newform - change or reformat a text file
newform [-i tabspec] [-o tabspec] [-l n] [-b n] [-e n] [-c char] [-p n]
[-a n] [-f] [-s] [files]
newform reads lines from the named files, or the standard input if no
input file is named, and reproduces the lines on the standard output.
Lines are reformatted in accordance with command line options in
Except for -s, command line options can appear in any order, can be
repeated, and can be intermingled with the optional files. Command
line options are processed in the order specified. This means that
option sequences such as -e 15 -l 60 yield results different from -l
60 -e 15. Options are applied to all files on the command line.
newform recognizes the following options:
-itabspec Input tab specification: expands tabs to spaces,
according to the tab specifications given.
Tabspec recognizes all tab specification forms
described in tabs(1). In addition, tabspec can be
--, in which newform assumes that the tab
specification is to be found in the first line
read from the standard input (see fspec(4)). If
no tabspec is given, tabspec defaults to -8. A
tabspec of -0 expects no tabs; if any are found,
they are treated as -1.
-otabspec Output tab specification: replaces spaces with
tabs, according to the tab specifications given.
The tab specifications are the same as for -
itabspec. If no tabspec is given, tabspec
defaults to -8. A tabspec of -0 means that no
spaces will be converted to tabs on output.
-ln Set the effective line length to n characters. If
n is not entered, -l defaults to 72. The default
line length without the -l option is 80
characters. Note that tabs and backspaces are
treated as single characters (use -i to expand
tabs to spaces).
-bn Truncate n characters from the beginning of the
line when the line length is greater than the
effective line length (see -ln). Default is to
truncate the number of characters necessary to
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obtain the effective line length. The default
value is used when -b with no n is used. This
option can be used to delete the sequence numbers
from a COBOL program as follows:
newform -l1 -b7 file-name
The -l1 must be used to set the effective line
length shorter than any existing line in the file
so that the -b option is activated.
-en Same as -bn except that characters are truncated
from the end of the line.
-ck Change the prefix/append character to k. Default
character for k is a space.
-pn Prefix n characters (see -ck) to the beginning of
a line when the line length is less than the
effective line length. Default is to prefix the
number of characters necessary to obtain the
effective line length.
-an Same as -pn except characters are appended to the
end of a line.
-f Write the tab specification format line on the
standard output before any other lines are output.
The tab specification format line which is printed
will correspond to the format specified in the
last -o option. If no -o option is specified, the
line which is printed contains the default
specification of -8.
-s Shears off leading characters on each line up to
the first tab and places up to 8 of the sheared
characters at the end of the line. If more than 8
characters (not counting the first tab) are
sheared, the eighth character is replaced by a *
and any characters to the right of it are
discarded. The first tab is always discarded.
An error message and program exit occur if this
option is used on a file without a tab on each
line. The characters sheared off are saved
internally until all other options specified are
applied to that line. The characters are then
added at the end of the processed line.
For example, to convert a file with leading
digits, one or more tabs, and text on each line,
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to a file beginning with the text, all tabs after
the first expanded to spaces, padded with spaces
out to column 72 (or truncated to column 72), and
the leading digits placed starting at column 73,
the command would be:
newform -s -i -l -a -e file-name
newform returns one of the following values upon completion:
0 No errors encountered.
1 An error occurred.
All diagnostics are fatal.
newform was called with a bad option.
not -s format
There was no tab on one line.
can't open file
internal line too long
A line exceeds 512 characters after being expanded in the
internal work buffer.
tabspec in error
A tab specification is incorrectly formatted, or specified
tab stops are not ascending.
tabspec indirection illegal
A tabspec read from a file (or standard input) must not
contain a tabspec referencing another file (or standard
newform normally only keeps track of physical characters; however, for
the -i and -o options, newform keeps track of backspaces in order to
line up tabs in the appropriate logical columns.
newform does not prompt the user if a tabspec is to be read from the
standard input (by use of -i-- or -o--).
If the -f option is used, and the last -o option specified was -o--,
and was preceded by either a -o-- or a -i--, the tab specification
format line will be incorrect.
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fspec(4), csplit(1), tabs(1).
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