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 paste(1)							    paste(1)




 NAME
      paste - merge same lines of several files or subsequent lines of one
      file

 SYNOPSIS
      paste file1 file2 ...

      paste -d list file1 file2 ...

      paste -s [-d list] file1 file2 ...

 DESCRIPTION
      In the first two forms, paste concatenates corresponding lines of the
      given input files file1, file2, etc.  It treats each file as a column
      or columns in a table and pastes them together horizontally (parallel
      merging).	 In other words, it is the horizontal counterpart of cat(1)
      which concatenates vertically; i.e., one file after the other.  In the
      -s option form above, paste replaces the function of an older command
      with the same name by combining subsequent lines of the input file
      (serial merging).	 In all cases, lines are glued together with the tab
      character, or with characters from an optionally specified list.
      Output is to standard output, so paste can be used as the start of a
      pipe, or as a filter if - is used instead of a file name.


      paste recognizes the following options and command-line arguments:

	   -d	     Without this option, the new-line characters of all but
		     the last file (or last line in case of the -s option)
		     are replaced by a tab character.  This option allows
		     replacing the tab character by one or more alternate
		     characters (see below).

	   list	     One or more characters immediately following -d replace
		     the default tab as the line concatenation character.
		     The list is used circularly; i.e., when exhausted, it
		     is reused.	 In parallel merging (that is, no -s
		     option), the lines from the last file are always
		     terminated with a new-line character, not from the
		     list.  The list can contain the special escape
		     sequences: \n (new-line), \t (tab), \\ (backslash), and
		     \0 (empty string, not a null character).  Quoting may
		     be necessary if characters have special meaning to the
		     shell.  (For example, to get one backslash, use -
		     d"\\\\").

	   -s	     Merge subsequent lines rather than one from each input
		     file.  Use tab for concatenation, unless a list is
		     specified with the -d option.  Regardless of the list,
		     the very last character of the file is forced to be a
		     new-line.



 Hewlett-Packard Company	    - 1 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 paste(1)							    paste(1)




	   -	     Can be used in place of any file name to read a line
		     from the standard input (there is no prompting).

 EXTERNAL INFLUENCES
    Environment Variables
      LC_CTYPE determines the locale for the interpretation of text as
      single- and/or multi-byte characters.

      LC_MESSAGES determines the language in which messages are displayed.

      If LC_CTYPE or LC_MESSAGES is not specified in the environment or is
      set to the empty string, the value of LANG is used as a default for
      each unspecified or empty variable.  If LANG is not specified or is
      set to the empty string, a default of "C" (see lang(5)) is used
      instead of LANG.

      If any internationalization variable contains an invalid setting,
      paste behaves as if all internationalization variables are set to "C".
      See environ(5).

    International Code Set Support
      Single- and multi-byte character code sets are supported.

 RETURN VALUE
      These commands return the following values upon completion:

	   0	Completed successfully.

	   >&gt&gt>0	An error occurred.

 EXAMPLES
      List directory in one column:

	   ls | paste -d" " -

      List directory in four columns

	   ls | paste - - - -

      Combine pairs of lines into lines

	   paste -s -d"\t\n" file

    Notes
      pr -t -m...  works similarly, but creates extra blanks, tabs and new-
      lines for a nice page layout.

 DIAGNOSTICS
      too many files	       Except for the -s option, no more than
			       OPEN_MAX - 3 input files can be specified
			       (see limits(5)).



 Hewlett-Packard Company	    - 2 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 paste(1)							    paste(1)




 AUTHOR
      paste was developed by OSF and HP.

 SEE ALSO
      cut(1), grep(1), pr(1).

 STANDARDS CONFORMANCE
      paste: SVID2, SVID3, XPG2, XPG3, XPG4, POSIX.2














































 Hewlett-Packard Company	    - 3 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000