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 neqn(1)							     neqn(1)

      neqn - format mathematical text for nroff

      neqn [-d xy] [-s n] [-f n] [-p n] [file ...]

      The output of neqn is very device-dependent.  See the "WARNINGS"

      neqn is a preprocessor for nroff (see nroff(1)) for typesetting
      mathematical text on typewriter-like terminals.  Its invocation is
      almost always one of the following two forms or equivalent:

	   neqn files | nroff | col

	   tbl files | neqn | nroff | col

      If no files are specified (or if - is specified instead of file), neqn
      reads from standard input.  A line beginning with .EQ marks the start
      of an equation.  The end of an equation is marked by a line beginning
      with .EN.	 Neither of these lines is altered, which means that they
      can be defined in macro packages to get centering, numbering, etc.

      It is also possible to designate two characters as delimiters;
      subsequent text between delimiters is then treated as neqn input.
      Delimiters can be set to characters x and y with the command-line
      argument -dxy or (more commonly) with the sequence

	   delim xy

      The left and right delimiters can be the same character; the dollar
      sign ($) is often used as such a delimiter.  Delimiters are turned off
      by delim off (see the "WARNINGS" section).  All text that is neither
      between delimiters nor between .EQ and .EN is passed through
      untouched.  delim $$

      Tokens within neqn equations are separated by spaces, tabs, newlines,
      braces, double quotes, tildes, and circumflexes.	Braces ({}) are used
      for grouping; generally speaking, anywhere a single character such as
      x can appear, a complicated construction enclosed in braces can be
      used instead.  Tilde (~) represents a full space in the output;
      circumflex, (^) half as much.

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 neqn(1)							     neqn(1)

    Subscripts and Superscripts
      Subscripts and superscripts are produced using sub and sup as follows:

	   Source Text					     Result

	   x sub j					     $x sub j$

	   a sub k sup 2				     $a sub k sup 2$

	   e sup {x sup 2 + y sup 2}			     $e sup {x sup 2
							     + y sup 2}$

      Fractions are produced by using over:

	   Source Text					     Result

	   a over b					     $a over b$

    Square Roots
      sqrt produces square roots:

	   Source Text					     Result

	   1 over sqrt {ax sup 2+bx+c}			     $1 over sqrt
							     {ax sup 2

    Upper and Lower Limits
      The keywords from and to specify lower and upper limits:

	   Source Text					     Result

	   lim from {n ->&gt&gt> inf } sum from 0 to n x sub i	     $lim from {n ->
							     inf} ~ sum from
							     0 to n ~ x sub

    Brackets and Braces
      Left and right brackets, braces, and such, of proper height are made
      with left and right:

	   Source Text					     Result

	   left [ {x sup 2 + y sup 2}			     $left [ {x sup
	       over alpha right ] ~=~ 1			     2 + y sup 2}
							     over alpha
							     right ] ~=~ 1$

      Legal characters after left and right are braces, brackets, bars, c
      and f for ceiling and floor, and "" for nothing at all (useful for a

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 neqn(1)							     neqn(1)

      right-side-only bracket).	 A left char need not have a matching right

    Vertical Piles
      Vertical piles of elements are made with pile, lpile, cpile, and

	   Source Text					     Result

	   pile {a above bb above ccc}			     $pile {a above
							     bb above ccc}$

      Piles can have arbitrary numbers of elements; lpile left justifies,
      pile and cpile center (but with different vertical spacing), and rpile
      right justifies.

    Matrices and Determinants
      Matrices are made with matrix:

	   Source Text					     Result

	   left | { matrix {
	       lcol { x sub i above y sub 2 }		     $left | {
	       ccol { 1 above 234 } } } right |		     matrix { lcol {
							     x sub i above y
							     sub 2 } ccol {
							     1 above 234 } }
							     } right |$

      In addition, there is rcol for a right-justified column.

    Diacritical Marks
      Diacritical marks are made with dot, dotdot, hat, tilde, bar, vec,
      dyad, and under:

	   Source Text					     Result

	   x dot = f(t) bar				     $x dot = f(t)

	   y dotdot bar ~=~ n under			     $y dotdot bar
							     ~=~ n under$

	   x vec ~=~ y dyad				     $x vec ~=~ y
      delim off

    Point Sizes and Fonts
      Point sizes and fonts can be changed with size n or size +|-n, roman,
      italic, bold, and font n.	 Point sizes and fonts can be changed
      globally in a document by gsize n and gfont n, or by the command-line

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 neqn(1)							     neqn(1)

      arguments -sn and -fn.

      Normally, subscripts and superscripts are reduced by 3 points from the
      previous size; this can be changed by the command-line argument -pn.

    Vertical Alignment
      Successive display arguments can be lined up.  Place mark before the
      desired lineup point in the first equation; place lineup at the place
      that is to line up vertically in subsequent equations.

    Shorthand Forms
      Shorthand forms can be defined or existing keywords redefined with

	   define thing % replacement %

      defines a new token called thing that is replaced by replacement
      whenever it appears thereafter.  The % can be any character that does
      not occur in replacement.

    Other Keywords
      Keywords such as sum ( sum ), int ( int ), inf ( inf ), and shorthands
      such as >&gt&gt>= (>=), != ( != ), and ->&gt&gt> (->) are recognized.  Greek letters
      are spelled out in uppercase or lowercase as desired, as in alpha (
      alpha ) or GAMMA ( GAMMA ).  Mathematical words such as sin, cos, and
      log are made Roman automatically.	 nroff four-character escapes such
      as \(dd (=) and \(bu (+) can be used anywhere.

    Verbatim Text
      Strings enclosed in double quotes ("string") are passed through
      untouched; this permits keywords to be entered as text, and can be
      used to communicate with nroff when other methods fail.  Details are
      given in the manuals cited below.

    Environment Variables
      LC_CTYPE determines the interpretation of text as single- or multibyte

      LANG determines the language in which messages are displayed.

      If LC_CTYPE is not specified in the environment or is set to the empty
      string, the value of LANG is used as a default for each unspecified or
      empty variable.  If LANG is not specified or is set to the empty
      string, a default of "C" (see lang(5)) is used instead of LANG.  If
      any internationalization variable contains an invalid setting, neqn
      behaves as if all internationalization variables are set to "C".	See

    International Code Set Support
      Single- and multibyte character code sets are supported.

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 neqn(1)							     neqn(1)

      To embolden digits, parentheses, etc., it is necessary to quote them,
      as in bold "12.3".  Also see the "WARNINGS" section in nroff(1).

      Good practice dictates that if a delimiter is specified in a file, the
      delim off directive should be included at the end of the file to
      prevent undesirable behavior when processing multiple files where a
      subsequent file may contain the delimiter character as part of regular

      To properly display equations on terminal screens and other devices
      that do not support reverse line feeds, nroff output should be piped
      through col (see col(1)).

      The display on devices that do not support partial linefeeds is often
      difficult to understand; Greek characters and other symbols are often
      not well supported and can mismatched printing of bold words on the
      same line (see a printed version of the "Other Keywords" subsection
      above).  Consider using "computer-program" coding instead.

      col(1), mm(1), nroff(1), tbl(1), mm(5).

      Typesetting Mathematics - User's Guide, by B.W. Kernighan and L.L.

      New Graphic Symbols for EQN and NEQN, by C. Scrocca.  delim off

 Hewlett-Packard Company	    - 5 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000