unixdev.net


Switch to SpeakEasy.net DSL

The Modular Manual Browser

Home Page
Manual: (SunOS-4.1.3)
Page:
Section:
Apropos / Subsearch:
optional field

PAX(1V)                                                                PAX(1V)



NAME
       pax - portable archive exchange

SYNOPSIS
       /usr/5bin/pax [ -cimopuvy ] [ -f archive [ -s replstr ] [ -t device ] [
       pattern...  ]
       /usr/5bin/pax -r [ -cimnopuvy ] [ -f archive ] [  -s  replstr  ]  [  -t
       device ] [ pattern...  ]
       /usr/5bin/pax  -w  [  -adimuvy  ]  [  -b blocking ] [ -f archive ] [ -s
       replstr ] [ -t device ] [ -x format ] [ pathname...  ]
       /usr/5bin/pax -rw [ -ilmopuvy ] [ -s replstr ] [ pathname...  ]  direc-
       tory

AVAILABILITY
       pax is available with the System V software installation option.  Refer
       to for information on how to install optional software.

DESCRIPTION
       pax reads and writes archive files which conform to the  Archive/Inter-
       change  File  Format specified in IEEE Std. 1003.1-1988 (POSIX.1).  pax
       can also read, but not write, a number of other file formats  in  addi-
       tion to those specified in the Archive/Interchange File Format descrip-
       tion.  Support for these traditional file formats, such  as  V7  tar(1)
       and  System  V binary cpio(1) format archives, is provided for backward
       compatibility and to maximize portability.

       pax will also support traditional cpio and System V tar  interfaces  if
       invoked with the name cpio or tar respectively.  See the paxcpio(1V) or
       ustar(1V) manual pages for more details.

       directory specifies the destination directory pathname for copies  when
       both the -r and -w options are specified.  The directory must exist and
       be writable before the copy or and error results.

       pathname is a file whose contents are used instead of the  files  named
       on the standard input.  When a directory is named, all of its files and
       (recursively) subdirectories are copied as well.

       A pattern is given in the standard  shell  pattern  matching  notation.
       The  default  if  no  pattern  is   specified is `*', which selects all
       files.

       Combinations of the -r and -w command line  arguments  specify  whether
       pax  will read, write or list the contents of the specified archive, or
       move the specified files to another directory.

       If neither the -r or -w options are given, pax will list  the  contents
       of the specified archive.  In this mode, pax lists normal files one per
       line, hard link pathnames as

              pathname == linkname

       and symbolic link pathnames (if supported by the implementation) as

              pathname ->> linkname

       where pathname is the name of the file being extracted, and linkname is
       the name of a file which appeared earlier in the archive.

       If  the  -v  option is specified, then pax list normal pathnames in the
       same format used by ls(1V) with the -l option.  Hard links are shown as

              <ls -l listing> == linkname

       and symbolic links (if supported) are shown as

              <ls -l listing> ->> linkname

       pax is capable of reading and  writing  archives  which  span  multiple
       physical  volumes.  Upon detecting an end of medium on an archive which
       is not yet completed, pax will prompt the user for the next  volume  of
       the archive and will allow the user to specify the location of the next
       volume.

       When writing to an archive, the standard input is used  as  a  list  of
       pathnames  if  no  pathname  operands are specified.  The format is one
       pathname per line.  Otherwise, the standard input is the archive  file,
       which  is  formatted  according  to  one  of  the specifications in Ar-
       chive/Interchange File format in POSIX.1, or some other implementation-
       defined format.

       The  user ID and group ID of the process, together with the appropriate
       privileges, affect the ability of pax to restore ownership and  permis-
       sions  attributes of the archived files.  See format-reading utility in
       Archive/Interchange File Format in POSIX.1.

OPTIONS
       -w     Write the files and directories specified  by  pathname  to  the
              standard  output  together with the pathname and status informa-
              tion prescribed by the archive format used.  pathname refers  to
              the  files  and  (recursively) subdirectories of that directory.
              If pathname is not specified, then the standard input is read to
              get a list of pathnames to copy, one pathname per line.  In this
              case, only those pathnames appearing on the standard  input  are
              copied.

       -r     Read  an  archive file from the standard input.  Only files with
              names that match  pattern  are  selected  for  extraction.   The
              selected  files are conditionally created and copied relative to
              the current directory tree, subject  to  the  options  described
              below.   By  default, the owner and group of selected files will
              be that of the invoking process, and the permissions and modifi-
              cation times will be the sames as those in the archive.

              The  supported  archive  formats  are  automatically detected on
              input.  The default output format is ustar, but may be  overrid-
              den by the -x format option described below.

       -rw    Read  the  files and directories named in pathname and copy them
              to the destination directory.  A directory  pathname  refers  to
              the  files  and  (recursively) subdirectories of that directory.
              If pathname is not specified, the standard input is read to  get
              a  list  of  pathnames  to copy, one pathname per line.  In this
              case, only those pathnames appearing on the standard  input  are
              copied.   The  directory  named by directory must exist and have
              the proper permissions before the copy can occur.

       -a     Append the files specified by pathname to the specified archive.

       -c     Complement the match sense of pattern.

       -d     Intermediate directories not explicitly listed  in  the  archive
              are not created.  This option is ignored unless the -r option is
              specified.

       -i     Interactively rename files.  Substitutions specified by  the  -s
              option (described below) are performed before requesting the new
              file name from the user.  A file is skipped if an empty line  is
              entered  and  pax  exits  with  an exit status of 0 if an EOF is
              encountered.

       -l     Link files rather than copy when possible.

       -m     File modification times are not retained.

       -n     When -r is specified, but -w is not, the pattern  arguments  are
              treated  as  ordinary  file names.  Only the first occurrence of
              each of these files in the input archive is read.  The pax util-
              ity  exits  with  a zero exit status after all files in the list
              have been read.  If one or more files in the list is not  found,
              pax  writes a diagnostic to standard error for each of the files
              and exits with a non-zero exit status.  The file names are  com-
              pared before any of the -i, -s, or -y options are applied.

       -o     Restore  file ownership as specified in the archive.  The invok-
              ing process must have appropriate privileges to accomplish this.

       -p     Preserve the access time of the input files after they have been
              copied.

       -u     Copy each file only if it is newer than a pre-existing file with
              the same name.  This implies the -a option.

       -v     List file names as they are encountered.  Produces a verbose ta-
              ble  of contents listing on the standard output when both the -r
              and -w options are omitted, otherwise the file names are printed
              to standard error as they are encountered in the archive.

       -y     Interactively  prompt for the disposition of each file.  Substi-
              tutions specified by -s options (described above) are  performed
              before  prompting  the  user  for  disposition.  pax exits after
              receiving an EOF or an input line starting with the character q.
              Files  are ignored if an input line starting with anything other
              than y is specified.  This option cannot be used in  conjunction
              with the -i option.

       -b blocking
              Block  the  output  at  blocking  bytes per write to the archive
              file.  A k suffix multiplies blocking by 1024, a b suffix multi-
              plies  blocking  by  512  and  a m suffix multiplies blocking by
              1048576 (1 megabyte).  If not specified, blocking  is  automati-
              cally  determined  on  input and is ignored if the -rw option is
              specified.

       -f archive
              Specify the pathname of the input or output archive,  overriding
              the default of the standard input for the -r option or the stan-
              dard output for the -w option.

       -s replstr
              File names are modified according to the substitution expression
              using the syntax of ed(1) as shown:
                     -s /old/new/[gp]

              Any non-null character may be used as a delimiter (a `/' is used
              here as an example).  Multiple -s expressions may be  specified;
              the  expressions are applied in the order specified, terminating
              with the first successful substitution.  The optional trailing g
              replaces  the  old  expression each time it occurs in the source
              string.  The optional trailing p lists  successful  mappings  on
              the  standard  error.   Files that substitute to an empty string
              are ignored both on input and output.

       -t device
              The device option argument is an implementation-defined  identi-
              fier  that  names the input or output archive device, overriding
              the default of the standard input for -r and the standard output
              for -w.

       -x format
              Specifies  the  output  archive format.  The input format, which
              must be one of the following, is automatically  determined  when
              the -r option is used.  The supported formats are:

              cpio   The   extended   CPIO  interchange  format  specified  in
                     Extended CPIO Format in POSIX.1.

              tar    The extended TAR interchange format specified in Extended
                     TAR  Format in POSIX.1.  This is the default archive for-
                     mat.

       Only the last of multiple -f or -t options take effect.

       The options -a, -c, -d, -i, -l, -p, -t, -u, and  -y  are  provided  for
       functional  compatibility  with  the historical cpio and tar utilities.
       The option defaults were chosen based on the most common usage of these
       options,  therefore,  some  of the options have meanings different than
       those of the historical commands.

EXAMPLES
       The following command:

              pax -w -f /dev/rmt0 .

       copies the contents of the current directory to tape drive 0.

       The commands:

              mkdir newdir
              cd olddir
              pax -rw . newdir

       copies the contents of olddir to newdir.

       The command:

              pax -r -s ',//*usr//*,,' -f pax.out

       reads the archive pax.out with all files rooted in /usr in the  archive
       extracted relative to the current directory.

FILES
       /dev/tty            used to prompt the user for information when the -i
                           or -y options are specified

SEE ALSO
       cpio(1),  ed(1),  find(1),  ls(1V),  paxcpio(1V),  tar(1),   ustar(1V),
       cpio(5), tar(5)

       IEEE Std. 1003.1-1988

DIAGNOSTICS
       pax will terminate immediately, without processing any additional files
       on the command line or in the archive.

EXIT CODES
       pax exits with one of the following values:

       0      All files in the archive were processed successfully.

       >0     pax aborted due to errors encountered during operation.

BUGS
       Special permissions may be required to copy or extract special files.

       For device, user ID, and group ID numbers larger than 65535  additional
       header  records are output.  These records are ignored by some histori-
       cal version of cpio(1) and tar(1).

       The archive formats described in Archive/Interchange File  Format  have
       certain restrictions that have been carried over from historical usage.
       For example, there are restrictions on the length of  pathnames  stored
       in the archive.

       When  getting  an  `ls  -l'  style listing on tar format archives, link
       counts are listed as zero since the ustar archive format does not  keep
       link count information.

AUTHOR
       Mark H. Colburn
       NAPS International
       117 Mackubin Street, Suite 1
       St. Paul, MN 55102

       Sponsored by The USENIX Association for public distribution.



                               6 September 1989                        PAX(1V)