more, page - Displays a file one screenful at a time
more [-NWcdefhiqrsuvxz] [-n number] [-p command] [+line_number | [-t tag-
string] +/pattern] [file...]
page [-NWcdefhiqrsuvxz] [-n number] [-p command] [+line_number | +/pat-
tern] [-t tagstring] [file...]
more [-NWcdefhiqrsuvxz] [-number] [-p command] [+G] [+line_number | +/pat-
tern] [-t tagstring] [file...]
page [-NWcdefhiqrsuvxz] [-number] [-p command] [+G] [+line_number | +/pat-
tern] [-t tagstring] [file...]
The more command invokes a filter that allows examination of continuous
text, one screenful at a time, on a soft-copy terminal.
[Tru64 UNIX] The page command is equivalent to more, but erases the screen
before displaying each screenful.
Interfaces documented on this reference page conform to industry standards
Refer to the standards(5) reference page for more information about indus-
try standards and associated tags.
-N Suppresses line numbering. The default display, with line numbers, can
slow the more command's performance on very large input files. The line
numbering feature displays the line number in the = subcommand and
passes the line number to the editor (if it is the vi editor.
-W Provides optional extensions to the more command. Currently, the fol-
lowing two options are supported:
notite Prevents the more command from sending the terminal initializa-
tion string before displaying the file. This argument also prevents
the more command from sending the terminal de-initialization string
tite Causes the more command to send the initialization and the de-
initialization strings, by default.
-c Starts each screenful at the top of the screen and erases existing
output on each line before displaying a new line. This avoids scrol-
ling the screen, making it easier to read while more is writing. It is
also faster than scrolling on many terminals. This option is ignored
if the terminal does not have the ability to clear to the end of a
line. This option does not work with -h.
-d [Tru64 UNIX] Prompts you to continue, quit, or obtain help after each
screenful of text.
-e Exits immediately after writing the last line of the last file in the
-f [Tru64 UNIX] Counts logical lines rather than screen lines; that is,
long lines are not folded. This option is recommended if nroff output
is piped through ul, or if more reads any text that contains escape
sequences. Escape sequences contain characters that would ordinarily
occupy screen positions, but which do not print when they are sent to
the terminal as part of an escape sequences. Thus more may think that
lines are longer than they actually are, and fold lines erroneously.
-h [Tru64 UNIX] Help mode.
-i Perform pattern matching in searches without regard to case.
Specifies the number of lines per screenful. The number argument is a
positive decimal integer. The -n option overrides any values obtained
from the environment.
For each file examined, initially execute the more command in the com-
mand argument. If the command is a positioning command, such as a line
number or a regular expression search, set the current position to
represent the final results of the command, without writing any inter-
mediate lines of the file. For example, the two commands:
more -p 1000j file
more -p 1000G file
would be equivalent and start the display with the current position at
line 1000, bypassing the lines that j would write and scroll off the
screen if it had been issued during the file examination. If the posi-
tioning command is unsuccessful, the first line in the file will be the
-q [Tru64 UNIX] Requires an explicit quit command, rather than quitting
automatically, when the spacebar is hit at the end of file.
-r [Tru64 UNIX] Ignores most control characters that it does not inter-
pret in some way. Control characters that are not understood are
displayed as ^C where C represents any such character.
-s Squeezes multiple empty lines from the output, producing only one empty
line. Especially helpful when viewing nroff output, this option maxim-
izes the amount of useful information present on the screen.
-u Suppresses processing of underlined text for terminal display. Nor-
mally, more handles underlining in a manner appropriate to the
particular terminal: if the terminal can perform underlining or has a
highlight mode, more outputs appropriate escape sequences to enable
underlining or highlight mode for underlined information in the source
Write the screenful of the file containing the tag named by the tag-
string argument. See the ctags(1) reference page.
-v [Tru64 UNIX] Does not display nonprinting characters graphically.
Without this option, all non-ASCII and control characters (except
<<Tab>>, <<Backspace>>, and <<Return>>) are displayed visibly in the form ^X
for <<Ctrl-x>>, or M-x for non-ASCII character x.
Set the tabstops every tabs position. The default value for the tabs
argument is 8.
-z [Tru64 UNIX] Same as if the -v option is not given, but in addition,
<<Backspace>> is displayed as ^H, <<Return>> as ^M, and <<Tab>> as ^I.
[Tru64 UNIX] Starts up at line_number.
+G [Tru64 UNIX] Starts up at the last screenful in the file. This gives
you an opportunity to scroll or page backward through the file.
Starts up at the line containing the regular expression pattern.
[Tru64 UNIX] Sets the number of lines in the display window to number.
The default is two lines less than the number of lines displayed by the
terminal; on a screen that displays 24 lines, the default is 22.
The more utility reads files and either writes them to the terminal on a
page-by-page basis or filters them to standard output. If standard output
is not a terminal device, all input files are copied to standard output in
their entirety, without modification. If standard output is a terminal
device, the files are displayed (one screenful) at a time under the control
of user commands. The more command pauses when it encounters a page break
(embedded ^L) in text.
The number of lines available per screen is determined by the -n option, if
specified, or by examining values in the environment (see ENVIRONMENT VARI-
ABLES). If neither method yields a number, an unspecified number of lines
is displayed. The actual number of lines written is one less than this
number, as the last line of the screen is used to display a user prompt and
user input. If the number of lines available per screen is less than four,
the results are undefined.
If the terminal type can be determined, the more command looks in the ter-
minfo database to determine terminal characteristics, and to determine the
default window size. On a terminal capable of displaying 24 lines, the
default window size is 22 lines.
If the program is invoked as page, then the screen is cleared before each
screenful is printed (but only if a full screenful is being printed), and k
minus 1 rather than k minus 2 lines are printed in each screenful, where k
is the number of lines the terminal can display.
The more command provides the following subcommands that you can type when
more pauses. These commands are designed to be similar to the commands
supported by the vi editor; (i is an optional integer argument, defaulting
to 1.) Regular expressions (as referred to here) are described under grep.
All three forms display i more lines.
Displays i more lines, or another screenful if i is not specified.
Scrolls one-half screen forward (displays the next k/2 lines, where k
is the number of lines displayed by the <<Space>> command). If i is
specified, then the scroll size is set to i.
d Same as <<Ctrl-d>>.
Scrolls one-half screen backward. If i is specified, then the scroll
size is set to i. Note that if your line kill character is <<Ctrl-u>>,
then you must use the u command to scroll backward.
iu Same as <<Ctrl-u>>.
Scroll back i lines.
ik Same as <<Ctrl-y>>.
iz Displays i more lines.
ig Goes to line i and displays a screenful, making line i the top line on
the screen. If i is not specified, then more displays the first
screenful in the file.
is Skips i screenfuls and prints a screenful.
if Skips i lines and prints a screenful.
ib Skips back i screenfuls and prints a screenful.
Same as b.
Exits from more.
= Displays the current line number.
v Starts up the vi editor at the current line.
h Displays a description of all the more subcommands.
Searches for the ith occurrence of the regular expression expression.
If there are less than i occurrences of expression, and the input is a
file rather than a pipe, then the position in the file remains
unchanged. Otherwise, a screenful is displayed, starting with the line
matching expression. You can use Erase and Kill characters to edit the
regular expression, which must be terminated by pressing <<Return>> (with
no trailing / character). Erasing back past the first column cancels
the search command. If expression is null, more uses the last regular
Same as /, but searches backward in the file.
in Searches for the ith occurrence of the last regular expression entered.
iN Searches for the ith occurrence of the last regular expression entered,
but reverses the direction of that search.
' (single quote)
Returns to the point from which the last search started. If no search
was performed in the current file, returns to the beginning of the
Invokes a shell with command. The % (percent sign) and ! (exclamation
point) characters in command are replaced with the current file name
and the previous shell command, respectively. If there is no current
file name, % is not expanded. The sequences \% and \! are replaced by
% and !, respectively.
i:n Skips to the ith next file specified in the command line.
i:p Skips to the ith previous file given in the command line. If this com-
mand is given during display of a file, more returns to the beginning
of the file. If more is not reading from a file, the bell is rung and
nothing else happens.
:f Displays the current file name and line number.
Exits from more (same as q or Q).
. Repeats the previous command.
Redraws the screen.
h Displays help information.
The commands take effect immediately; it is not necessary to type a
carriage-return. Up to the time when the command character itself is
given, you can enter the line Kill character to cancel the numerical argu-
ment being formed. In addition, you can enter the Erase character to
redisplay the prompt.
At any time when output is being sent to the terminal, you can press q.
The more command stops sending output, and displays the usual prompt. You
can then enter one of the preceding commands in the normal manner. Some
output is lost when this is done, due to the fact that any characters wait-
ing in the terminal's output queue are flushed when the QUIT signal occurs.
The terminal is set to noecho mode by this program so that the output can
be continuous. Thus, subcommands you enter do not show on your terminal,
except for the / (slash), ? (question mark), and ! (exclamation point) com-
The following exit values are returned:
0 Successful completion.
>>0 An error occurred.
The input files being examined must be text files. If standard output is a
terminal, standard error is used to read commands from the user. If stan-
dard output is a terminal, standard error is not readable, and command
input is needed, more terminates with an error indicating that it was
unable to read user commands. If standard output is not a terminal, no
error results if standard error cannot be opened for reading.
The following is a sample use of more in previewing nroff output:
nroff -ms doc.n | more -s -f
[Tru64 UNIX] Normally, you place the command sequence that sets up the
environment variables in the .cshrc, .login, .kshrc, or .profile files.
Setting them in .login or .profile will prevent possibly unnecessary
reevaluation of the variable assignments. Since it is unlikely that you
will ever want to remotely execute more (for example, rsh <host> more), it
is not as important to place them in the .cshrc, or .kshrc files.
The following environment variables affect the execution of more:
Overrides the system-selected horizontal screen size.
Used by the v subcommand to select an editor. If this variable is
unset, the editor is /usr/bin/vi.
Provides a default value for the internationalization variables that
are unset or null. If LANG is unset or null, the corresponding value
from the default locale is used. If any of the internationalization
variables contain an invalid setting, the utility behaves as if none of
the variables had been defined.
If set to a non-empty string value, overrides the values of all the
other internationalization variables.
Determines the locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of
text data as characters (for example, single-byte as opposed to multi-
byte characters in arguments) and the behavior of character classes in
Determines the locale for the format and contents of diagnostic mes-
sages written to standard error.
Determines the location of message catalogues for the processing of
The LINES variable overrides the system-selected vertical screen size,
used as the number of lines in a screenful. The -n option takes pre-
cedence over the LINES variable for determining the number of lines in
The more command looks in the MORE environment variable to preset any
desired options; for example, assume that you prefer to view files
using the -c and -e options. The csh command setenv MORE -c -e, or the
ksh or sh command sequence MORE='-c -e' ; export MORE would cause all
invocations of more, including invocations by programs such as man and
mesg, to use this mode.
The MORE variable no longer supports options without hyphens. It only
supports white space separated hyphenated variables. Any command-line
options are processed after those in the MORE variable, as if the com-
mand line were:
more $MORE options operands
The TERM variable determines the name of the terminal type.
Terminal information database.
Commands: cat(1), csh(1), ctags(1), grep(1), ksh(1), man(1), nroff(1),
pg(1), script(1), Bourne shell sh(1b), POSIX shell sh(1p), ul(1)