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perl(1)                          User Commands                         perl(1)



NAME
       perl - Practical Extraction and Report Language

SYNOPSIS
       perl  [-sTuU] [-hv] [ -V [ : configvar]] [-cw] [ -d [ : debugger]] [ -D
       [number/list]] [-pna] [-F pattern] [ -l [octal]] [ -0 [octal]] [-I dir]
       [  -m  [-]  module]  [  -M  [-] 'module...'] [-P] [-S] [ -x [dir]] [ -i
       [extension]] [-e 'command'] [--] [programfile] [argument...]

DESCRIPTION
       For ease of access, the Perl manual has been split up into the  follow-
       ing sections.

       OVERVIEW

       perl                Perl overview (this section)
       perlintro           Perl introduction for beginners
       perltoc             Perl documentation table of contents

       TUTORIALS

Tutorials
       perlreftut          Perl references short introduction
       perldsc             Perl data structures intro
       perllol             Perl data structures: arrays of arrays

       perlrequick         Perl regular expressions quick start
       perlretut           Perl regular expressions tutorial

       perlboot            Perl OO tutorial for beginners
       perltoot            Perl OO tutorial, part 1
       perltooc            Perl OO tutorial, part 2
       perlbot             Perl OO tricks and examples

       perlstyle           Perl style guide

       perlcheat           Perl cheat sheet
       perltrap            Perl traps for the unwary
       perldebtut          Perl debugging tutorial

       perlfaq             Perl frequently asked questions
       perlfaq1          General Questions About Perl
       perlfaq2          Obtaining and Learning about Perl
       perlfaq3          Programming Tools
       perlfaq4          Data Manipulation
       perlfaq5          Files and Formats
       perlfaq6          Regexes
       perlfaq7          Perl Language Issues
       perlfaq8          System Interaction
       perlfaq9          Networking

       REFERENCE MANUAL

       perlsyn             Perl syntax
       perldata            Perl data structures
       perlop              Perl operators and precedence
       perlsub             Perl subroutines
       perlfunc            Perl built-in functions
       perlopentut         Perl open() tutorial
       perlpacktut         Perl pack() and unpack() tutorial
       perlpod             Perl plain old documentation
       perlpodspec         Perl plain old documentation format specification
       perlrun             Perl execution and options
       perldiag            Perl diagnostic messages
       perllexwarn         Perl warnings and their control
       perldebug           Perl debugging
       perlvar             Perl predefined variables
       perlre              Perl regular expressions, the rest of the story
       perlreref           Perl regular expressions quick reference
       perlref             Perl references, the rest of the story
       perlform            Perl formats
       perlobj             Perl objects
       perltie             Perl objects hidden behind simple variables
       perldbmfilter       Perl DBM filters

       perlipc             Perl interprocess communication
       perlfork            Perl fork() information
       perlnumber          Perl number semantics

       perlthrtut          Perl threads tutorial
       perlothrtut         Old Perl threads tutorial

       perlport            Perl portability guide
       perllocale          Perl locale support
       perluniintro        Perl Unicode introduction
       perlunicode         Perl Unicode support
       perlebcdic          Considerations for running Perl on EBCDIC platforms

       perlsec             Perl security

       perlmod             Perl modules: how they work
       perlmodlib          Perl modules: how to write and use
       perlmodstyle        Perl modules: how to write modules with style
       perlmodinstall      Perl modules: how to install from CPAN
       perlnewmod          Perl modules: preparing a new module for distribution

       perlutil            utilities packaged with the Perl distribution

       perlcompile         Perl compiler suite intro

       perlfilter          Perl source filters

       INTERNALS AND C LANGUAGE INTERFACE

       perlembed           Perl ways to embed perl in your C or C++ application
       perldebguts         Perl debugging guts and tips
       perlxstut           Perl XS tutorial
       perlxs              Perl XS application programming interface
       perlclib            Internal replacements for standard C library functions
       perlguts            Perl internal functions for those doing extensions
       perlcall            Perl calling conventions from C

       perlapi             Perl API listing (autogenerated)
       perlintern          Perl internal functions (autogenerated)
       perliol             C API for Perl's implementation of IO in Layers
       perlapio            Perl internal IO abstraction interface

       perlhack            Perl hackers guide

       MISCELLANEOUS

       perlbook            Perl book information
       perltodo            Perl things to do

       perldoc             Look up Perl documentation in Pod format

       perlhist            Perl history records
       perldelta           Perl changes since previous version
       perl583delta        Perl changes in version 5.8.3
       perl582delta        Perl changes in version 5.8.2
       perl581delta        Perl changes in version 5.8.1
       perl58delta         Perl changes in version 5.8.0
       perl573delta        Perl changes in version 5.7.3
       perl572delta        Perl changes in version 5.7.2
       perl571delta        Perl changes in version 5.7.1
       perl570delta        Perl changes in version 5.7.0
       perl561delta        Perl changes in version 5.6.1
       perl56delta         Perl changes in version 5.6
       perl5005delta       Perl changes in version 5.005
       perl5004delta       Perl changes in version 5.004

       perlartistic        Perl Artistic License
       perlgpl             GNU General Public License

       LANGUAGE-SPECIFIC

       perlcn              Perl for Simplified Chinese (in EUC-CN)
       perljp              Perl for Japanese (in EUC-JP)
       perlko              Perl for Korean (in EUC-KR)
       perltw              Perl for Traditional Chinese (in Big5)

       PLATFORM-SPECIFIC

       perlsolaris         Perl notes for Solaris

Platform-Specific
       If you're new to Perl, you should start with perlintro, which is a gen-
       eral intro for beginners and provides some background to help you navi-
       gate  the  rest  of Perl's extensive documentation. For ease of access,
       the Perl manual has been split up into  several sections.

       The manpages listed above are installed in the  /usr/perl5/man/  direc-
       tory.

       Extensive additional documentation for Perl modules is available.  This
       additional documentation is in the /usr/perl5/man  directory.  Some  of
       this  additional  documentation  is distributed standard with Perl, but
       you'll also find documentation for any  customer-installed  third-party
       modules there.

       You   can   view   Perl's   documentation   with  man(1)  by  including
       /usr/perl5/man in the MANPATH environment variable.  Notice  that  run-
       ning  catman(1M)  on the Perl manual pages is not supported.  For other
       Solaris-specific details, see the NOTES section below.

       You can also use the supplied  /usr/perl5/bin/perldoc  script  to  view
       Perl information.

       If  something  strange  has gone wrong with your program and you're not
       sure where you should look for help, try the -w switch first.  It  will
       often point out exactly where the trouble is.

       Perl  is  a  language  optimized  for  scanning  arbitrary  text files,
       extracting information from those  text  files,  and  printing  reports
       based  on  that information.  It's also a good language for many system
       management tasks.  The language is intended to be  practical  (easy  to
       use,  efficient,  complete) rather than beautiful (tiny, elegant, mini-
       mal).

       Perl combines (in the author's opinion, anyway) some of the  best  fea-
       tures  of  C, sed, awk, and sh, so people familiar with those languages
       should have little difficulty with it.  (Language historians will  also
       note  some  vestiges  of csh, Pascal, and even BASIC-PLUS.)  Expression
       syntax corresponds closely to C expression syntax.   Unlike  most  Unix
       utilities,  Perl  does  not arbitrarily limit the size of your data -if
       you've got the memory, Perl can slurp in your whole file  as  a  single
       string.   Recursion  is  of  unlimited  depth.   And the tables used by
       hashes (sometimes called "associative arrays")  grow  as  necessary  to
       prevent  degraded  performance.   Perl  can  use  sophisticated pattern
       matching techniques to scan large amounts of  data  quickly.   Although
       optimized  for  scanning text, Perl can also deal with binary data, and
       can make dbm files look like hashes.  Setuid  Perl  scripts  are  safer
       than C programs through a dataflow tracing mechanism that prevents many
       stupid security holes.

       If you have a problem that would ordinarily use sed or awk or  sh,  but
       it  exceeds  their  capabilities  or  must run a little faster, and you
       don't want to write the silly thing in C, then Perl  may  be  for  you.
       There  are  also translators to turn your sed and awk scripts into Perl
       scripts.

       But wait, there's more...

       Begun in 1993 (see perlhist), Perl version 5 is nearly a  complete  re-
       write that provides the following additional benefits:

         o  Modularity and reusability using innumerable modules  Described in
            perlmod, perlmodlib, and perlmodinstall.

         o  Embeddable and extensible  Described in perlembed, perlxstut, per-
            lxs, perlcall, perlguts, and xsubpp.

         o  Roll-your-own magic variables (including multiple simultaneous DBM
            implementations). Described in perltie and AnyDBM_File.

         o  Subroutines can now be  overridden,  autoloaded,  and  prototyped.
            Described in perlsub.

         o  Arbitrarily   nested  data  structures  and  anonymous  functions.
            Described in perlreftut, perlref, perldsc, and perllol.

         o  Object-oriented programming. Described in perlobj, perlboot, perl-
            toot, perltooc, and perlbot.

         o  Support   for   light-weight  processes  (threads).  Described  in
            perlthrtut and threads.

         o  Support  for  Unicode,  internationalization,   and   localization
            Described in perluniintro, perllocale and Locale::Maketext.

         o  Lexical scoping. Described in perlsub.

         o  Regular  expression  enhancements. Described in perlre, with addi-
            tional examples in perlop.

         o  Enhanced debugger and interactive  Perl  environment,  with  inte-
            grated  editor  support.  Described  in  perldebtut, perldebug and
            perldebguts.

         o  POSIX 1003.1 compliant library Described in POSIX.


       Okay, that's definitely enough hype.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       The Perl shipped with Solaris is installed under /usr/perl5 rather than
       the  default /usr/local location. This is so that it can coexist with a
       customer-installed Perl in the default /usr/local location.

       Any additional modules that you choose to install will be placed in the
       /usr/perl5/site_perl/5.8.4 directory. The /usr/perl5/vendor_perl direc-
       tory is reserved for SMI-provided modules.

       Notice that the Perl utility scripts such as perldoc and perlbug are in
       the  /usr/perl5/bin  directory,  so if you wish to use them you need to
       include /usr/perl5/bin in your PATH environment variable.

       See also the perlrun mapage.

AUTHOR
       Larry Wall, with the help of oodles of other folks.

       If your Perl success stories and testimonials may be of help to  others
       who  wish to advocate the use of Perl in their applications,  or if you
       wish to simply express your gratitude to Larry and the   Perl  develop-
       ers, please write to perl-thanks@perl.org .

FILES
       "@INC"   Locations of Perl libraries



ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:


       tab()     allbox;     cw(2.750000i)|    cw(2.750000i)    lw(2.750000i)|
       lw(2.750000i).   ATTRIBUTE  TYPEATTRIBUTE  VALUE  AvailabilityT{  SUNW-
       perl584core,  SUNWperl584usr,  SUNWperl584man,  SUNWpl5u, SUNWpl5v SUN-
       Wpl5p, SUNWpl5m

       See below.  T} Interface StabilitySee below.


       Perl is available for most operating systems, including  virtually  all
       Unix-like platforms.  See "Supported Platforms" in perlport for a list-
       ing.

       The Script interface is Evolving. The XSUB interface is  Evolving.  The
       Binary interface is Unstable. The Directory layout is Evolving.

SEE ALSO
       a2p                             awk to perl translator



       s2p                             sed to perl translator



       http://www.perl.com             Perl home page



       http://www.perl.com/CPAN        The Comprehensive Perl Archive



       http://www.perl.org             Perl Mongers (Perl user groups)



DIAGNOSTICS
       The  `use  warnings'  pragma  (and  the -w switch) produce some  lovely
       diagnostics.

       See perldiag for explanations of  all  Perl's  diagnostics.   The  `use
       diagnostics'  pragma automatically turns Perl's normally terse warnings
       and errors into these longer forms.

       Compilation errors will tell you the line number of the error, with  an
       indication of the next token or token type that was to be examined. (In
       a script passed to Perl via -e switches, each  -e  is  counted  as  one
       line.)

       Setuid  scripts have additional constraints that can produce error mes-
       sages such as "Insecure dependency".  See perlsec.

       Did we mention that you should definitely consider using the -w switch?

NOTES
       Perl 5.8.4 has been built to be largefile-aware  and   to   use  64-bit
       integers,  although  the  interpreter  itself  is  a 32-bit application
       (LP32).  To view detailed configuration information, use  perl  -V  and
       perlbug -dv.

       If  you  wish  to build and install add-on modules from CPAN using gcc,
       you can do so using the /usr/perl5/5.8.4/bin/perlgcc script - see perl-
       gcc(1) for details.

       If  you  wish to build and install your own version of Perl, you should
       NOT remove the 5.8.4  version  of  perl  under  /usr/perl5,  as  it  is
       required  by  several  system utilities.  The Perl package names are as
       follows:

       SUNWperl584core    Perl 5.8.4 (Core files)
       SUNWperl584usr     Perl 5.8.4 (Non-core files)
       SUNWperl584man     Perl 5.8.4 (Manual pages)

       Solaris 10 also ships with the 5.6.1 version of Perl that was  included
       in Solaris 9.  If you are upgrading your system and wish to continue to
       use Perl 5.6.1 as the default Perl version  you  should  refer  to  the
       perlsolaris  manpage  for  details  of  how  to do this.  Note that you
       should upgrade your installation to use Perl 5.8.4 as soon as is  prac-
       ticable, as Perl 5.6.1 may be removed in a future release.

       The  Perl  motto is "There's more than one way to do it."  Divining how
       many more is left as an exercise to the reader.

       The three principal virtues of a programmer are  Laziness,  Impatience,
       and Hubris.  See the Camel Book for why.

BUGS
       The -w switch is not mandatory.

       Perl  is  at  the mercy of your machine's definitions of various opera-
       tions such as type casting,  atof(),  and  floating-point  output  with
       sprintf().

       If your stdio requires a seek or eof between reads and writes on a par-
       ticular stream, so does Perl.  (This doesn't  apply  to  sysread()  and
       syswrite().)

       While  none  of  the built-in data types have any arbitrary size limits
       (apart from memory size), there are still a few  arbitrary  limits:   a
       given  variable  name may not be longer than 251 characters.  Line num-
       bers displayed by diagnostics are internally stored as short  integers,
       so they are limited to a maximum of 65535 (higher numbers usually being
       affected by wraparound).

       You may mail your bug reports (be sure to  include  full  configuration
       information  as output by the myconfig program in the perl source tree,
       or by `perl -V') to perlbug@perl.org .  If you've succeeded in  compil-
       ing  perl, the perlbug script in the utils/ subdirectory can be used to
       help mail in a bug report.

       Perl actually stands for Pathologically Eclectic  Rubbish  Lister,  but
       don't tell anyone I said that.



SunOS 5.10                        30 Jul 2004                          perl(1)