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PS(1)                        BSD Reference Manual                        PS(1)

NAME
     ps - process status

SYNOPSIS
     ps [-aCehjlmrSTuvwx] [-M core] [-N system] [-O fmt] [-o fmt] [-p pid] [-t
        tty] [-W swap]
     ps [-L]

DESCRIPTION
     Ps displays a header line followed by lines containing information about
     your processes that have controlling terminals.  This information is
     sorted by process ID.

     The information displayed is selected based on a set of keywords (see the
     -L -O and -o options).  The default output format includes, for each pro-
     cess, the process' ID, controlling terminal, cpu time (including both us-
     er and system time), state, and associated command.

     The options are as follows:

     -a      Display information about other users' processes as well as your
             own.

     -C      Change the way the cpu percentage is calculated by using a
             ``raw'' cpu calculation that ignores ``resident'' time (this nor-
             mally has no effect).

     -e      Display the environment as well.

     -h      Repeat the information header as often as necessary to guarantee
             one header per page of information.

     -j      Print information associated with the following keywords: user,
             pid, ppid, pgid, sess, jobc, state, tt, time and command.

     -L      List the set of available keywords.

     -l      Display information associated with the following keywords: uid,
             pid, ppid, cpu, pri, nice, vsz, rss, wchan, state, tt, time and
             command.

     -M      Extract values associated with the name list from the specified
             core instead of the default ``/dev/kmem''.

     -m      Sort by memory usage, instead of by process ID.

     -N      Extract the name list from the specified system instead of the
             default ``/vmunix''.

     -O      Add the information associated with the space or comma separated
             list of keywords specified, after the process ID, in the default
             information display.  Keywords may be appended with an equals
             (``='') sign and a string.  This causes the printed header to use
             the specified string instead of the standard header.

     -o      Display information associated with the space or comma separated
             list of keywords specified.  Keywords may be appended with an
             equals (``='') sign and a string.  This causes the printed header
             to use the specified string instead of the standard header.

     -p      Display information associated with the specified process ID.


     -r      Sort by current cpu usage, instead of by process ID.

     -S      Change the way the process time is calculated by summing all ex-
             ited children to their parent process.

     -T      Display information about processes attached to the device asso-
             ciated with the standard input.

     -t      Display information about processes attached to the specified
             terminal device.

     -u      Display information associated with the following keywords: user,
             pid, %cpu, %mem, vsz, rss, tt, state, start, time and command.
             The -u option implies the -r option.

     -v      Display information associated with the following keywords: pid,
             state, time, sl, re, pagein, vsz, rss, lim, tsiz, %cpu, %mem and
             command.  The -v option implies the -m option.

     -W      Extract swap information from the specified file instead of the
             default ``/dev/swap''.

     -w      Use 132 columns to display information, instead of the default
             which is your window size.  If the -w option is specified more
             than once, ps will use as many columns as necessary without re-
             gard for your window size.

     -x      Display information about processes without controlling termi-
             nals.

     A complete list of the available keywords are listed below.  Some of
     these keywords are further specified as follows:

     %cpu    The cpu utilization of the process; this is a decaying average
             over up to a minute of previous (real) time.  Since the time base
             over which this is computed varies (since processes may be very
             young) it is possible for the sum of all %CPU fields to exceed
             100%.

     %mem    The percentage of real memory used by this process.

     flags   The flags (in hexadecimal) associated with the process as in the
             include file <sys/proc.h>:

             SLOAD         0x0000001     in core
             SSYS          0x0000002     swapper or pager process
             SLOCK         0x0000004     process being swapped out
             SSWAP         0x0000008     save area flag
             STRC          0x0000010     process is being traced
             SWTED         0x0000020     another tracing flag
             SSINTR        0x0000040     sleep is interruptible
             SKEEP         0x0000100     another flag to prevent swap out
             SOMASK        0x0000200     restore old mask after taking signal
             SWEXIT        0x0000400     working on exiting
             SPHYSIO       0x0000800     doing physical I/O
             SVFORK        0x0001000     process resulted from vfork(2)
             SVFDONE       0x0002000     another vfork flag
             SNOVM         0x0004000     no vm, parent in a vfork
             SPAGV         0x0008000     init data space on demand, from vnode
             SSEQL         0x0010000     user warned of sequential vm behavior
             SUANOM        0x0020000     user warned of random vm behavior
             STIMO         0x0040000     timing out during sleep
             SNOCLDSTOP    0x0080000     no SIGCHLD when children stop
             SCTTY         0x0100000     has a controlling terminal
             SOWEUPC       0x0200000     owe process an addupc() call at next

                                         ast
             SSEL          0x0400000     selecting; wakeup/waiting danger
             SEXEC         0x0800000     process called exec(2)
             SHPUX         0x1000000     HP-UX process (HPUXCOMPAT)
             SULOCK        0x2000000     locked in core after swap error
             SPTECHG       0x4000000     pte's for process have changed

     lim     The soft limit on memory used, specified via a call to
             setrlimit(2).

     lstart  The exact time the command started, using the ``%C'' format de-
             scribed in strftime(3).

     nice    The process scheduling increment (see setpriority(2)).

     rss     the real memory (resident set) size of the process (in 1024 byte
             units).

     start   The time the command started.  If the command started less than
             24 hours ago, the start time is displayed using the ``%l:ps.1p''
             format described in strftime(3).  If the command started less
             than 7 days ago, the start time is displayed using the
             ``%a6.15p'' format.  Otherwise, the start time is displayed using
             the ``%e%b%y'' format.

     state   The state is given by a sequence of letters, for example,
             ``RWNA''. The first letter indicates the run state of the pro-
             cess:

             D       Marks a process in disk (or other short term, uninter-
                     ruptible) wait.
             I       Marks a process that is idle (sleeping for longer than
                     about 20 seconds).
             R       Marks a runnable process.
             S       Marks a process that is sleeping for less than about 20
                     seconds.
             T       Marks a stopped process.
             Z       Marks a dead process (a ``zombie'').

             Additional characters after these, if any, indicate additional
             state information:

             +       The process is in the foreground process group of its
                     control terminal.
             <       The process has raised CPU scheduling priority.
             >       The process has specified a soft limit on memory require-
                     ments and is currently exceeding that limit; such a pro-
                     cess is (necessarily) not swapped.
             A       the process has asked for random page replacement
                     (VA_ANOM, from vadvise(2),  for example, lisp(1) in a
                     garbage collect).
             E       The process is trying to exit.
             L       The process has pages locked in core (for example, for
                     raw I/O).
             N       The process has reduced CPU scheduling priority (see
                     setpriority(2)).
             S       The process has asked for FIFO page replacement (VA_SEQL,
                     from vadvise(2),  for example, a large image processing
                     program using virtual memory to sequentially address vo-
                     luminous data).
             s       The process is a session leader.
             V       The process is suspended during a vfork.
             W       The process is swapped out.
             X       The process is being traced or debugged.



     tt      An abbreviation for the pathname of the controlling terminal, if
             any.  The abbreviation consists of the two letters following
             ``/dev/tty'', or, for the console, ``co''.  This is followed by a
             ``-'' if the process can no longer reach that controlling termi-
             nal (i.e., it has been revoked).

     wchan   The event (an address in the system) on which a process waits.
             When printed numerically, the initial part of the address is
             trimmed off and the result is printed in hex, for example,
             0x80324000 prints as 324000.

     When printing using the command keyword, a process that has exited and
     has a parent that has not yet waited for the process (in other words, a
     zombie) is listed as ``<defunct>'', and a process which is blocked while
     trying to exit is listed as ``<exiting>''.  Ps makes an educated guess as
     to the file name and arguments given when the process was created by ex-
     amining memory or the swap area.  The method is inherently somewhat unre-
     liable and in any event a process is entitled to destroy this informa-
     tion, so the names cannot be depended on too much.  The ucomm (account-
     ing) keyword can, however, be depended on.

KEYWORDS
     The following is a complete list of the available keywords and their
     meanings.  Several of them have aliases (keywords which are synonyms).

     %cpu       percentage cpu usage (alias pcpu)
     %mem       percentage memory usage (alias pmem)
     acflag     accounting flag (alias acflg)
     command    command and arguments
     cpu        short-term cpu usage factor (for scheduling)
     flags      the process flags, in hexadecimal (alias f)
     inblk      total blocks read (alias inblock)
     jobc       job control count
     ktrace     tracing flags
     ktracep    tracing vnode
     lim        memoryuse limit
     logname    login name of user who started the process
     lstart     time started
     majflt     total page faults
     minflt     total page reclaims
     msgrcv     total messages received (reads from pipes/sockets)
     msgsnd     total messages sent (writes on pipes/sockets)
     nice       nice value (alias ni)
     nivcsw     total involuntary context switches
     nsigs      total signals taken (alias nsignals)
     nswap      total swaps in/out
     nvcsw      total voluntary context switches
     nwchan     wait channel (as an address)
     oublk      total blocks written (alias oublock)
     p_ru       resource usage (valid only for zombie)
     paddr      swap address
     pagein     pageins (same as majflt)
     pgid       process group number
     pid        process ID
     poip       pageouts in progress
     ppid       parent process ID
     pri        scheduling priority
     re         core residency time (in seconds; 127 = infinity)
     rgid       real group ID
     rlink      reverse link on run queue, or 0
     rss        resident set size
     rsz        resident set size + (text size / text use count) (alias rs-
                size)


     ruid       real user ID
     ruser      user name (from ruid)
     sess       session pointer
     sig        pending signals (alias pending)
     sigcatch   caught signals (alias caught)
     sigignore  ignored signals (alias ignored)
     sigmask    blocked signals (alias blocked)
     sl         sleep time (in seconds; 127 = infinity)
     start      time started
     state      symbolic process state (alias stat)
     svgid      saved gid from a setgid executable
     svuid      saved uid from a setuid executable
     tdev       control terminal device number
     time       accumulated cpu time, user + system (alias cputime)
     tpgid      control terminal process group ID
     tsess      control terminal session pointer
     tsiz       text size (in Kbytes)
     tt         control terminal name (two letter abbreviation)
     tty        full name of control terminal
     uprocp     process pointer
     ucomm      name to be used for accounting
     uid        effective user ID
     upr        scheduling priority on return from system call (alias usrpri)
     user       user name (from uid)
     vsz        virtual size in Kbytes (alias vsize)
     wchan      wait channel (as a symbolic name)
     xstat      exit or stop status (valid only for stopped or zombie process)

FILES
     /dev                    special files and device names
     /dev/drum               default swap device
     /dev/kmem               default kernel memory
     /var/run/dev.db         /dev name database
     /var/run/kvm_vmunix.db  system namelist database
     /vmunix                 default system namelist

SEE ALSO
     kill(1),  w(1),  kvm(3),  strftime(3),  pstat(8)

BUGS
     Since ps cannot run faster than the system and is run as any other sched-
     uled process, the information it displays can never be exact.

4th Berkeley Distribution       April 18, 1994                               5