unixdev.net


Switch to SpeakEasy.net DSL

The Modular Manual Browser

Home Page
Manual: (SunOS-5.10)
Page:
Section:
Apropos / Subsearch:
optional field

more(1)                          User Commands                         more(1)



NAME
       more, page - browse or page through a text file

SYNOPSIS
       /usr/bin/more  [-cdflrsuw]  [-lines]  [  +  linenumber]  [  +/ pattern]
       [file...]

       /usr/bin/page [-cdflrsuw]  [-lines]  [  +  linenumber]  [  +/  pattern]
       [file...]

       /usr/xpg4/bin/more  [-cdeisu]  [-n number]  [-p command] [-t tagstring]
       [file...]

       /usr/xpg4/bin/more [-cdeisu] [-n number] [  +  command]  [-t tagstring]
       [file...]

DESCRIPTION
       The  more utility is a filter that displays the contents of a text file
       on the terminal, one screenful at a time.   It  normally  pauses  after
       each    screenful.    /usr/bin/more    then    prints    --More--   and
       /usr/xpg4/bin/more then prints file at the bottom  of  the  screen.  If
       more is reading from a file rather than a pipe, the percentage of char-
       acters displayed so far is also shown.

       The more utility scrolls up to display one more line in response  to  a
       RETURN  character.  more  displays  another  screenful in response to a
       SPACE character. Other commands are listed below.

       The page utility clears the screen before displaying the next screenful
       of text. page only provides a one-line overlap between screens.

       The  more  utility sets the terminal to NOECHO mode, so that the output
       can be continuous. Commands that you type do not normally  show  up  on
       your terminal, except for the / and ! commands.

       The  /usr/bin/more  utility  exits  after displaying the last specified
       file. /usr/xpg4/bin/more prompts for a command at the last line of  the
       last specified file.

       If  the  standard output is not a terminal, more acts just like cat(1),
       except that a header is printed before each file in a series.

OPTIONS
       The  following  options  are  supported  for  both  /usr/bin/more   and
       /usr/xpg4/bin/more:

       -c       Clears  before  displaying.  Redraws  the  screen  instead  of
                scrolling for faster displays. This option is ignored  if  the
                terminal  does  not  have the ability to clear to the end of a
                line.



       -d       Displays error messages rather than ringing the terminal  bell
                if  an unrecognized command is used. This is helpful for inex-
                perienced users.



       -s       Squeeze.  Replaces multiple blank lines with  a  single  blank
                line.  This  is  helpful  when  viewing nroff(1) output on the
                screen.



   /usr/bin/more
       The following options are supported for /usr/bin/more only:

       -f              Does not fold long lines. This  is  useful  when  lines
                       contain  nonprinting  characters  or  escape sequences,
                       such as those generated when nroff(1) output  is  piped
                       through ul(1).



       -l              Does  not treat FORMFEED characters (Control-l) as page
                       breaks. If -l is not used, more pauses to  accept  com-
                       mands  after  any  line containing a ^L character (Con-
                       trol-l).  Also, if a file begins with a  FORMFEED,  the
                       screen is cleared before the file is printed.



       -r              Normally,  more ignores control characters that it does
                       not interpret in some way. The -r option  causes  these
                       to  be displayed as ^C where C stands for any such con-
                       trol character.



       -u              Suppresses generation of underlining escape  sequences.
                       Normally,  more  handles underlining, such as that pro-
                       duced by nroff(1), in a manner appropriate to the  ter-
                       minal. If the terminal can perform underlining or has a
                       stand-out  mode,  more  supplies   appropriate   escape
                       sequences as called for in the text file.



       -w              Normally,  more  exits  when it comes to the end of its
                       input. With -w, however, more prompts and waits for any
                       key to be struck before exiting.



       -lines          Displays  the indicated number of lines in each screen-
                       ful, rather than the default (the number  of  lines  in
                       the terminal screen less two).



       +linenumber     Start up at linenumber.



       +/pattern       Start  up two lines above the line containing the regu-
                       lar expression pattern. Note: Unlike editors, this con-
                       struct  should not end with a `/.' If it does, then the
                       trailing slash is taken as a character  in  the  search
                       pattern.



   /usr/xpg4/bin/more
       The following options are supported for /usr/xpg4/bin/more only:

       -e              Exits  immediately  after  writing the last line of the
                       last file in the argument list.



       -i              Performs pattern matching in searches without regard to
                       case.



       -n number       Specifies the number of lines per screenful. The number
                       argument is a positive decimal integer. The  -n  option
                       overrides any values obtained from the environment.



       -p command      For  each  file  examined,  initially executes the more
       +command        command in the command argument. If the  command  is  a
                       positioning command, such as a line number or a regular
                       expression search, set the current position  to  repre-
                       sent  the final results of the command, without writing
                       any intermediate lines of the file.  For  example,  the
                       two commands:


                       more -p 1000j file
                       more -p 1000G file

                       are  equivalent  and start the display with the current
                       position at line 1000, bypassing the lines that j would
                       write  and  scroll off the screen if it had been issued
                       during the file examination. If the positioning command
                       is unsuccessful, the first line in the file will be the
                       current position.




       -t tagstring    Writes the screenful of the  file  containing  the  tag
                       named by the tagstring argument. See the ctags(1) util-
                       ity.



       -u              Treats a backspace character  as  a  printable  control
                       character,  displayed  as a ^H (Control-h), suppressing
                       backspacing and  the  special  handling  that  produces
                       underlined  or  standout-mode  text  on  some  terminal
                       types.  Also, does not ignore a carriage-return charac-
                       ter at the end of a line.



       If  both  the -t tagstring and -p command (or the obsolescent +command)
       options are given, the -t tagstring is processed first.

USAGE
   Environment
       more uses the terminal's terminfo(4) entry  to  determine  its  display
       characteristics.

       more looks in the environment variable MORE for any preset options. For
       instance, to page through files using the -c mode by default,  set  the
       value of this variable to -c. (Normally, the command sequence to set up
       this environment variable is placed in the .login or .profile file).

   Commands
       The commands take effect immediately. It is not  necessary  to  type  a
       carriage return unless the command requires a file, command, tagstring,
       or pattern. Up to the time when the command character itself is  given,
       the user may type the line kill character to cancel the numerical argu-
       ment being formed. In addition, the user may type the  erase  character
       to redisplay the `--More--(xx%)' or file message.

       In the following commands, i is a numerical argument (1 by default).

       i<&lt;SPACE>&gt;        Display  another  screenful,  or  i  more lines if i is
                       specified.



       i<&lt;RETURN>&gt;       Display another line, or i more lines, if specified.



       ib              (Control-b) Skip back i screenfuls  and  then  print  a
       i^B             screenful.




       id              (Control-d) Scroll forward one half screenful or i more
       i^D             lines. If i is specified, the count becomes the default
                       for subsequent d and u commands.




       if              Skip i screens full and then print a screenful.



       h               Help. Give a description of all the more commands.



       ^L              (Control-l) Refresh.



       in              Search  for  the  ith  occurrence  of  the last pattern
                       entered.



       q               Exit from more.
       Q



       is              Skip i lines and then print a screenful.



       v               Drop into the vi editor at the current line of the cur-
                       rent file.



       iz              Same as <&lt;SPACE>&gt;, except that i, if present, becomes the
                       new default number of lines per screenful.



       =               Display the current line number.



       i/pattern       Search forward for the ith occurrence  of  the  regular
                       expression  pattern. Display the screenful starting two
                       lines before the line that contains the ith  match  for
                       the  regular  expression pattern, or the end of a pipe,
                       whichever comes first. If more is displaying a file and
                       there  is  no  match,  its position in the file remains
                       unchanged. Regular  expressions  can  be  edited  using
                       erase  and kill characters. Erasing back past the first
                       column cancels the search command.



       !command        Invoke a shell to execute command. The characters % and
                       !,  when used within command are replaced with the cur-
                       rent filename and the previous shell  command,  respec-
                       tively.  If  there  is  no  current  filename, % is not
                       expanded. Prepend a backslash to  these  characters  to
                       escape expansion.



       :f              Display the current filename and line number.



       i:n             Skip  to  the  ith  next  filename given in the command
                       line, or to the last filename in the list if i  is  out
                       of range.



       i:p             Skip  to the ith previous filename given in the command
                       line, or to the first filename if i is out of range. If
                       given while more is positioned within a file, go to the
                       beginning of the file. If more is reading from a  pipe,
                       more simply rings the terminal bell.



       :q              Exit from more (same as q or Q).
       :Q



   /usr/bin/more
       The following commands are available only in /usr/bin/more:

       '        Single  quote.  Go  to  the  point  from which the last search
                started. If no search has been performed in the current  file,
                go to the beginning of the file.



       .        Dot. Repeat the previous command.



       ^\       Halt a partial display of text. more stops sending output, and
                displays the usual --More-- prompt. Some output is lost  as  a
                result.



   /usr/xpg4/bin/more
       The following commands are available only in /usr/xpg4/bin/more:

       i^F             (Control-f)  Skip i screens full and print a screenful.
                       (Same as if.)



       ^G              (Control-g) Display the current line  number  (same  as
                       =).



       ig              Go  to line number i with the default of the first line
                       in the file.



       iG              Go to line number i with the default of the  Last  line
                       in the file.



       ij              Display  another  line,  or i more lines, if specified.
                       (Same as i<&lt;RETURN>&gt;.)



       ik              Scroll backwards one or i lines, if specified.



       mletter         Mark the current position with the name letter.



       N               Reverse direction of search.



       r               Refresh the screen.



       R               Refresh the screen, discarding any buffered input.



       iu              (Control-u) Scroll backwards one half  a  screen  of  i
       i^U             lines,  if  specified.  If  i  is  specified, the count
                       becomes the new default for subsequent  d  and  u  com-
                       mands.




       ZZ              Exit from more (same as q).



       :e file         Examine  (display) a new file. If no file is specified,
                       the current file is redisplayed.



       :t tagstring    Go to the tag  named  by  the  tagstring  argument  and
                       scroll/rewrite  the  screen with the tagged line in the
                       current position. See the ctags utility.



       'letter         Return to the position that was previously marked  with
                       the name letter.



       ''              Return to the position from which the last move of more
                       than a screenful was made. Defaults to the beginning of
                       the file.



       i?[!]pattern    Search backward in the file for the ith line containing
                       the pattern. The ! specifies to search backward for the
                       ith line that does not contain the pattern.



       i/!pattern      Search  forward  in the file for the ith line that does
                       not contain the pattern.



       ![command]      Invoke a shell or the specified command.



   Large File Behavior
       See largefile(5) for the description of the behavior of more  and  page
       when  encountering  files  greater  than  or  equal  to 2 Gbyte ( 2**31
       bytes).

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment  variables
       that   affect   the   execution   of  more:  LANG,  LC_ALL,  LC_COLLATE
       (/usr/xpg4/bin/more only), LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, NLSPATH, and TERM.

   /usr/xpg4/bin/more
       The following  environment  variables  also  affect  the  execution  of
       /usr/xpg4/bin/more:

       COLUMNS         Overrides the system selected horizontal screen size.



       EDITOR          Used by the v command to select an editor.



       LINES           Overrides the system selected vertical screen size. The
                       -n option has precedence over LINES in determining  the
                       number of lines in a screen.



       MORE            A string specifying options as described in the OPTIONS
                       section, above. As in a command line, The options  must
                       be separated by blank characters and each option speci-
                       fication must start with a -. Any command line  options
                       are  processed  after those specified in MORE as though
                       the command line were: more $MORE options operands



EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values are returned:

       0        Successful completion.



       >&gt;0       An error occurred.



FILES
       /usr/lib/more.help      help file for /usr/bin/more and   /usr/bin/page
                               only.



ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

   /usr/bin/more /usr/bin/page
       tab()     allbox;     cw(2.750000i)|    cw(2.750000i)    lw(2.750000i)|
       lw(2.750000i).   ATTRIBUTE  TYPEATTRIBUTE   VALUE   AvailabilitySUNWcsu
       CSINot enabled


   /usr/xpg4/bin/more
       tab()     allbox;     cw(2.750000i)|    cw(2.750000i)    lw(2.750000i)|
       lw(2.750000i).   ATTRIBUTE  TYPEATTRIBUTE  VALUE   AvailabilitySUNWxcu4
       CSIEnabled Interface StabilityStandard


SEE ALSO
       cat(1),  csh(1),  ctags(1),  man(1), nroff(1), script(1), sh(1), ul(1),
       environ(4), terminfo(4), attributes(5), environ(5), largefile(5), stan-
       dards(5)

   /usr/bin/more /usr/bin/page
       regcomp(3C)

   /usr/xpg4/bin/more
       regex(5)

NOTES
   /usr/bin/more
       Skipping backwards is too slow on large files.

   /usr/xpg4/bin/more
       This  utility  will  not behave correctly if the terminal is not set up
       properly.




SunOS 5.10                        18 Mar 1997                          more(1)