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od(1)                            User Commands                           od(1)



NAME
       od - octal dump

SYNOPSIS
       /usr/bin/od [-bcCDdFfOoSsvXx] [file] [offset_string]

       /usr/bin/od  [-bcCDdFfOoSsvXx]  [-A address_base]  [-j skip] [-N count]
       [-t type_string...] [file...]

       /usr/xpg4/bin/od [-bcCDdFfOoSsvXx] [file] [offset_string]

       /usr/xpg4/bin/od    [-bcCDdFfOoSsvXx]    [-A address_base]    [-j skip]
       [-N count] [-t type_string...] [-] [file...]

DESCRIPTION
       The  od  command copies sequentially each input file to standard output
       and transforms the input data according to the output  types  specified
       by  the  -t or -bcCDdFfOoSsvXx options. If no output type is specified,
       the default output is as if -t o2 had been specified.   Multiple  types
       can  be  specified  by  using multiple -bcCDdFfOoSstvXx options. Output
       lines are written for each type specified in the  order  in  which  the
       types  are  specified.   If no file is specified, the standard input is
       used.
        The [offset_string] operand is mutually exclusive from the -A, -j, -N,
       and  -t  options.  For  the purposes of this description, the following
       terms are used:

       word                    Refers to a 16-bit  unit,  independent  of  the
                               word size of the machine.



       long word               Refers to a 32-bit unit.



       double long word        Refers to a 64-bit unit.



OPTIONS
       The following options are supported:

       -A address_base Specifies  the  input  offset  base.  The  address_base
                       option-argument must be a character.  The characters d,
                       o and x specify that the offset base will be written in
                       decimal, octal or hexadecimal, respectively. The  char-
                       acter  n specifies that the offset will not be written.
                       Unless -A n is specified, the output line will be  pre-
                       ceded  by  the  input  offset,  cumulative across input
                       files, of the next byte to be written. In addition, the
                       offset of the byte following the last byte written will
                       be displayed after all the input  data  has  been  pro-
                       cessed.  Without  the  -A  address_base  option and the
                       [offset_string] operand, the input offset base is  dis-
                       played in octal.



       -b              Interprets  bytes  in  octal.  This is equivalent to -t
                       o1.



   /usr/bin/od
       -c              Displays single-byte  characters.  Certain  non-graphic
                       characters appear as C-language escapes:

                       null         \0
                       backspace    \b
                       form-feed    \f
                       new-line     \n
                       return       \r
                       tab          \t


                       Others appear as 3-digit octal numbers. For example:


                       echo "hello world" | od -c
                       0000000   h   e   l   l   o       w   o   r   l   d  \n
                       0000014



   /usr/xpg4/bin/od
       -c              Interprets bytes as single-byte or multibyte characters
                       according to the current setting of the LC_CTYPE locale
                       category. Printable multibyte characters are written in
                       the area corresponding to the first byte of the charac-
                       ter.  The  two-character  sequence ** is written in the
                       area corresponding to each remaining byte in the  char-
                       acter,  as  an indication that the character is contin-
                       ued. Non-graphic characters appear  the  same  as  they
                       would using the -C option.



       -C              Interprets bytes as single-byte or multibyte characters
                       according to the current setting of the LC_CTYPE locale
                       category. Printable multibyte characters are written in
                       the area corresponding to the first byte of the charac-
                       ter.   The  two-character sequence ** is written in the
                       area corresponding to each remaining byte in the  char-
                       acter,  as  an indication that the character is contin-
                       ued.  Certain  non-graphic  characters  appear   as   C
                       escapes:

                       null         \0
                       backspace    \b
                       form-feed    \f
                       new-line     \n
                       return       \r
                       tab          \t

                       Other  non-printable  characters  appear  as one three-
                       digit octal number for each byte in the character.



       -d              Interprets words in unsigned decimal.  This is  equiva-
                       lent to -t u2.



       -D              Interprets  long  words  in  unsigned  decimal. This is
                       equivalent to -t u4.



       -f              Interprets long  words  in  floating  point.   This  is
                       equivalent to -t f4.



       -F              Interprets  double  long  words  in extended precision.
                       This is equivalent to -t f8.



       -j skip         Jumps over skip bytes from the beginning of the  input.
                       The  od  command  will read or seek past the first skip
                       bytes in the concatenated input files.  If the combined
                       input  is  not at least skip bytes long, the od command
                       will write a diagnostic message to standard  error  and
                       exit with a non-zero exit status.

                       By  default, the skip option-argument is interpreted as
                       a decimal number. With a leading 0x or 0X,  the  offset
                       is interpreted as a hexadecimal number; otherwise, with
                       a leading 0, the offset will be interpreted as an octal
                       number.   Appending  the character b, k, or m to offset
                       will cause it to be interpreted as a multiple  of  512,
                       1024 or 1048576 bytes, respectively. If the skip number
                       is hexadecimal, any appended b is considered to be  the
                       final  hexadecimal  digit.  The  address  is  displayed
                       starting at 0000000, and its base is not implied by the
                       base of the skip option-argument.



       -N count        Formats  no more than count bytes of input. By default,
                       count is interpreted as a decimal number.  With a lead-
                       ing  0x  or  0X,  count is interpreted as a hexadecimal
                       number; otherwise, with a leading 0, it is  interpreted
                       as an octal number. If count bytes of input (after suc-
                       cessfully skipping, if -jskip  is  specified)  are  not
                       available,  it  will not be considered an error. The od
                       command will format the input that is  available.   The
                       base  of  the  address  displayed is not implied by the
                       base of the count option-argument.



       -o              Interprets words in octal. This is equivalent to -t o2.



       -O              Interprets long  words  in  unsigned  octal.   This  is
                       equivalent to -t o4.



       -s              Interprets  words in signed decimal. This is equivalent
                       to -t d2.



       -S              Interprets long words in signed decimal. This is equiv-
                       alent to -t d4.



       -t type_string  Specifies  one  or  more  output types. The type_string
                       option-argument must be a string specifying  the  types
                       to be used when writing the input data. The string must
                       consist of the type specification characters:

                       a               Named character.  Interprets  bytes  as
                                       named  characters.  Only the least sig-
                                       nificant seven bits of each  byte  will
                                       be  used  for  this type specification.
                                       Bytes with the  values  listed  in  the
                                       following  table  will be written using
                                       the corresponding names for those char-
                                       acters.

                                       The  following  are named characters in
                                       od:

                                       Value   Name

                                        00    nul
                                        01    soh
                                        02    stx
                                        03    etx
                                        04    eot
                                        05    enq
                                        06    ack
                                        07    bel
                                        10    bs
                                        11    ht
                                        12    lf
                                        13    vt
                                        14    ff
                                        15    cr
                                        16    so
                                        17    si
                                        20    dle
                                        21    dc1
                                        22    dc2
                                        23    dc3
                                        24    dc4
                                        25    nak
                                        26    syn
                                        27    etb
                                        30    can
                                        31    em
                                        32    sub
                                        33    esc
                                        34    fs
                                        35    gs
                                        36    rs
                                        37    us
                                        40    sp
                                       177    del





                       c               Character. Interprets bytes as  single-
                                       byte  or multibyte characters specified
                                       by the current setting of the  LC_CTYPE
                                       locale  category.  Printable  multibyte
                                       characters are written in the area cor-
                                       responding  to  the  first  byte of the
                                       character. The  two-character  sequence
                                       ** is written in the area corresponding
                                       to each remaining byte in  the  charac-
                                       ter,  as an indication that the charac-
                                       ter is continued.  Certain  non-graphic
                                       characters appear as C escapes: \0, \a,
                                       \b, \f, \n,  \r,  \t,  \v.  Other  non-
                                       printable   characters  appear  as  one
                                       three-digit octal number for each  byte
                                       in the character.



                       The type specification characters d, f, o, u, and x can
                       be followed by an  optional  unsigned  decimal  integer
                       that specifies the number of bytes to be transformed by
                       each instance of the output type.

                       f               Floating point. Can be followed  by  an
                                       optional F, D, or L indicating that the
                                       conversion should be applied to an item
                                       of  type float, double, or long double,
                                       respectively.



                       d, o, u, and x  Signed decimal, octal,  unsigned  deci-
                                       mal, and hexadecimal, respectively.
                                        Can  be  followed by an optional C, S,
                                       I, or L indicating that the  conversion
                                       should  be  applied  to an item of type
                                       char,  short,  int,  or  long,  respec-
                                       tively.



                       Multiple  types  can  be  concatenated  within the same
                       type_string and multiple -t options can  be  specified.
                       Output lines are written for each type specified in the
                       order in which the type  specification  characters  are
                       specified.


       -v              Shows  all input data (verbose). Without the -v option,
                       all groups of output lines that would be  identical  to
                       the  immediately preceding output line (except for byte
                       offsets), will be replaced with a line containing  only
                       an asterisk (*).



       -x              Interprets words in hex. This is equivalent to -t x2.



       -X              Interprets  long words in hex. This is equivalent to -t
                       x4.



OPERANDS
       The  following  operands  are  supported  for  both   /usr/bin/od   and
       /usr/xpg4/bin/od:

       -               Uses the standard input in addition to any files speci-
                       fied.  When this operand is  not  given,  the  standard
                       input is used only if no file operands are specified.



   /usr/bin/od
       The following operands are supported for /usr/bin/od only:

       file                    A  path  name  of a file to be read. If no file
                               operands are specified, the standard input will
                               be  used.  If  there are no more than two oper-
                               ands, none of the -A, -j, -N, or -t options  is
                               specified, and any of the following are true:

                                   1.  the first character of the last operand
                                       is a plus sign (+)


                                   2.  the first character of the second oper-
                                       and is numeric


                                   3.  the first character of the second oper-
                                       and is x and the  second  character  of
                                       the  second  operand  is  a  lower-case
                                       hexadecimal character or digit


                                   4.  the second operand is named "x"


                                   5.  the second operand is named "."



                               then the corresponding operand is assumed to be
                               an offset operand rather than a file operand.

                               Without  the  -N count option, the display con-
                               tinues until an end-of-file is reached.



       [+][0] offset [.][b|B]  The offset_string operand  specifies  the  byte
       [+][0][offset] [.]      offset  in  the  file  where dumping is to com-
       [+][0x|x][offset]       mence.  The  offset  is  interpreted  in  octal
       [+][0x|x] offset[B]     bytes by default. If offset begins with "0", it
                               is interpreted in octal. If offset begins  with
                               "x"  or  "0x", it is interpreted in hexadecimal
                               and any appended "b" is considered  to  be  the
                               final  hexadecimal  digit.  If "." is appended,
                               the offset is interpreted in decimal. If "b" or
                               "B"  is  appended, the offset is interpreted in
                               units of 512 bytes. If  the  file  argument  is
                               omitted,  the  offset argument must be preceded
                               by a plus sign (+).  The address  is  displayed
                               starting at the given offset.  The radix of the
                               address will be the same as the  radix  of  the
                               offset,  if  specified,  otherwise  it  will be
                               octal.  Decimal overrides octal, and it  is  an
                               error  to  specify both hexadecimal and decimal
                               conversions in the same offset operand.






   /usr/xpg4/bin/od
       The following operands are supported for /usr/xpg4/bin/od only:

       file                    Same as /usr/bin/od, except  only  one  of  the
                               first two conditions must be true.



       [+] [0] offset [.][b|B]
       + [offset] [.]
       [+][0x][offset]
       [+][0x] offset[B]
       +x [offset]
       +xoffset [B]
                               Description of offset_string is the same as for
                               /usr/bin/od.








ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment  variables
       that  affect  the execution of od: LANG, LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES,
       LC_NUMERIC, and NLSPATH.

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values are returned:

       0        Successful completion.



       >>0       An error occurred.



ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

   /usr/bin/od
       tab()    allbox;    cw(2.750000i)|     cw(2.750000i)     lw(2.750000i)|
       lw(2.750000i).    ATTRIBUTE   TYPEATTRIBUTE  VALUE  AvailabilitySUNWtoo
       CSIenabled


   /usr/xpg4/bin/od
       tab()    allbox;    cw(2.750000i)|     cw(2.750000i)     lw(2.750000i)|
       lw(2.750000i).    ATTRIBUTE  TYPEATTRIBUTE  VALUE  AvailabilitySUNWxcu4
       CSIenabled Interface StabilityStandard


SEE ALSO
       sed(1), attributes(5), environ(5), standards(5)



SunOS 5.10                        18 Mar 1997                            od(1)