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PASSWD(1)                   General Commands Manual                  PASSWD(1)

       passwd, chfn, chsh - change local or NIS password information

       passwd [ -l | -y ] [ -afs ] [ -d [ username ] ] [ -e username ]
       [ -F filename ] [ -n numdays username ]
       [ -x numdays username ] [ username ]

       chfn [ -l | -y ] [ -f ] [ -F filename ] [ username ]

       chsh [ -l | -y ] [ -s ] [ -F filename ] [ username ]

       passwd  changes  (or  installs) a password, login shell (-s option), or
       full name (-f option) associated with the user username  (your  own  by
       default).  chsh is equivalent to passwd with the -s option, and chfn is
       equivalent to passwd with the -f option.

       Use `passwd -y' or yppasswd(1) to change your password in  the  Network
       Information  Service  (NIS).  This will not affect your local password,
       or your password on any remote machines on  which  you  have  accounts.
       passwd  calls yppasswd automatically if you do not have an entry in the
       local passwd file, and the -l option is not specified.

       When changing a password, passwd prompts for the old password and  then
       for  the  new  one.  You must supply both, and the new password must be
       typed twice to forestall mistakes.

       If password aging is enabled, the first time an  ordinary  user  enters
       the  new  password  passwd checks to see if the old password has "aged"
       sufficiently.  Password "aging" is the amount of time (usually  a  cer-
       tain  number  of  days)  that must elapse between password changes.  If
       "aging" is insufficient the new password is rejected and passwd  termi-

       New  passwords should be at least five characters long, if they combine
       upper-case and lower-case letters, or at least six characters  long  if
       in monocase.  Users that persist in entering shorter passwords are com-
       promising their own security. The number of significant characters in a
       password is eight, although longer passwords will be accepted.

       Only the owner of the name or the super-user may change a password; the
       owner must prove he knows the old password.  The super-user can  change
       any  password  and is not forced to comply with password aging require-

       When changing a login shell, passwd displays the  current  login  shell
       and  then  prompts for the new one.  The new login shell must be one of
       the approved shells listed in /etc/shells unless  you  are  the  super-
       user.  If /etc/shells does not exist, the only shells that may be spec-
       ified are /bin/sh and /bin/csh.

       The super-user may change anyone's login shell; normal users  may  only
       change their own login shell.

       When  changing  a  full  name,  passwd  displays the current full name,
       enclosed between brackets, and prompts for a new  full  name.   If  you
       type a RETURN, the full name is not changed.  If the full name is to be
       made blank, you must type the word "none".

       The super-user may change anyone's full name;  normal  users  may  only
       change their own.

       -a     Display  the name and aging information for all users.  Can only
              be invoked by the super-user.

       -f     Change the full name.

       -l     Change the local password, login shell, or full name.  If  user-
              name exists in the local passwd file, this is the default.

       -s     Change the login shell.

       -y     Change passwd, login shell, or full name in the NIS database.

       -d [username]
              Display  the  name  and  aging information for the caller or the
              user specified if the invoker has the right privileges.

       -e username
              Expire the password for the user name specified.   Can  only  be
              invoked by the super-user.

       -F filename
              Treat filename as the password file.

       -n numdays username
              Set  the  maturity time of the password for username.  Passwords
              that have not "aged" enough cannot be changed.  Can only be  set
              by the super-user.

       -x numdays username
              Set  the expiration time of the password for username.  Can only
              be set by the super-user.

       /etc/passwd         file containing all of this information
       /etc/shells         list of approved shells

       finger(1), login(1), yppasswd(1), crypt(3), passwd(5)

       Password algorithms do not work with 8-bit characters.  This  maintains
       consistency  with  login  file  naming  rules, which do not allow 8-bit
       characters in login names.  See login(1)  for  explanations  about  why
       login is not 8-bit clean.

       The  Network Information Service (NIS) was formerly known as Sun Yellow
       Pages (YP).  The functionality of the two remains the  same;  only  the
       name has changed.

                                 12 June 1988                        PASSWD(1)