pg - Formats files for a terminal display
pg [-cefns] [-p string] [+line_number | +/pattern/] [-number] [file...]
The pg command reads the specified file or files (or standard input by
default) and writes them to standard output one screen at a time. At the
end of each screen you can display the next screen or enter various subcom-
mands, including those that let you back up to review something that has
Interfaces documented on this reference page conform to industry standards
Refer to the standards(5) reference page for more information about indus-
try standards and associated tags.
-c Moves the cursor to the home position and clears the is not defined for
your terminal type in the terminfo file.
-e Does not pause at the end of each file. However, pg still pauses at
the beginning of each file.
-f Does not split lines. Normally, pg splits (wraps) lines longer than
the screen width.
-n Stops processing when a pg command letter is entered. Normally, com-
mands must end with a newline character.
Uses string as the prompt. If the string contains %d, %d is replaced
by the current page number in the prompt. The default prompt is :
(colon). If string contains spaces, you must quote it. In addition,
if string contains either the << or >> characters, you must quote it;
otherwise, these characters are treated as shell redirection commands.
-s Highlights all messages and prompts.
Starts at line_number.
Specifies the number of lines in the window.
Starts at the first line that contains pattern.
The name of a file to be read and displayed. If you specify file as a
- (dash) or run pg without arguments, pg reads standard input.
To determine terminal attributes, pg looks up the terminal type specified
by the TERM environment variable in the terminfo database. The default
type is dumb.
At any time during the operation of pg, you can enter the Quit (usually
<<Ctrl-\>> ) or Interrupt (usually <<Ctrl-c>>) key sequences. If pg is sending
output, it interrupts output and displays the prompt, and you can then
enter one of the subcommands in the normal manner. If the prompt is
already displayed, the Quit and Interrupt sequences terminate pg. (Note
that on a high-speed display it may be difficult to enter a Quit or Inter-
rupt between prompts, because the interval between them is so short.)
Note that some output is lost when you use the Quit or Interrupt sequences
during output because any characters waiting in the output queue are purged
when the QUIT or INTERRUPT signal is received. When you use pg in a pipe,
an Interrupt is likely to end the other commands in the pipe.
If standard output is not a terminal, pg acts like the cat command, writing
the input to standard output without any formatting or special treatment,
except that a header is displayed before each file.
If terminal tabs are not set for every eight positions, unpredictable
results can occur.
The pg utility is marked LEGACY in XCU Issue 5.
When pg pauses and displays its prompt, you can enter a subcommand. Some
of these subcommands change the display to a particular place in the file,
some search for specific patterns in the text, and others change the
environment in which pg works.
The following commands display a selected place in the file:
Displays page number number.
Displays the page number pages after the current page.
Displays the page number pages before the current page.
l Scrolls the display one line forward.
[Tru64 UNIX] Displays a screen with the specified line number at the
Scrolls the display number lines forward.
Scrolls the display number lines backward.
d Scrolls half a screen forward. Pressing <<Ctrl-d>> (and <<Return>> if you
have not specified -n) has the same effect.
-d Scrolls half a screen backward. Pressing - and then <<Ctrl-d>> (and
<<Return>> if you have not specified -n) has the same effect.
[Tru64 UNIX] Skips number screens forward.
[Tru64 UNIX] Skips number screens backward.
Displays the current page again. A single . (dot) also does this.
$ Displays the last page in the file. Do not use this when the input is
from a pipeline.
The following commands search for patterns in the text. You can use the
regular expressions described in grep. They must always end with a newline
character, even if the -n option is used. In an expression such as [a-z],
the dash means through according to the current collating sequence. The
collating sequence is determined by the value of the LC_COLLATE environment
Searches for the number'th occurrence of pattern. The search begins
immediately after the current page and continues to the end of the
current file, without wrapping around. The default for number is 1.
Searches backward for the number'th occurrence of pattern. The search
begins immediately before the current page and continues to the begin-
ning of the current file, without wraparound. The ^ (circumflex) is
useful for the Adds 100 terminal, which cannot handle a ? (question
mark). The default for number is 1.
After searching, pg normally displays the line found at the top of the
screen. You can change this by adding m or b to the search command to
leave the line found in the middle or at the bottom of the window with all
succeeding subcommands. Use the suffix t to return to displaying the line
with the pattern to the top of the screen.
You can change the pg environment with the following subcommands:
Begins examining the number'th next file in the command line. The
default number is 1.
Begins examining the number'th previous file on the command line. The
default number is 1.
Sets the window size to number. If number is not present, displays
another window of text.
Same as w.
Saves the input in file. Only the current file being examined is
saved. This command must always end with a newline character, even if
you specify the -n option.
h Displays an abbreviated summary of available subcommands.
q or Q
Sends the specified command to the shell named in the SHELL environment
variable. If this is not available, the default shell is used. This
command must always end with a newline character, even if the -n option
The following exit values are returned:
0 Successful completion.
>>0 An error occurred.
To look at the contents of file file1 one page at a time, enter:
The following environment variables affect the execution of pg:
Determines the horizontal screen size. If this variable is unset, TERM
Provides a default value for the internationalization variables that
are unset or null. If LANG is unset or null, the corresponding value
from the default locale is used. If any of the internationalization
variables contain an invalid setting, the utility behaves as if none of
the variables had been defined.
If set to a non-empty string value, overrides the values of all the
other internationalization variables.
Determines the locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of
text data as characters (for example, single-byte as opposed to multi-
byte characters in arguments) and the behavior of character classes in
Determines the locale for the format and contents of diagnostic mes-
sages written to standard error.
Determines the number of lines to be displayed on the screen. If this
variable is unset, TERM is used.
Determines the location of message catalogues for the processing of
Determines the name of the command interpreter executed for a ! subcom-
Determines the terminal attributes.
Terminal capability database.
Temporary file used when input is from a pipe.
Commands: cat(1), grep(1), more(1)
Files: locale(4) terminfo(4)