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eqn(1)                           User Commands                          eqn(1)



NAME
       eqn, neqn, checkeq - typeset mathematics test

SYNOPSIS
       eqn [-d xy] [-f n] [-p n] [-s n] [file...]

       neqn [file...]

       checkeq [file...]

DESCRIPTION
       eqn and neqn are language processors to assist in describing equations.
       eqn is a preprocessor for troff(1) and is intended for devices that can
       print   troff's  output.  neqn  is  a  preprocessor for nroff(1) and is
       intended for use with terminals.  Usage is almost always:

       example% eqn file ... | troff
       example% neqn file ... | nroff

       If no files are specified, eqn and neqn read from the standard input. A
       line  beginning  with .EQ marks the start of an equation. The end of an
       equation is marked by a line beginning with .EN. Neither of these lines
       is  altered, so they may be defined in macro packages to get centering,
       numbering, and so on.  It is also possible to  set  two  characters  as
       ``delimiters'';  subsequent  text between delimiters is also treated as
       eqn input.

       checkeq reports missing or unbalanced delimiters and .EQ/.EN pairs.

OPTIONS
       The following options are supported:

       -dxy     Sets equation delimiters set to characters x and  y  with  the
                command-line  argument. The more common way to do this is with
                delim xy between .EQ and .EN. The left  and  right  delimiters
                may  be  identical.  Delimiters  are  turned  off by delim off
                appearing in the text. All text that is neither between delim-
                iters nor between .EQ and .EN is passed through untouched.



       -fn      Changes  font to n globally in the document. The font can also
                be changed globally in the body of the document by  using  the
                gfont n directive, where n is the font specification.



       -pn      Reduces  subscripts and superscripts by n point sizes from the
                previous size.  In the absence of the  -p  option,  subscripts
                and  superscripts are reduced by 3 point sizes from the previ-
                ous size.



       -sn      Changes point size to n globally in the  document.  The  point
                size  can also be changed globally in the body of the document
                by using the gsize n directive, where  n is the point size.



OPERANDS
       The following operands are supported:

       file     The nroff or troff file processed by eqn or neqn.



EQN LANGUAGE
       The nroff version of this description depicts the output  of   neqn  to
       the  terminal  screen exactly as  neqn is able to display it. To see an
       accurate depiction of the output, view  the  printed  version  of  this
       page.

       Tokens  within eqn are separated by braces, double quotes, tildes, cir-
       cumflexes, <&lt;SPACE>&gt;, <&lt;TAB>&gt;, or NEWLINE characters. Braces  {}  are  used
       for  grouping.  Generally  speaking, anywhere a single character like x
       could appear, a complicated construction enclosed in braces may be used
       instead. A tilde (~) represents a full <&lt;SPACE>&gt; in the output; a circum-
       flex (^) half as much.

       Subscripts and superscripts:

           These are produced with the keywords sub and sup.

           x sub i                         makes xi




           a sub i sup 2                   produces ai **2



           e sup {x sup 2 + y sup 2}       gives e**x**2+y**2




       Fractions:

           Fractions are made with over.

           a over b

               yields

               delim $$


               $a over b$

       Equation in the form of a over b.




Square Roots:

    These are made with sqrt

    1 over sqrt {ax sup 2 +bx+c}

        results in

        delim $$


        $1 over sqrt {ax sup 2 +bx+c}$

       Equation in the form 1 over the square root of ax- squared plus bx plus
       c




Limits:

    The  keywords  from  and  to introduce lower and upper limits on arbitrary
    things:

    lim from {n->&gt; inf } sum from 0 to n x sub i

         makes

        delim $$


        $lim from {n-> inf} sum from 0 to n x sub i$

       Equation in the form lim from {n-> inf } sum from 0 to n x sub i




Brackets and Braces:

    Left and right brackets, braces, and the like, of  the  right  height  are
    made with left and right.

    left [ x sup 2 + y sup 2 over alpha right ] ~=~1

        produces

        delim $$


        $left [ x sup 2 + y sup 2 over alpha right ] ~=~1$.

       Equation  in  the  form  [  x sup 2 + y sup 2 over alpha ] = 1The right
       clause is optional.  Legal characters after left and right are  braces,
       brackets,  bars,  c  and f for ceiling and floor, and "" for nothing at
       all (useful for a right-side-only bracket).





Vertical piles:

    Vertical piles of things are made with  pile, lpile, cpile, and rpile.

    pile {a above b above c}

         produces

        delim $$


        $pile {a above b above c}$

       Equation that shows a above b above cThere can be an  arbitrary  number
       of  elements  in  a pile.  lpile left-justifies, pile and cpile center,
       with different vertical spacing, and rpile right justifies.





Matrices:

    Matrices are made with matrix.

    matrix { lcol { x sub i above y sub 2 } ccol { 1 above 2 } }

        produces

        delim $$


        $matrix { lcol { x sub i above y sub 2 } ccol { 1 above 2 } }$

       Matrix containing x sub i in above y sub 2 the left column and 1  above
       2  in  the right columnIn addition, there is rcol for a right-justified
       column.





Diacritical marks:

    Diacritical marks are made with dot, dotdot, hat, tilde, bar,  vec,  dyad,
    and under.

    x dot = f(t) bar

         is

        delim $$


        $x dot = f(t) bar$

       Equation in the form x dot = f(t) bar



   y dotdot bar ~=~ n under

        is

       delim $$


       $y dotdot bar ~=~ n under$,

       Equation in the form y dotdot bar = n under


   x vec ~=~ y dyad

       is

       delim $$


       $x vec ~=~ y dyad$.

       Equation in the form x vec = y dyad



Sizes and Fonts:

    Sizes  and  font  can  be  changed with size n or size +-n, roman, italic,
    bold, and font n. Size and fonts can be changed globally in a document  by
    gsize n and gfont n, or by the command-line arguments -sn and -fn.



Successive display arguments:

    Successive  display  arguments  can  be  lined  up.  Place mark before the
    desired lineup point in the first equation; place lineup at the place that
    is to line up vertically in subsequent equations.



Shorthands:

    Shorthands may be defined or existing keywords redefined with define:

    define thing % replacement %

        Defines a new token called thing which will be replaced by replacement
        whenever it appears thereafter. The % may be any character  that  does
        not occur in replacement.





Keywords and Shorthands:

    Keywords like sum int inf and shorthands like >&gt;= ->&gt; and != are recognized.



Greek letters:

    Greek letters are spelled out in the desired case, as in alpha or GAMMA.



Mathematical words:

    Mathematical words like  sin, cos, and  log are made Roman automatically.



       troff(1)  four-character  escapes  like  \(bu (o) can be used anywhere.
       Strings enclosed in double quotes "..."  are passed through  untouched;
       this  permits keywords to be entered as text, and can be used to commu-
       nicate with troff when all else fails.

ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:


       tab()    allbox;    cw(2.750000i)|     cw(2.750000i)     lw(2.750000i)|
       lw(2.750000i).  ATTRIBUTE TYPEATTRIBUTE VALUE AvailabilitySUNWdoc


SEE ALSO
       nroff(1), tbl(1), troff(1), attributes(5), ms(5)

BUGS
       To embolden characters such as digits and parentheses, it  is necessary
       to quote them, as in `bold "12.3"'.




SunOS 5.10                        12 Jul 2002                           eqn(1)