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paste(1)                         User Commands                        paste(1)



NAME
       paste - merge corresponding or subsequent lines of files

SYNOPSIS
       paste [-s] [-d list] file...

DESCRIPTION
       The paste utility will concatenate the corresponding lines of the given
       input files, and write the resulting lines to standard output.

       The default operation of paste will concatenate the corresponding lines
       of the input files. The NEWLINE character of every line except the line
       from the last input file will be replaced with a TAB character.

       If an EOF (end-of-file) condition is detected  on  one  or  more  input
       files, but not all input files, paste will behave as though empty lines
       were read from the files on which  EOF  was  detected,  unless  the  -s
       option is specified.

OPTIONS
       The following options are supported:

       -d list  Unless a backslash character (\) appears in list, each charac-
                ter in list is an element specifying a delimiter character. If
                a backslash character appears in list, the backslash character
                and one or more characters following it are an element  speci-
                fying  a  delimiter  character as described below.  These ele-
                ments specify one or more delimiters to use,  instead  of  the
                default TAB character, to replace the NEWLINE character of the
                input lines. The elements in list are  used  circularly.  That
                is,  when  the  list  is exhausted, the first element from the
                list is reused.

                When the -s option is specified:


                  o  The last newline character in a file will  not  be  modi-
                     fied.

                  o  The  delimiter will be reset to the first element of list
                     after each file operand is processed.

                When the option is not specified:


                  o  The NEWLINE characters in the file specified by the  last
                     file will not be modified.

                  o  The  delimiter will be reset to the first element of list
                     each time a line is processed from each file.

                If a backslash character appears in list, it and the character
                following it will be used to represent the following delimiter
                characters:


                \n       Newline character.




                \t       Tab character.



                \\       Backslash character.



                \0       Empty string (not a null character). If \0 is immedi-
                         ately  followed  by the character x, the character X,
                         or any character defined by the LC_CTYPE  digit  key-
                         word, the results are unspecified.


                If  any other characters follow the backslash, the results are
                unspecified.


       -s       Concatenate all of the lines of each separate  input  file  in
                command line order. The NEWLINE character of every line except
                the last line in each input file will be replaced with the TAB
                character, unless otherwise specified by the -d option.



OPERANDS
       The following operand is supported:

       file     A  path  name  of  an input file. If - is specified for one or
                more of the files, the standard input will be used. The  stan-
                dard  input  will  be read one line at a time, circularly, for
                each instance of -.  Implementations  support  pasting  of  at
                least 12 file operands.



USAGE
       See  largefile(5)  for  the  description  of the behavior of paste when
       encountering files greater than or equal to 2 Gbyte ( 2**31 bytes).

EXAMPLES
       Example 1: Listing a directory in one column

       example% ls | paste -d" " -

       Example 2: Listing a directory in four columns

       example% ls | paste - - - -

       Example 3: Combining pairs of lines from a file into single lines

       example% paste -s -d"\ t\ n" file

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment  variables
       that  affect  the  execution  of paste: LANG, LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LC_MES-
       SAGES, and NLSPATH.

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values are returned:

       0        Successful completion.



       >>0       An error occurred.



ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:


       tab()    allbox;    cw(2.750000i)|     cw(2.750000i)     lw(2.750000i)|
       lw(2.750000i).    ATTRIBUTE   TYPEATTRIBUTE  VALUE  AvailabilitySUNWesu
       CSIEnabled Interface StabilityStandard


SEE ALSO
       cut(1), grep(1), pr(1), attributes(5), environ(5), largefile(5),  stan-
       dards(5)

DIAGNOSTICS
       "line too long"         Output lines are restricted to 511 characters.



       "too many files"        Except  for  -s  option,  no more than 12 input
                               files may be specified.



       "no delimiters"         The -d option was specified with an empty list.



       "cannot open file"      The specified file cannot be opened.





SunOS 5.10                        20 Dec 1996                         paste(1)