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prof(1)                          User Commands                         prof(1)

       prof - display profile data

       prof [-ChsVz] [-a | c | n | t]  [-o | x]  [-g | l]  [-m mdata] [prog]

       The  prof  command  interprets  a  profile file produced by the monitor
       function.  The symbol table in the object file prog (a.out by  default)
       is  read  and correlated with a profile file (mon.out by default).  For
       each external text  symbol  the  percentage  of  time  spent  executing
       between  the  address  of  that  symbol  and the address of the next is
       printed, together with the number of times that function was called and
       the average number of milliseconds per call.

       The mutually exclusive options -a, -c, -n, and -t determine the type of
       sorting of the output lines:

       -a       Sort by increasing symbol address.

       -c       Sort by decreasing number of calls.

       -n       Sort lexically by symbol name.

       -t       Sort by decreasing percentage of total time (default).

       The mutually exclusive options -o and  -x specify the printing  of  the
       address of each symbol monitored:

       -o       Print  each  symbol  address  (in octal) along with the symbol

       -x       Print each symbol address (in hexadecimal) along with the sym-
                bol name.

       The mutually exclusive options -g and -l control the type of symbols to
       be reported. The  -l option must be used with care; it applies the time
       spent  in  a  static function to the preceding (in memory) global func-
       tion, instead of giving the static function a  separate  entry  in  the
       report.  If all static functions are properly located, this feature can
       be very useful. If not, the resulting report may be misleading.

       Assume that  A and B are global functions  and  only   A  calls  static
       function   S.  If  S is located immediately after  A in the source code
       (that is, if  S is properly located), then, with the   -l  option,  the
       amount of time spent in  A can easily be determined, including the time
       spent in  S. If, however, both  A and B  call   S,  then,  if  the   -l
       option  is  used,  the report will be misleading; the time spent during
       B's call to  S will be attributed to  A, making it appear  as  if  more
       time  had  been spent in  A than really had.  In this case, function  S
       cannot be properly located.

       -g       List the time spent in  static  (non-global)  functions  sepa-
                rately.  The  -g  option  function  is the opposite of the  -l

       -l       Suppress printing  statically  declared  functions.   If  this
                option  is given, time spent executing in a static function is
                allocated to the closest global  function  loaded  before  the
                static  function  in  the  executable.   This  option  is  the
                 It is the opposite of  the  -g function and  should  be  used
                with care.

       The following options may be used in any combination:

       -C              Demangle C++ symbol names before printing them out.

       -h              Suppress  the  heading  normally printed on the report.
                       This is useful if the report is to  be  processed  fur-

       -m mdata        Use  file mdata instead of mon.out as the input profile

       -s              Print a summary of several of the monitoring parameters
                       and statistics on the standard error output.

       -V              Print   prof  version information on the standard error

       -z              Include all symbols in the profile range, even if asso-
                       ciated with zero number of calls and zero time.

       A program creates a profile file if it has been link edited with the -p
       option of cc(1B). This option to the cc(1B) command arranges for  calls
       to  monitor  at  the  beginning and end of execution. It is the call to
       monitor at the end of execution that causes the system to write a  pro-
       file  file.  The  number  of  calls  to a function is tallied if the -p
       option was used when the file containing the function was compiled.

       A single function may be split into subfunctions for profiling by means
       of the  MARK macro. See  prof(5).

       PROFDIR         The  name  of the file created by a profiled program is
                       controlled by  the  environment  variable  PROFDIR.  If
                       PROFDIR  is not set,  mon.out is produced in the direc-
                       tory  current   when   the   program   terminates.   If
                       PROFDIR=string,  string/pid.progname is produced, where
                       progname consists of   argv[0]  with  any  path  prefix
                       removed, and  pid is the process ID of the program.  If
                       PROFDIR is set, but null, no profiling output  is  pro-

       mon.out         default profile file

       a.out           default namelist (object) file

       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       tab()     allbox;     cw(2.750000i)|    cw(2.750000i)    lw(2.750000i)|
       lw(2.750000i).  ATTRIBUTE TYPEATTRIBUTE VALUE AvailabilitySUNWbtool

       cc(1B), gprof(1), exit(2), pcsample(2),  profil(2),  malloc(3C),   mal-
       loc(3MALLOC), monitor(3C), attributes(5), prof(5)

       The  times  reported  in  successive  identical runs may show variances
       because of varying cache-hit ratios that result from sharing the  cache
       with  other processes. Even if a program seems to be the only one using
       the machine, hidden background or asynchronous processes may  blur  the
       data.  In  rare cases, the clock ticks initiating recording of the pro-
       gram counter may "beat" with loops in  a  program,  grossly  distorting
       measurements. Call counts are always recorded precisely, however.

       Only  programs  that  call  exit or return from  main are guaranteed to
       produce a profile file, unless a final call to  monitor  is  explicitly

       The times for static functions are attributed to the preceding external
       text symbol if the -g option is not used. However, the call counts  for
       the  preceding function are still correct; that is, the static function
       call counts are not added to the call counts of the external function.

       If more than one of the options  -t, -c, -a,  and  -n is specified, the
       last option specified is used and the user is warned.

       LD_LIBRARY_PATH must not contain /usr/lib as a component when compiling
       a program for profiling. If   LD_LIBRARY_PATH  contains  /usr/lib,  the
       program will not be linked correctly with the profiling versions of the
       system libraries in /usr/lib/libp. See gprof(1).

       Functions such as  mcount(),  _mcount(),  moncontrol(),  _moncontrol(),
       monitor(),  and  _monitor() may appear in the prof report.  These func-
       tions are part of the profiling implementation  and  thus  account  for
       some  amount  of  the  runtime overhead.  Since these functions are not
       present in an unprofiled application, time accumulated and call  counts
       for  these  functions may be ignored when evaluating the performance of
       an application.

   64-bit profiling
       64-bit profiling may be used freely with  dynamically  linked  executa-
       bles,  and profiling information is collected for the shared objects if
       the objects are compiled for profiling. Care must be applied to  inter-
       pret  the profile output, since it is possible for symbols from differ-
       ent shared objects to have the same name. If duplicate names  are  seen
       in  the  profile  output,  it is better to use the -s (summary) option,
       which prefixes a module id before each symbol that is  duplicated.  The
       symbols  can  then  be  mapped to appropriate modules by looking at the
       modules information in the summary.

       If the -a option is used with  a  dynamically  linked  executable,  the
       sorting  occurs  on  a  per-shared-object  basis. Since there is a high
       likelihood of symbols from differed shared objects  to  have  the  same
       value,  this  results in an output that is more understandable. A blank
       line separates the symbols from different shared  objects,  if  the  -s
       option is given.

   32-bit profiling
       32-bit  profiling  may be used with dynamically linked executables, but
       care must be applied. In 32-bit profiling,  shared  objects  cannot  be
       profiled  with  prof. Thus, when a profiled, dynamically linked program
       is executed, only the "main" portion of the  image  is  sampled.   This
       means  that  all time spent outside of the "main" object, that is, time
       spent in a shared object, will not be included in the profile  summary;
       the total time reported for the program may be less than the total time
       used by the program.

       Because the time spent in a shared object cannot be accounted for,  the
       use  of  shared  objects should be minimized whenever a program is pro-
       filed with  prof. If desired, the program should be linked to the  pro-
       filed  version  of  a library (or to the standard archive version if no
       profiling version is available), instead of the shared  object  to  get
       profile information on the functions of a library. Versions of profiled
       libraries may be supplied with the system in the  /usr/lib/libp  direc-
       tory. Refer to compiler driver documentation on profiling.

       Consider  an  extreme  case. A profiled program dynamically linked with
       the shared C library spends 100 units of time in  some   libc  routine,
       say,   malloc(). Suppose  malloc() is called only from routine  B and B
       consumes only 1 unit of time. Suppose further that routine  A  consumes
       10  units of time, more than any other routine in the "main" (profiled)
       portion of the image. In this case,  prof will conclude  that  most  of
       the  time is being spent in  A and almost no time is being spent in  B.
       From this it will be  almost  impossible  to  tell  that  the  greatest
       improvement  can  be  made by looking at routine  B and not routine  A.
       The value of the profiler in this case is severely degraded; the  solu-
       tion is to use archives as much as possible for profiling.

SunOS 5.10                        1 Nov 1999                           prof(1)