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 newform(1)							  newform(1)

      newform - change or reformat a text file

      newform [-i tabspec] [-o tabspec] [-l n] [-b n] [-e n] [-c char] [-p n]
      [-a n] [-f] [-s] [files]

      newform reads lines from the named files, or the standard input if no
      input file is named, and reproduces the lines on the standard output.
      Lines are reformatted in accordance with command line options in

      Except for -s, command line options can appear in any order, can be
      repeated, and can be intermingled with the optional files.  Command
      line options are processed in the order specified.  This means that
      option sequences such as -e 15 -l 60 yield results different from -l
      60 -e 15.	 Options are applied to all files on the command line.

      newform recognizes the following options:

	   -itabspec	  Input tab specification: expands tabs to spaces,
			  according to the tab specifications given.
			  Tabspec recognizes all tab specification forms
			  described in tabs(1).	 In addition, tabspec can be
			  --, in which newform assumes that the tab
			  specification is to be found in the first line
			  read from the standard input (see fspec(4)).	If
			  no tabspec is given, tabspec defaults to -8.	A
			  tabspec of -0 expects no tabs; if any are found,
			  they are treated as -1.

	   -otabspec	  Output tab specification: replaces spaces with
			  tabs, according to the tab specifications given.
			  The tab specifications are the same as for -
			  itabspec.  If no tabspec is given, tabspec
			  defaults to -8.  A tabspec of -0 means that no
			  spaces will be converted to tabs on output.

	   -ln		  Set the effective line length to n characters.  If
			  n is not entered, -l defaults to 72.	The default
			  line length without the -l option is 80
			  characters.  Note that tabs and backspaces are
			  treated as single characters (use -i to expand
			  tabs to spaces).

	   -bn		  Truncate n characters from the beginning of the
			  line when the line length is greater than the
			  effective line length (see -ln).  Default is to
			  truncate the number of characters necessary to

 Hewlett-Packard Company	    - 1 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000

 newform(1)							  newform(1)

			  obtain the effective line length.  The default
			  value is used when -b with no n is used.  This
			  option can be used to delete the sequence numbers
			  from a COBOL program as follows:

			       newform -l1 -b7 file-name

			  The -l1 must be used to set the effective line
			  length shorter than any existing line in the file
			  so that the -b option is activated.

	   -en		  Same as -bn except that characters are truncated
			  from the end of the line.

	   -ck		  Change the prefix/append character to k.  Default
			  character for k is a space.

	   -pn		  Prefix n characters (see -ck) to the beginning of
			  a line when the line length is less than the
			  effective line length.  Default is to prefix the
			  number of characters necessary to obtain the
			  effective line length.

	   -an		  Same as -pn except characters are appended to the
			  end of a line.

	   -f		  Write the tab specification format line on the
			  standard output before any other lines are output.
			  The tab specification format line which is printed
			  will correspond to the format specified in the
			  last -o option.  If no -o option is specified, the
			  line which is printed contains the default
			  specification of -8.

	   -s		  Shears off leading characters on each line up to
			  the first tab and places up to 8 of the sheared
			  characters at the end of the line.  If more than 8
			  characters (not counting the first tab) are
			  sheared, the eighth character is replaced by a *
			  and any characters to the right of it are
			  discarded.  The first tab is always discarded.

			  An error message and program exit occur if this
			  option is used on a file without a tab on each
			  line.	 The characters sheared off are saved
			  internally until all other options specified are
			  applied to that line.	 The characters are then
			  added at the end of the processed line.

			  For example, to convert a file with leading
			  digits, one or more tabs, and text on each line,

 Hewlett-Packard Company	    - 2 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000

 newform(1)							  newform(1)

			  to a file beginning with the text, all tabs after
			  the first expanded to spaces, padded with spaces
			  out to column 72 (or truncated to column 72), and
			  the leading digits placed starting at column 73,
			  the command would be:

			       newform -s -i -l -a -e file-name

      newform returns one of the following values upon completion:

	   0	No errors encountered.

	   1	An error occurred.

      All diagnostics are fatal.

	   usage: ...
		newform was called with a bad option.

	   not -s format
		There was no tab on one line.

	   can't open file

	   internal line too long
		A line exceeds 512 characters after being expanded in the
		internal work buffer.

	   tabspec in error
		A tab specification is incorrectly formatted, or specified
		tab stops are not ascending.

	   tabspec indirection illegal
		A tabspec read from a file (or standard input) must not
		contain a tabspec referencing another file (or standard

      newform normally only keeps track of physical characters; however, for
      the -i and -o options, newform keeps track of backspaces in order to
      line up tabs in the appropriate logical columns.

      newform does not prompt the user if a tabspec is to be read from the
      standard input (by use of -i-- or -o--).

      If the -f option is used, and the last -o option specified was -o--,
      and was preceded by either a -o-- or a -i--, the tab specification
      format line will be incorrect.

 Hewlett-Packard Company	    - 3 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000

 newform(1)							  newform(1)

      fspec(4), csplit(1), tabs(1).

 Hewlett-Packard Company	    - 4 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000