prof - display profile data
prof [-tcan] [-ox] [-g] [-z] [-h] [-s] [-m mdata] [prog]
prof interprets a profile file produced by monitor() (see
monitor(3C)). The symbol table in the object file prog (a.out by
default) is read and correlated with a profile file (mon.out by
default). For each external text symbol, the percentage of time spent
executing between the address of that symbol and the address of the
next is printed, together with the number of times that function was
called and the average number of milliseconds per call.
The mutually exclusive options t, c, a, and n determine the type of
sorting of the output lines:
-t Sort by decreasing percentage of total time
-c Sort by decreasing number of calls.
-a Sort by increasing symbol address.
-n Sort by symbol name in ascending collation order (see
Environment Variables below).
The mutually exclusive options o and x specify the printing of the
address of each symbol monitored:
-o Print each symbol address (in octal) along with the
-x Print each symbol address (in hexadecimal) along with
the symbol name.
The following options can be used in any combination:
-g Include non-global symbols (static functions).
-z Include all symbols in the profile range (see
monitor(3C)), even if associated with zero number of
calls and zero time.
-h Suppress the heading normally printed on the report.
(This is useful if the report is to be processed
-s Print a summary of several of the monitoring
parameters and statistics on the standard error
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-m mdata Use file mdata instead of mon.out as the input
A program creates a profile file if it has been loaded using the cc -p
option (see cc_bundled(1)). This option to the cc command arranges
for calls to monitor() at the beginning and end of execution (see
monitor(3C)). It is the call to the monitor command at the end of
execution that causes a profile file to be written. The number of
calls to a function is tallied if the -p option was used when the file
containing the function was compiled.
The name of the file created by a profiled program is controlled by
the environment variable PROFDIR. If PROFDIR is not set, mon.out is
produced in the directory current when the program terminates. If
PROFDIR=string, string/pid.progname is produced, where progname
consists of argv with any path prefix removed, and pid is the
program's process ID. If PROFDIR is set to a null string, no
profiling output is produced.
LC_COLLATE determines the collating order output by the -n option.
If LC_COLLATE is not specified in the environment or is set to the
empty string, the value of LANG is used as a default. If LANG is not
specified or is set to the empty string, a default of ``C'' (see
lang(5)) is used instead of LANG. If any internationalization
variable contains an invalid setting, prof behaves as if all
internationalization variables are set to ``C'' (see environ(5)).
The times reported in successive identical runs may show variances of
20% or more, because of varying cache-hit ratios due to sharing of the
cache with other processes. Even if a program seems to be the only
one using the machine, hidden background or asynchronous processes may
blur the data. In rare cases, the clock ticks initiating recording of
the program counter may ``beat'' with loops in a program, grossly
Call counts are always recorded precisely, however.
Only programs that call exit() (see exit(2)) or return from main cause
a profile file to be produced, unless a final call to monitor() is
The use of the cc -p option to invoke profiling imposes a limit of 600
functions that can have call counters established during program
execution. For more counters, call monitor() directly. If this limit
is exceeded, other data is overwritten and the mon.out file is
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corrupted. The number of call counters used is reported automatically
by the prof command whenever the number exceeds 5/6 of the maximum.
mon.out for profile
a.out for namelist
cc_bundled(1), exit(2), profil(2), crt0(3), end(3C), monitor(3C).
prof: SVID2, SVID3, XPG2
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