prints the command name and arguments given at the time of the
      process was created.  If the process changes its arguments while
      running (by writing to its argv array), these changes are not
      displayed by ps.

      A process that has exited and has a parent, but has not yet been
      waited for by the parent, is marked <&lt&lt&lt;defunct>&gt&gt&gt; (see zombie process in
      exit(2)).

      The time printed in the stime column, and used in computing the value
      for the etime column, is the time when the process was forked, not the
      time when it was modified by exec().

      To make the ps output safer to display and easier to read, all control
      characters in the comm and args columns are displayed as "visible"
      equivalents in the customary control character format, ^x.

 EXTERNAL INFLUENCES
    Environment Variables
      UNIX95 specifies to use the XPG4 behavior for this command.  The
      changes for XPG4 include support for the entire option set specified
      above and include the following behavioral changes:

	   + The TIME column format changes from mmmm:ss to [dd-]hh:mm:ss.

	   + When the comm, args, user, and prmgrp fields are included by
	     default or the -f or -l flags are used, the column headings of
	     those fields change to CMD, CMD, USER, and PRMGRP,
	     respectively.





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	   + -a, -d, and -g will select processes based on session rather
	     than on process group.

	   + The uid or user column displayed by -f or -l will display
	     effective user rather than real user.

	   + The -u option will select users based on effective UID rather
	     than real UID.

	   + The -C and -H options, while they are not part of the XPG4
	     standard, are enabled.

      LC_TIME determines the format and contents of date and time strings.
      If it is not specified or is null, it defaults to the value of LANG.

      If LANG is not specified or is null, it defaults to C (see lang(5)).

      If any internationalization variable contains an invalid setting, all
      internationalization variables default to C (see environ(5)).

    International Code Set Support
      Single-byte character code sets are supported.

 EXAMPLES
      Generate a full listing of all processes currently running on your
      machine:

	   ps -ef

      To see if a certain process exists on the machine, such as the cron
      clock daemon, check the far right column for the command name, cron,
      or try

	   ps -f -C cron

 WARNINGS
      Things can change while ps is running; the picture it gives is only a
      snapshot in time.	 Some data printed for defunct processes is
      irrelevant.

      If two special files for terminals are located at the same select
      code, that terminal may be reported with either name.  The user can
      select processes with that terminal using either name.

      Users of ps must not rely on the exact field widths and spacing of its
      output, as these will vary depending on the system, the release of
      HP-UX, and the data to be displayed.

 DEPENDENCIES
    HP Process Resource Manager
      The -P and -R options require the optional HP Process Resource Manager



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 ps(1)								       ps(1)




      (PRM) software to be installed and configured.  See prmconfig(1) for a
      description of how to configure HP PRM, and prmconf(4) for the
      definition of "process resource group."

      If HP PRM is not installed and configured and -P or -R is specified, a
      warning message is displayed and (for -P) hyphens (-) are displayed in
      the prmid and prmgrp columns.

 FILES
      /dev				 Directory of terminal device files
      /etc/passwd			 User ID information
      /var/adm/ps_data			 Internal data structure

 SEE ALSO
      kill(1), nice(1), acctcom(1M), exec(2), exit(2), fork(2), sysconf(2),
      unistd(5).

      HP Process Resource Manager: prmconfig(1), prmconf(4) in HP Process
      Resource Manager User's Guide.

 STANDARDS COMPLIANCE
      ps: SVID2, XPG2, XPG3, XPG4
































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