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newform(1)                       User Commands                      newform(1)

       newform - change the format of a text file

       newform  [-s]  [-itabspec]  [-otabspec]  [-bn]  [-en]  [-pn] [-an] [-f]
       [-cchar] [-ln] [filename...]

       newform reads lines from the named filenames, or the standard input  if
       no  input  file is named, and reproduces the lines on the standard out-
       put. Lines are reformatted in accordance with command line  options  in

       Except  for  -s,  command  line options may appear in any order, may be
       repeated, and may be intermingled with the optional filenames.  Command
       line  options  are  processed  in  the order specified. This means that
       option sequences like ``-e15 -l60'' will yield results  different  from
       ``-l60  -e15''.  Options  are  applied  to all filenames on the command

       The following options are supported:

       -s              Shears off leading characters on each line  up  to  the
                       first  tab and places up to 8 of the sheared characters
                       at the end of the line. If more than 8 characters  (not
                       counting the first tab) are sheared, the eighth charac-
                       ter is replaced by a * and any characters to the  right
                       of it are discarded. The first tab is always discarded.

                       An  error  message  and program exit will occur if this
                       option is used on a file without a tab  on  each  line.
                       The  characters  sheared off are saved internally until
                       all other options specified are applied to  that  line.
                       The  characters  are  then added at the end of the pro-
                       cessed line.

                       For example, to convert a file with leading digits, one
                       or  more  tabs, and text on each line, to a file begin-
                       ning with the text, all tabs after the  first  expanded
                       to  spaces,  padded  with  spaces  out to column 72 (or
                       truncated to column 72), and the leading digits  placed
                       starting at column 73, the command would be:

                       newform -s -i -l -a -e filename

       -itabspec       Input   tab  specification:  expands  tabs  to  spaces,
                       according to the tab specifications given. Tabspec rec-
                       ognizes   all  tab  specification  forms  described  in
                       tabs(1). In addition, tabspec may be -, in  which  new-
                       form  assumes that the tab specification is to be found
                       in the first line read from  the  standard  input  (see
                       fspec(4)).  If no tabspec is given, tabspec defaults to
                       -8. A tabspec of -0 expects no tabs; if any are  found,
                       they are treated as -1.

       -otabspec       Output  tab  specification:  replaces  spaces  by tabs,
                       according to the  tab  specifications  given.  The  tab
                       specifications  are  the  same  as for -itabspec. If no
                       tabspec is given, tabspec defaults to -8. A tabspec  of
                       -0  means  that  no spaces will be converted to tabs on

       -bn             Truncate n characters from the beginning  of  the  line
                       when the line length is greater than the effective line
                       length (see -ln). Default is to truncate the number  of
                       characters  necessary  to  obtain  the  effective  line
                       length. The default value is used when -b with no n  is
                       used.  This  option  can be used to delete the sequence
                       numbers from a COBOL program as follows:

                       newform -l1 -b7 filename

       -en             Same as -bn except that characters are  truncated  from
                       the end of the line.

       -pn             Prefix  n characters (see -cchar) to the beginning of a
                       line when the line length is less  than  the  effective
                       line length. Default is to prefix the number of charac-
                       ters necessary to obtain the effective line length.

       -an             Same as -pn except characters are appended to  the  end
                       of a line.

       -f              Write the tab specification format line on the standard
                       output before any other lines are output. The tab spec-
                       ification  format line which is printed will correspond
                       to the format specified in the last -o option. If no -o
                       option  is  specified,  the  line which is printed will
                       contain the default specification of -8.

       -cchar          Change the prefix/append  character  to  char.  Default
                       character for char is a space.

       -ln             Set  the effective line length to n characters. If n is
                       not entered, -l defaults to 72. The default line length
                       without the -l option is 80 characters. Note:  Tabs and
                       backspaces are considered to be one character  (use  -i
                       to expand tabs to spaces).

                       The  -l1  must be used to set the effective line length
                       shorter than any existing line in the file so that  the
                       -b option is activated.

       The following operand is supported:

       filename        Input file

       The following exit values are returned:

       0        Successful operation.

       1        Operation failed.

       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       tab()  box;  cw(2.750000i)| cw(2.750000i) lw(2.750000i)| lw(2.750000i).

       csplit(1), tabs(1), fspec(4), attributes(5)

       All diagnostics are fatal.

       usage:  ...

           newform was called with a bad option.

       "not -s format"

           There was no tab on one line.

       "can't open file"


       "internal line too long"

           A line exceeds 512 characters after being expanded in the  internal
           work buffer.

       "tabspec in error"

           A  tab  specification  is  incorrectly  formatted, or specified tab
           stops are not ascending.

       "tabspec indirection illegal"

           A tabspec read from a file (or standard input) may  not  contain  a
           tabspec referencing another file (or standard input).

       newform  normally only keeps track of physical characters; however, for
       the -i and -o options, newform will keep track of backspaces  in  order
       to line up tabs in the appropriate logical columns.

       newform  will  not  prompt the user if a tabspec is to be read from the
       standard input (by use of -i- or -o-).

       If the -f option is used, and the last -o option specified was -o-, and
       was  preceded  by  either  a -o- or a -i-, the tab specification format
       line will be incorrect.

SunOS 5.10                        21 Jul 1997                       newform(1)