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 pppd(1)							     pppd(1)




 NAME
      pppd - PPP daemon

 SYNOPSIS
      pppd [options...]

 DESCRIPTION
      pppd is a daemon process used in UNIX systems to manage connections to
      other hosts using PPP (Point to Point Protocol) or SLIP (Serial Line
      Internet Protocol).  It uses the UNIX host's native serial ports.	 It
      communicates with the UNIX kernel's own TCP/IP implementation via the
      HP IP tunnel driver (see tun(4)).

      The functionality supplied by this daemon supersedes that provided by
      ppl(1) in HP-UX prior to Release 10.30.  ppl only supported the SLIP
      and CSLIP (Compressed Header SLIP) protocols.

    Daemon Management Options
      auto		       Start in `autocall' mode and detach from the
			       controlling terminal to run as a daemon.
			       Initiate a connection in response to a packet
			       specified in the `bringup' category in
			       filter-file.  Requires the remote address.

      up		       When used with auto, bring the link up
			       immediately rather than waiting for traffic.
			       If the link goes down, attempt to restart it
			       (after the call retry delay timer expires)
			       without waiting for an outbound packet.

      dedicated		       Treat the connection as a dedicated line
			       rather than a demand-dial connection.  This
			       option tells pppd to never give up on the
			       connection; that is, if the peer tries to
			       shut down the link, go ahead and do so, but
			       then immediately try to reestablish the
			       connection.  Similarly, when first trying to
			       connect, pppd will not give up after sending
			       a fixed number of Configure-Request messages.
			       Hangup events (LQM failures, loss of Carrier
			       Detect) will still cause the device to be
			       closed, just as with dial-up connections, and
			       the Systems file will then be checked for
			       alternate entries.  If none are available,
			       the connection will be reestablished after
			       the call retry delay timer expires.  Use a
			       short call retry delay timer on dedicated
			       circuits; something like Any;5-30 should work
			       well.  Implies up.





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 pppd(1)							     pppd(1)




      nodetach		       Don't detach from the controlling terminal in
			       `autocall' mode.	 When used with log -, this
			       can be useful for watching the progress of
			       the PPP session.

      log log-file	       Append logging messages to log-file (default:
			       /var/adm/pppd.log).

      acct acct-file	       Append session accounting messages to acct-
			       file.  If acct-file is the same as log-file,
			       the session accounting messages will be
			       interleaved with other logging information.

      filter filter-file       Look in filter-file for packet filtering and
			       link management information (default:
			       /etc/ppp/Filter).

      debug debug-level	       Set the log file verbosity to the following
			       debug-level and each debugging verbosity
			       level also provides the information of all
			       the lower-numbered levels.

			       0   Daemon start messages

			       1   Link status messages, calling attempts
				   (the default)

			       2   Chat script processing, input framing
				   errors

			       3   LCP, IPCP, PAP and CHAP negotiation

			       4   LQM status summaries

			       5   IP interface changes

			       6   IP message summaries

			       7   Full LQM reports

			       8   All PPP messages (without framing)

			       9   Characters read or written

			       10  Procedure call messages

			       11  Internal timers

      exec exec-cmd	       Run `exec-cmd up addr args' when the link
			       comes up, and `exec-cmd down addr args' when
			       it goes down.  Addr is the IP address of the



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 pppd(1)							     pppd(1)




			       peer, and args is the list of arguments given
			       to pppd.

      nonice		       Run at a normal user process priority, rather
			       than using the nice() library routine to
			       elevate pppd scheduling priority to -10.

    Communications Options
      asyncmap async-map       Set the desired Async Control Character Map
			       to async-map, expressed in C-style
			       hexadecimal notation (default 0xA0000).

      noasyncmap	       Disable LCP Async Control Character Map
			       negotiation.

      escape odd-character     In addition to those characters specified in
			       the PPP Async Control Character Map (which
			       can include only 0x00 through 0x1F), also
			       apply the escaping algorithm when
			       transmitting odd-character.  The value of
			       odd-character must be between 0x00 and 0xFF,
			       and cannot be any of 0x5E, 0x7D or 0x7E.

			       Odd-character can be specified as a decimal
			       number, in C-style hexadecimal notation, or
			       as an ASCII character with optional `^'
			       control-character notation.  For example, the
			       XON character could be specified as 17, 0x11,
			       or ^Q.

			       If a character specified with the escape
			       argument, when transformed into its escaped
			       form, would be the same as a character
			       contained in the peer's negotiated Async
			       Control Character Map, a warning will be
			       printed in the log file and the character
			       specified on the command line will not be
			       escaped.

			       If a character specified with the escape
			       argument, when transformed into its escaped
			       form, would be the same as a character
			       specified in another escape argument on the
			       daemon's command line, pppd will print an
			       error message and exit.

      device		       Communicate over the named device (default
			       /dev/tty).

      comm-speed	       Set communications rate to comm-speed bits
			       per second.



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 pppd(1)							     pppd(1)




      ignore-cd		       Ignore the state of the CD (Carrier Detect,
			       also called DCD, Data Carrier Detect) signal.
			       This is useful for systems that don't support
			       CD but want to run PPP over a dedicated line.

      xonxoff		       Set the line to use in-band (`software') flow
			       control, using the characters DC3 (^S, XOFF,
			       ASCII 0x13) to stop the flow and DC1 (^Q,
			       XON, ASCII 0x11) to resume.  (The default is
			       to use no flow control.) For an outbound
			       connection, this may be specified either in
			       Devices or on the pppd command line.

      telnet		       When used on an answering pppd command line,
			       negotiate the telnet binary option and
			       understand telnet escape processing.  Not for
			       use with device or auto.

    Link Management Options
      nooptions		       Disable all LCP and IPCP options.

      noaccomp		       Disable HDLC Address and Control Field
			       compression.

      noprotcomp	       Disable LCP Protocol Field Compression.

      slip		       Use RFC 1055 SLIP packet framing rather than
			       PPP packet framing.  Disables all option
			       negotiation, and implies noasyncmap,
			       noipaddress, vjslots 16, novjcid, nomagic,
			       nomru, and mru 1006.  Implies vjcomp if peer
			       sends a header-compressed TCP packet.

      extra-slip-end	       When running in SLIP mode, prepend a SLIP
			       packet framing character (0xC0) to each frame
			       before transmission, even if this frame
			       immediately follows the previous frame.	By
			       default, pppd transmits only one framing
			       character between adjacent SLIP frames.

      nomagic		       Disable LCP Magic Number negotiation.

      mru mru-size	       Set LCP Maximum Receive Unit value to mru-
			       size for negotiation.  The default is 1500
			       for PPP and 1006 for SLIP.

      nomru		       Disable LCP Maximum Receive Unit negotiation,
			       and use 1500 for our interface.

      active		       Begin LCP parameter negotiation immediately
			       (the default).



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 pppd(1)							     pppd(1)




      passive		       Do not send our first LCP packet until we
			       receive an LCP packet from the peer.

      timeout restart-time     Set the LCP, IPCP, CCP, PAP, and CHAP option
			       negotiation restart timers to restart-time
			       (default 3 seconds).

      lqrinterval time	       Send Link-Quality-Reports or Echo-Requests
			       every time seconds (default 10 seconds).	 If
			       the peer responds with a Protocol-Reject,
			       send LCP Echo-Requests every time seconds
			       instead, and use the received LCP Echo-
			       Replies for link status policy decisions.

      lqthreshold min/per      Set a minimum standard for link quality by
			       considering the connection to have failed if
			       fewer than min out of the last per LQRs we
			       sent have been responded to by the peer
			       (default 1/5).

      echolqm		       Use LCP Echo-Requests rather than standard
			       Link-Quality-Report messages for link quality
			       assessment and policy decisions.	 The peer
			       can override this if it actively tries to
			       configure Link Quality Monitoring unless the
			       nolqm parameter is also specified.

      nolqm		       Don't send or recognize Link-Quality-Report
			       messages.  If echolqm is also specified,
			       Echo-Request messages will be used to detect
			       link failures.

      idle idle-time[/session-idle-time]
			       Shut down the link when idle-time seconds
			       pass without receiving or transmitting a
			       packet specified in the `keepup' category in
			       the filter file (default is to never consider
			       the link idle).

			       If session-idle-time is specified and any TCP
			       sessions are open, shut down the link when
			       session-idle-time seconds pass without
			       receiving or transmitting a packet.

      max-configure tries      Set the PPP Max-Configure counter (the
			       maximum number of Configure-Requests sent
			       without a response) to tries .

      max-terminate tries      Set the PPP Max-Terminate counter (the
			       maximum number of Terminate-Requests sent
			       without a response) to tries .



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 pppd(1)							     pppd(1)




      max-failure tries	       Set the PPP Max-Failure counter (the maximum
			       number of Configure-Naks sent without a
			       positive response) to tries .

    IP Options
      local:remote	       The address of this machine, followed by the
			       expected address for the remote machine.	 Can
			       be specified either as symbolic names or as
			       literal IP addresses, if their addresses
			       cannot be discovered locally without using
			       the PPP link.

			       Both addresses are optional, but a colon by
			       itself is not valid, and the remote address
			       is required when running as a daemon in
			       `autocall' mode.	 If only local: is specified
			       when receiving an incoming call, the remote
			       address will be discovered during IPCP IP-
			       Address negotiations.

			       If either address is followed by a tilde
			       character (`~'), or if the tilde appears
			       alone, pppd accepts the IP address given by
			       the peer during IPCP negotiations, whether
			       for the local end or the peer's end of the
			       link. (not available in SLIP mode)

			       Because SLIP cannot perform option
			       negotiations, including IPCP, both addresses
			       should normally be specified, and the tilde
			       option is unavailable.  To obtain a similar
			       "feature", the peer must provide the IP
			       address textually during the login process,
			       and a new value must be obtained using the
			       Systems file `\A' chat script feature (see
			       ppp.Systems(4)).

      netmask subnet-mask      Set the subnet mask of the interface to
			       subnet-mask, expressed either in C-style
			       hexadecimal (e.g. 0xffffff00) or in decimal
			       dotted-quad notation (e.g.  255.255.255.0).
			       The default subnet mask will be appropriate
			       for the network (class A, B, or C), assuming
			       no subnetting.

      need-ip-address	       Ask the peer to assign us an IP address.

      noipaddress	       Disable IPCP IP-Address negotiation.

      vjcomp		       Enable RFC 1144 `VJ' Van Jacobson TCP header
			       compression negotiation with 16 slots and



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 pppd(1)							     pppd(1)




			       slot ID compression (this is the default with
			       PPP framing).  `VJ' compression is enabled by
			       default for async connections, and disabled
			       by default for sync connections.

      novjcomp		       Disable RFC 1144 `VJ' Van Jacobson TCP header
			       compression (this is the default with SLIP
			       framing, until the peer sends a header-
			       compressed TCP packet).

      vjslots vj-slots	       Set the number of VJ compression slots (min
			       3, max 256, default 16).

      novjcid		       Disable VJ compression slot ID compression
			       (enabled by default).

      rfc1172-vj	       Backwards compatibility with older PPP
			       implementations (4-byte VJ configuration
			       option), but with the correct option
			       negotiation value of 0x002d.

      rfc1172-typo-vj	       Backwards compatibility with older PPP
			       implementations (4-byte VJ configuration
			       option) that conform to the typographical
			       error in RFC 1172 section 5.2 (Compression-
			       Type value 0x0037).

      rfc1172-addresses	       Backwards compatibility with older PPP
			       implementations that conform to RFC 1172
			       section 5.1 (IP-Addresses, IPCP configuration
			       option 1) and not with the newer RFC 1332
			       (IP-Address, IPCP configuration option 3),
			       but that respond with something besides a
			       Configure-Reject when they receive an IPCP
			       Configure-Request containing an option 3.

    Authentication Options
      requireauth	       Require either PAP or CHAP authentication.

      requirechap	       Require CHAP authentication as described in
			       RFC 1334.

      requiremschap	       Require MS-CHAP authentication.

      requirepap	       Require PAP authentication.

      rechap interval	       Demand that the peer re-authenticate itself
			       (using CHAP) every interval seconds.  If the
			       peer fails the new challenge, the link is
			       terminated.




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 pppd(1)							     pppd(1)




      name identifier	       Provide the identifier used during PAP or
			       CHAP negotiation.  This option is necessary
			       if the PPP peer requires authentication.	 The
			       default value is the value returned by the
			       gethostname(2) system call or the hostname(1)
			       command.

    MicroSoft Compatibility Options
      ms-dns address	       Set the MS DNS address to provide to the
			       peer. First occurrence of this option on the
			       command line sets the primary address; the
			       second occurrence sets the secondary address.

      ms-nbns address	       Set the MS NBNS address to provide to the
			       peer. First occurrence of this option on the
			       command line sets the primary address; the
			       second occurrence sets the secondary address.

    Encryption Options
      Encryption is not currently available in software exported from the
      USA.  However, customer may contact salesATprogressive-systems.com to
      obtain encryption functionality.

    Link Compression Options
      compress		       Offer all supported link compression types
			       (currently only Predictor-1) when
			       negotiating.  The default is to propose and
			       accept no link compression type.

      compress-pred1	       Accept any supported compression type, but
			       prefer Predictor type 1 compression.

      nopred1		       Never use Predictor-1 compression.

 LOG FILE
      Status information is recorded in the log file (/var/adm/pppd.log by
      default) by each copy of pppd running on a single machine.  Each line
      in the file consists of a message preceded by the date, the time, and
      the process ID number of the daemon writing the message.	The quantity
      and verbosity of messages are controlled with the debug option and
      with the log filter (see ppp.Filter(4)).

      Each packet that brings up the link (at debug level 1 or more), each
      packet that matches the log filter (at any debug level), or any packet
      when the debug level is 7 or more writes a one-line description of the
      packet to the log file.  The first item of the message is the protocol
      (tcp, udp, icmp, or a numeric protocol value ).  For ICMP packets, the
      keyword icmp is followed by the ICMP message type and sub code,
      separated by slashes.  After the protocol comes an IP address and
      optionally a TCP or UDP port number, followed by an arrow indicating
      whether the packet was sent (->&gt&gt&gt;) or received (<&lt&lt&lt;-), followed by another



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 pppd(1)							     pppd(1)




      address and port number, followed by the length of the packet in bytes
      before VJ TCP header compression, followed by zero or more keywords.
      For transmitted packets, the first IP address is the source address,
      while for received packets, the first IP address is the destination
      address.	Well known TCP and UDP port numbers will be replaced by the
      name returned by the getservbyport() library function.  The keywords
      and their meanings are:

      frag	  The packet is a middle or later part of a fragmented IP
		  frame.

      syn	  The packet has the TCP SYN bit set.

      fin	  The packet has the TCP FIN bit set.

      bringup	  The transmitted packet matches the bringup filter and is
		  bringing up the link.

      !keepup	  the packet has been rejected by the keepup filter.

      !pass	  The packet has been rejected by the pass filter.

      dial failed The packet was dropped because pppd is waiting for the
		  call retry timer to expire.

      (c)	  The received packet is VJ TCP header compressed.

      (u)	  The received packet is VJ TCP header uncompressed.

      For example, the following log file line

	   9/6-14:06:26-83 tcp 63.1.6.3/1050 -> 8.1.1.9/smtp 44 syn

      indicates that at 2:06:26 PM on September 6, process ID 83 sent a 44-
      byte TCP packet with the SYN bit set from port 1050 on 63.1.6.3 to the
      SMTP port on 8.1.1.9.

 SIGNALS
      Upon reception of the following signals, pppd closes and reopens the
      log file, re-reads the filter and key files, then takes the indicated
      actions:

      SIGKILL	     Don't use this.  Never, never use this.  Since pppd
		     won't be able to shut down gracefully, it will leave
		     your serial interfaces (whether /dev/tty) and your IP
		     tunnel driver in some unknown state.  Use SIGTERM
		     instead, so pppd will shut down cleanly, and leave the
		     system in a well-defined state.

      SIGINT	     Disconnect gracefully from an active session.  If in
		     `autocall' mode, reset the call retry delay timer and



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 pppd(1)							     pppd(1)




		     call retry backoff interval.  If up was specified,
		     attempt to re-establish the link.	Exit if not in
		     `autocall' mode.

      SIGHUP	     Disconnect abruptly from an active session.  If up was
		     specified, attempt to re-establish the link.  Exit if
		     not in `autocall' mode.

      SIGTERM	     Disconnect gracefully from an active session, clean up
		     the state of any serial and IP interfaces that are
		     open, then exit.

      SIGUSR1	     Increment the verbosity level for debugging information
		     written to the log file.

      SIGUSR2	     Reset the debugging verbosity level to the base value
		     (1 unless debug 0 was supplied on the command line).

      SIGALRM	     Take no action except to re-read the filter and key
		     files.

 EXAMPLE
      To run a pair of daemons on `oursystem', one maintaining a constant
      link with `backbonesystem' and the other prepared to initiate outbound
      calls to a neighboring machine named `theirsystem', add the following
      to /sbin/rc2.d/S522ppp:

	   if [ -f /etc/ppp/Autostart ]; then
		/etc/ppp/Autostart
	   fi

      Then make /etc/ppp/Autostart look like this:

	   #!/bin/sh

	   PATH=/usr/etc:/bin:/usr/bin

	   if [ -f /var/adm/pppd.log ]; then
		   mv /var/adm/pppd.log /var/adm/OLDpppd.log
	   fi

	   echo -n "Starting PPP daemons:"	  >/dev/console

	   pppd oursystem:backbonesystem auto up
		   (echo -n ' backbonesystem')	  >/dev/console
	   pppd oursystem:theirsystem auto idle 120
		   (echo -n ' theirsystem')	  >/dev/console

	   echo '.'				  >/dev/console





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 pppd(1)							     pppd(1)




      To allow a PPP implementation running on `theirsystem' to dial into
      `oursystem', insert the following into /etc/passwd on `oursystem':

	   Pthem:?:105:20:Their PPP:/etc/ppp:/etc/ppp/Login

      where group 20 is the gid of the ppp group which owns /usr/etc/pppd,
      and /etc/ppp/Login is an executable shell script that looks something
      like

	   #!/bin/sh
	   PATH=/usr/bin:/usr/etc:/bin
	   mesg n
	   stty -tostop
	   exec pppd `hostname`:

 RECOMMENDATIONS
      Use host names when running /etc/ppp/Autostart from
      /sbin/rc2.d/S522ppp only if they are known locally.  If a PPP
      connection to a DNS server would be required to resolve a host name,
      use its literal IP address instead.

 EXTERNAL INFLUENCES
    Environment Variables
      The environment variable PPPHOME, if present, specifies the directory
      in which pppd looks for its configuration files (Filter and Auth for
      all connections, along with Systems, Devices, and Dialers if the
      connection is `outbound').  You can specify PPPHOME either in the
      Autostart script or in an incoming connection's Login script.  If
      PPPHOME is not present, pppd will expect to find its configuration
      files in /etc/ppp/*.

 SECURITY CONCERNS
      pppd should be mode 4750, owned by root, and executable only by the
      members of the group containing all the incoming PPP login `users'.

 AUTHOR
      pppd was developed by the Progressive Systems.

 SEE ALSO
      tun(4), ppp.Auth(4), ppp.Devices(4), ppp.Dialers(4), ppp.Filter(4),
      ppp.Keys(4), ppp.Systems(4), RFC 1548, RFC 1549, RFC 1332, RFC 1333,
      RFC 1334, RFC 1172, RFC 1144, RFC 1055,
      ds.internic.net:/internet-drafts/draft-ietf-pppext-compression-04.txt.

 STANDARDS CONFORMANCE
      HP PPP implements the IETF Proposed Standard Point-to-Point Protocol
      and many of its options and extensions, in conformance with RFCs 1548,
      1549, 1332, 1333, 1334, and 1144.	 It can be configured to be
      conformant with earlier specifications of the PPP protocol, as
      described in RFCs 1134, 1171, and 1172.  It implements the nonstandard
      SLIP protocol as described in RFCs 1055 and 1144.



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