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mule(1)								      mule(1)
Free Software Foundation			     Free Software Foundation



NAME

  mule - Multilingual Enhancement to GNU Emacs

SYNOPSIS

  mule [command-line switches] [files...]

DESCRIPTION

  Mule is a multilingual enhancement to	GNU Emacs.  Mule provides a facility
  to display, input, and edit multilingual characters in addition to all GNU
  Emacs	facilities.

  GNU Emacs is a new version of	Emacs, written by the author of	the original
  (PDP-10) Emacs, Richard Stallman. Its	user functionality encompasses every-
  thing	other Emacs editors do,	and it is easily extensible since its editing
  commands are written in Lisp.

  Emacs	has an extensive interactive help facility, but	the facility assumes
  that you know	how to manipulate Emacs	windows	and buffers. CTRL-h (back-
  space	or CTRL-h) enters the Help facility.  Help Tutorial (CTRL-h t)
  requests an interactive tutorial which can teach beginners the fundamentals
  of Emacs in a	few minutes. Help Apropos (CTRL-h a) helps you find a command
  given	its functionality, Help	Character (CTRL-h c) describes a given
  character's effect, and Help Function	(CTRL-h	f) describes a given Lisp
  function specified by	name.

  Emacs's Undo can undo	several	steps of modification to your buffers, so it
  is easy to recover from editing mistakes.

  GNU Emacs's many special packages handle mail	reading	(RMail)	and sending
  (Mail), outline editing (Outline), compiling (Compile), running subshells
  within Emacs windows (Shell),	running	a Lisp read-eval-print loop (Lisp-
  Interaction-Mode), and automated psychotherapy (Doctor).

  There	is an extensive	reference manual, but users of other Emacses should
  have little trouble adapting even without a copy.  Users new to Emacs	will
  be able to use basic features	fairly rapidly by studying the tutorial	and
  using	the self-documentation features.

  Emacs	Options

  The following	options	are of general interest:

  file
      Edit file.

  +number
      Go to the	line specified by number (do not insert	a space	between	the
      "+" sign and the number).

  -q  Do not load an init file.

  -u user
      Load user's init file.

  -t file
      Use specified file as the	terminal instead of using stdin/stdout.	This
      must be the first	argument specified in the command line.

  The following	options	are lisp-oriented (these options are processed in the
  order	encountered):

  -f function
      Execute the lisp function	function.

  -l file
      Load the lisp code in the	file file.

  The following	options	are useful when	running	Emacs as a batch editor:

  -batch commandfile
      Edit in batch mode using the commands found in commandfile. The editor
      will send	messages to stdout. This option	must be	the first in the
      argument list.

  -kill
      Exit Emacs while in batch	mode.

  Using	Emacs with X

  Emacs	has been tailored to work well with the	X window system. If you	run
  Emacs	from under X windows, it will create its own X window to display in.
  You will probably want to start the editor as	a background process so	that
  you can continue using your original window.

  Emacs	can be started with the	following X switches:

  -rn name
      Specifies	the program name which should be used when looking up
      defaults in the user's X resources.  This	must be	the first option
      specified	in the command line.

  -name	name
      Specifies	the name which should be assigned to the Emacs window.

  -r  Display the Emacs	window in reverse video.

  -i  Use the "kitchen sink" bitmap icon when iconifying the Emacs window.

  -font	fontset, -fn fontset
      Set the Emacs window's fontset to	that specified by fontset. You can
      specify a	fontset	just by	the name or a comma separated list of fonts.
      In the former case, the actual contents of the fontset should be
      defined by X's resource or Emacslisp function new-fontset. In the
      latter case, a fontset of	no name	is created from	the list. You will
      find the various X fonts in the /usr/lib/X11/fonts directory. Note that
      Emacs will only accept fixed width fonts.	Under the X11 Release 4
      font-naming conventions, any font	with the value "m" or "c" in the
      eleventh field of	the font name is a fixed width font.  Furthermore,
      fonts whose name are of the form widthxheight are	generally fixed
      width, as	is the font fixed.  See	xlsfonts(1X) for more information.

      When you specify a fontset, be sure to put a space between the switch
      and the fontset name.

  -lsp linespace
      Set the dot size of u(pper) and l(ower) linespace	in the form u+l. You
      can omit u and/or	l. The default value is	1+1.

  -b pixels
      Set the Emacs window's border width to the number	of pixels specified
      by pixels. Defaults to one pixel on each side of the window.

  -ib pixels
      Set the window's internal	border width to	the number of pixels speci-
      fied by pixels. Defaults to one pixel of padding on each side of the
      window.

  -geometry geometry
      Set the Emacs window's width, height, and	position as specified.	The
      geometry specification is	in the standard	X format; see X(1X) for	more
      information. The width and height	are specified in characters; the
      default is 80 by 24.

  -fg color
      On color displays, sets the color	of the text.

      See the file /usr/lib/X11/rgb.txt	for a list of valid color names.

  -bg color
      On color displays, sets the color	of the window's	background.

  -bd color
      On color displays, sets the color	of the window's	border.

  -cr color
      On color displays, sets the color	of the window's	text cursor.

  -ms color
      On color displays, sets the color	of the window's	mouse cursor.

  -d displayname, -display displayname
      Create the Emacs window on the display specified by displayname. Must
      be the first option specified in the command line.

  -nw Tells Emacs not to use its special interface to X.  If you use this
      switch when invoking Emacs from an xterm(1X) window, display is done in
      that window. This	must be	the first option specified in the command
      line.

  You can set X	default	values for your	Emacs windows in your .Xresources
  file (see xrdb(1X)).	Use the	following format:

       emacs.keyword:value

  where	value specifies	the default value of keyword.  Emacs lets you set
  default values for the following keywords:

  font (class Font)
      Sets the window's	text font.

  fontSetList (class FontSetList)
      List of names of fontsets.  The first fontset in the list	is used	by
      default.

  fontSet-XXX (class FontSet-XXX)
      Definition of fontset XXX.  It should be a comma separated list of font
      names.  Each name	should contain at least	CHARSET-REGISTRY.

  reverseVideo (class ReverseVideo)
      If reverseVideo's	value is set to	on, the	window will be displayed in
      reverse video.

  bitmapIcon (class BitmapIcon)
      If bitmapIcon's value is set to on, the window will iconify into the
      "kitchen sink."

  borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
      Sets the window's	border width in	pixels.

  internalBorder (class	BorderWidth)
      Sets the window's	internal border	width in pixels.

  foreground (class Foreground)
      For color	displays, sets the window's text color.

  background (class Background)
      For color	displays, sets the window's background color.

  borderColor (class BorderColor)
      For color	displays, sets the color of the	window's border.

  cursorColor (class Foreground)
      For color	displays, sets the color of the	window's text cursor.

  pointerColor (class Foreground)
      For color	displays, sets the color of the	window's mouse cursor.

  geometry (class Geometry)
      Sets the geometry	of the Emacs window (as	described above).

  title	(class Title)
      Sets the title of	the Emacs window.

  iconName (class Title)
      Sets the icon name for the Emacs window icon.

  If you try to	set color values while using a black and white display,	the
  window's characteristics will	default	as follows: the	foreground color will
  be set to black, the background color	will be	set to white, the border
  color	will be	set to grey, and the text and mouse cursors will be set	to
  black.

  Using	the Mouse

  The following	lists the mouse	button bindings	for the	Emacs window under
  X11.

  MOUSE	BUTTON
      FUNCTION

  left
      Set point.

  middle
      Paste text.

  right
      Cut text into X cut buffer.

  SHIFT-middle
      Cut text into X cut buffer.

  SHIFT-right
      Paste text.

  CTRL-middle
      Cut text into X cut buffer and kill it.

  CTRL-right
      Select this window, then split it	into two windows.  Same	as typing
      CTRL-x 2.

  CTRL-SHIFT-left
      X	buffer menu--hold the buttons and keys down, wait for menu to appear,
      select buffer, and release.  Move	mouse out of menu and release to can-
      cel.

  CTRL-SHIFT-middle
      X	help menu--pop up index	card menu for Emacs help.

  CTRL-SHIFT-right
      Select window with mouse,	and delete all other windows.  Same as typing
      CTRL-x 1.

MANUALS

  You can order	printed	copies of the GNU Emacs	Manual for $20.00/copy post-
  paid from the	Free Software Foundation, which	develops GNU software (con-
  tact them for	quantity prices	on the manual).	 Their address is:

       Free Software Foundation
       675 Mass	Ave.
       Cambridge, MA 02139

  Your local Emacs maintainer might also have copies available.	 As with all
  software and publications from FSF, everyone is permitted to make and	dis-
  tribute copies of the	Emacs manual.  The TeX source to the manual is also
  included in the Emacs	source distribution.

BUGS

  There	is a mailing list, bug-gnu-emacsATprep.edu on the	internet
  (ucbvax!prep.ai.mit.edu!bug-gnu-emacs	on UUCPnet), for reporting Emacs bugs
  and fixes.  But before reporting something as	a bug, please try to be	sure
  that it really is a bug, not a misunderstanding or a deliberate feature.
  We ask you to	read the section "Reporting Emacs Bugs"	near the end of	the
  reference manual (or Info system) for	hints on how and when to report	bugs.
  Also,	include	the version number of the Emacs	you are	running	in every bug
  report that you send in.

  Do not expect	a personal answer to a bug report.  The	purpose	of reporting
  bugs is to get them fixed for	everyone in the	next release, if possible.
  For personal assistance, look	in the SERVICE file (see below)	for a list of
  people who offer it.

  Please do not	send anything but bug reports to this mailing list. Send
  requests to be added to mailing lists	to the special list info-gnu-emacs-
  requestATprep.edu (or the corresponding	UUCP address).	For more
  information about Emacs mailing lists, see the file
  /usr/i18n/mule/lib/mule/$VERSION/etc/MAILINGLISTS. Bugs tend actually	to be
  fixed	if they	can be isolated, so it is in your interest to report them in
  such a way that they can be easily reproduced.

  Bugs that I know about are: shell will not work with programs	running	in
  Raw mode on some Unix	versions.

  There	is a mailing list, muleATetl.jp on the internet, for reporting Mule
  bugs and fixes.  But before reporting	something as a bug, please try to
  check	if the bug is Mule oriented or original	GNU Emacs oriented. The	mail-
  ing list above is to discuss Mule oriented matters.




UNRESTRICTIONS

  Emacs	is free; anyone	may redistribute copies	of Emacs to anyone under the
  terms	stated in the Emacs General Public License, a copy of which accom-
  panies each copy of Emacs and	which also appears in the reference manual.

  Copies of Emacs may sometimes	be received packaged with distributions	of
  Unix systems,	but it is never	included in the	scope of any license covering
  those	systems.  Such inclusion violates the terms on which distribution is
  permitted.  In fact, the primary purpose of the General Public License is
  to prohibit anyone from attaching any	other restrictions to redistribution
  of Emacs.

  Richard Stallman encourages you to improve and extend	Emacs, and urges that
  you contribute your extensions to the	GNU library.  Eventually GNU (Gnu's
  Not Unix) will be a complete replacement for Berkeley	Unix. Everyone will
  be able to use the GNU system	for free.

  Mule is also free; anyone may	redistribute copies of Mule to anyone under
  the terms stated in the GNU General Public License, a	copy of	which accom-
  panies each copy of Mule.

FILES

  /usr/i18n/mule/info
	  files	for the	Info documentation browser (a subsystem	of Emacs) to
	  refer	to.  Currently not much	of Unix	is documented here, but	the
	  complete text	of the Emacs reference manual is included in a con-
	  venient tree structured form.

  /usr/i18n/mule/lib/mule/$VERSION/lisp
	  Lisp source files and	compiled files that define most	editing	com-
	  mands.  Some are preloaded; others are autoloaded from this direc-
	  tory when used.

  /usr/i18n/mule/lib/mule/$VERSION/etc
	  various programs that	are used with GNU Emacs, and some files	of
	  information.

  /usr/i18n/mule/lib/mule/$VERSION/etc/DOC.*
	  contains the documentation strings for the Lisp primitives and
	  preloaded Lisp functions of GNU Emacs.  They are stored here to
	  reduce the size of Emacs proper.

  /usr/i18n/mule/lib/mule/$VERSION/etc/SERVICE
	  lists	people offering	various	services to assist users of GNU
	  Emacs, including education, troubleshooting, porting and customiza-
	  tion.	 These files also have information useful to anyone wishing
	  to write programs in the Emacs Lisp extension	language, which	has
	  not yet been fully documented.

  /usr/i18n/mule/lib/mule/lock
	  holds	lock files that	are made for all files being modified in
	  Emacs, to prevent simultaneous modification of one file by two
	  users.

  /usr/lib/X11/rgb.txt
	  list of valid	X color	names.








SEE ALSO

  X(1X), xlsfonts(1X), xterm(1X), xrdb(1X), m2ps(1)



AUTHORS

  Emacs	was written by Richard Stallman	and the	Free Software Foundation.
  Joachim Martillo and Robert Krawitz added the	X features.

  Mule was written by Ken'ichi HANDA, Satoru TOMURA, and Mikiko	NISHIKIMI of
  Electrotechnical Laboratory, JAPAN, with a great help	by members of the
  Mule mailing list.