od - octal, decimal, hexadecimal, and ascii dump
od [ -format ] [ filename ] [ [+]offset[.][b] [label] ]
SYSTEM V SYNOPSIS
The System V version of this command is available with the System V
software installation option. Refer to for information on how to
install optional software.
od displays filename, or its standard input, in one or more dump for-
mats as selected by the first argument. If the first argument is miss-
ing, -o (octal) is the default. Dumping continues until an EOF.
The meanings of the format argument characters are:
a Interpret bytes as characters and display them with their ASCII
names. If the p character is given also, bytes with even parity
are underlined. If the P character is given, bytes with odd par-
ity are underlined. Otherwise the parity bit is ignored.
b Interpret bytes as unsigned octal.
c Interpret bytes as ASCII characters. Certain non-graphic charac-
ters appear as C escapes: NUL=\0, BACKSPACE=\b, FORMFEED=\f, NEW-
LINE=\n, RETURN=\r, TAB=\t; others appear as 3-digit octal num-
bers. Bytes with the parity bit set are displayed in octal.
d Interpret (short) words as unsigned decimal.
f Interpret long words as floating point.
h Interpret (short) words as unsigned hexadecimal.
i Interpret (short) words as signed decimal.
l Interpret long words as signed decimal.
o Interpret (short) words as unsigned octal.
s[n] Look for strings of ASCII graphic characters, terminated with a
null byte. n specifies the minimum length string to be recog-
nized. By default, the minimum length is 3 characters.
v Show all data. By default, display lines that are identical to
the last line shown are not output, but are indicated with an `*'
in column 1.
w[n] Specifies the number of input bytes to be interpreted and dis-
played on each output line. If w is not specified, 16 bytes are
read for each display line. If n is not specified, it defaults to
x Interpret (short) words as hexadecimal.
An upper case format character implies the long or double precision
form of the object.
The offset argument specifies the byte offset into the file where dump-
ing is to commence. By default this argument is interpreted in octal.
A different radix can be specified; if `.' is appended to the argu-
ment, then offset is interpreted in decimal. If offset begins with x
or 0x, it is interpreted in hexadecimal. If b (B) is appended, the
offset is interpreted as a block count, where a block is 512 (1024)
bytes. If the filename argument is omitted, the offset argument must
be preceded by `+'.
The radix of the displayed address will be the same as the radix of the
offset, if specified; otherwise it will be octal.
label will be interpreted as a pseudo-address for the first byte dis-
played. It will be shown in () following the file offset. It is
intended to be used with core images to indicate the real memory
address. The syntax for label is identical to that for offset.
SYSTEM V DESCRIPTION
The s format interprets (short) words as signed decimal, rather than
searching for strings; the S format searches for strings.
The environment variables LC_CTYPE, LANG, and LC_default control the
character classification throughout od. On entry to od, these environ-
ment variables are checked in the following order: LC_CTYPE, LANG, and
LC_default. When a valid value is found, remaining environment vari-
ables for character classification are ignored. For example, a new
setting for LANG does not override the current valid character classi-
fication rules of LC_CTYPE. When none of the values is valid, the
shell character classification defaults to the POSIX.1 "C" locale.
adb(1), dbx(1), dbxtool(1), locale(5), iso_8859_1(7)
A file name argument cannot start with `+'. A hexadecimal offset can-
not be a block count. Only one file name argument can be given.
It is an historical botch to require specification of object, radix,
and sign representation in a single character argument.
2 October 1989 OD(1V)