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mule - Multilingual Enhancement to GNU Emacs
mule [command-line switches] [files...]
Mule is a multilingual enhancement to GNU Emacs. Mule provides a facility
to display, input, and edit multilingual characters in addition to all GNU
GNU Emacs is a new version of Emacs, written by the author of the original
(PDP-10) Emacs, Richard Stallman. Its user functionality encompasses every-
thing other Emacs editors do, and it is easily extensible since its editing
commands are written in Lisp.
Emacs has an extensive interactive help facility, but the facility assumes
that you know how to manipulate Emacs windows and buffers. CTRL-h (back-
space or CTRL-h) enters the Help facility. Help Tutorial (CTRL-h t)
requests an interactive tutorial which can teach beginners the fundamentals
of Emacs in a few minutes. Help Apropos (CTRL-h a) helps you find a command
given its functionality, Help Character (CTRL-h c) describes a given
character's effect, and Help Function (CTRL-h f) describes a given Lisp
function specified by name.
Emacs's Undo can undo several steps of modification to your buffers, so it
is easy to recover from editing mistakes.
GNU Emacs's many special packages handle mail reading (RMail) and sending
(Mail), outline editing (Outline), compiling (Compile), running subshells
within Emacs windows (Shell), running a Lisp read-eval-print loop (Lisp-
Interaction-Mode), and automated psychotherapy (Doctor).
There is an extensive reference manual, but users of other Emacses should
have little trouble adapting even without a copy. Users new to Emacs will
be able to use basic features fairly rapidly by studying the tutorial and
using the self-documentation features.
The following options are of general interest:
Go to the line specified by number (do not insert a space between the
"+" sign and the number).
-q Do not load an init file.
Load user's init file.
Use specified file as the terminal instead of using stdin/stdout. This
must be the first argument specified in the command line.
The following options are lisp-oriented (these options are processed in the
Execute the lisp function function.
Load the lisp code in the file file.
The following options are useful when running Emacs as a batch editor:
Edit in batch mode using the commands found in commandfile. The editor
will send messages to stdout. This option must be the first in the
Exit Emacs while in batch mode.
Using Emacs with X
Emacs has been tailored to work well with the X window system. If you run
Emacs from under X windows, it will create its own X window to display in.
You will probably want to start the editor as a background process so that
you can continue using your original window.
Emacs can be started with the following X switches:
Specifies the program name which should be used when looking up
defaults in the user's X resources. This must be the first option
specified in the command line.
Specifies the name which should be assigned to the Emacs window.
-r Display the Emacs window in reverse video.
-i Use the "kitchen sink" bitmap icon when iconifying the Emacs window.
-font fontset, -fn fontset
Set the Emacs window's fontset to that specified by fontset. You can
specify a fontset just by the name or a comma separated list of fonts.
In the former case, the actual contents of the fontset should be
defined by X's resource or Emacslisp function new-fontset. In the
latter case, a fontset of no name is created from the list. You will
find the various X fonts in the /usr/lib/X11/fonts directory. Note that
Emacs will only accept fixed width fonts. Under the X11 Release 4
font-naming conventions, any font with the value "m" or "c" in the
eleventh field of the font name is a fixed width font. Furthermore,
fonts whose name are of the form widthxheight are generally fixed
width, as is the font fixed. See xlsfonts(1X) for more information.
When you specify a fontset, be sure to put a space between the switch
and the fontset name.
Set the dot size of u(pper) and l(ower) linespace in the form u+l. You
can omit u and/or l. The default value is 1+1.
Set the Emacs window's border width to the number of pixels specified
by pixels. Defaults to one pixel on each side of the window.
Set the window's internal border width to the number of pixels speci-
fied by pixels. Defaults to one pixel of padding on each side of the
Set the Emacs window's width, height, and position as specified. The
geometry specification is in the standard X format; see X(1X) for more
information. The width and height are specified in characters; the
default is 80 by 24.
On color displays, sets the color of the text.
See the file /usr/lib/X11/rgb.txt for a list of valid color names.
On color displays, sets the color of the window's background.
On color displays, sets the color of the window's border.
On color displays, sets the color of the window's text cursor.
On color displays, sets the color of the window's mouse cursor.
-d displayname, -display displayname
Create the Emacs window on the display specified by displayname. Must
be the first option specified in the command line.
-nw Tells Emacs not to use its special interface to X. If you use this
switch when invoking Emacs from an xterm(1X) window, display is done in
that window. This must be the first option specified in the command
You can set X default values for your Emacs windows in your .Xresources
file (see xrdb(1X)). Use the following format:
where value specifies the default value of keyword. Emacs lets you set
default values for the following keywords:
font (class Font)
Sets the window's text font.
fontSetList (class FontSetList)
List of names of fontsets. The first fontset in the list is used by
fontSet-XXX (class FontSet-XXX)
Definition of fontset XXX. It should be a comma separated list of font
names. Each name should contain at least CHARSET-REGISTRY.
reverseVideo (class ReverseVideo)
If reverseVideo's value is set to on, the window will be displayed in
bitmapIcon (class BitmapIcon)
If bitmapIcon's value is set to on, the window will iconify into the
borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
Sets the window's border width in pixels.
internalBorder (class BorderWidth)
Sets the window's internal border width in pixels.
foreground (class Foreground)
For color displays, sets the window's text color.
background (class Background)
For color displays, sets the window's background color.
borderColor (class BorderColor)
For color displays, sets the color of the window's border.
cursorColor (class Foreground)
For color displays, sets the color of the window's text cursor.
pointerColor (class Foreground)
For color displays, sets the color of the window's mouse cursor.
geometry (class Geometry)
Sets the geometry of the Emacs window (as described above).
title (class Title)
Sets the title of the Emacs window.
iconName (class Title)
Sets the icon name for the Emacs window icon.
If you try to set color values while using a black and white display, the
window's characteristics will default as follows: the foreground color will
be set to black, the background color will be set to white, the border
color will be set to grey, and the text and mouse cursors will be set to
Using the Mouse
The following lists the mouse button bindings for the Emacs window under
Cut text into X cut buffer.
Cut text into X cut buffer.
Cut text into X cut buffer and kill it.
Select this window, then split it into two windows. Same as typing
X buffer menu--hold the buttons and keys down, wait for menu to appear,
select buffer, and release. Move mouse out of menu and release to can-
X help menu--pop up index card menu for Emacs help.
Select window with mouse, and delete all other windows. Same as typing
You can order printed copies of the GNU Emacs Manual for $20.00/copy post-
paid from the Free Software Foundation, which develops GNU software (con-
tact them for quantity prices on the manual). Their address is:
Free Software Foundation
675 Mass Ave.
Cambridge, MA 02139
Your local Emacs maintainer might also have copies available. As with all
software and publications from FSF, everyone is permitted to make and dis-
tribute copies of the Emacs manual. The TeX source to the manual is also
included in the Emacs source distribution.
There is a mailing list, bug-gnu-emacsATprep.edu on the internet
(ucbvax!prep.ai.mit.edu!bug-gnu-emacs on UUCPnet), for reporting Emacs bugs
and fixes. But before reporting something as a bug, please try to be sure
that it really is a bug, not a misunderstanding or a deliberate feature.
We ask you to read the section "Reporting Emacs Bugs" near the end of the
reference manual (or Info system) for hints on how and when to report bugs.
Also, include the version number of the Emacs you are running in every bug
report that you send in.
Do not expect a personal answer to a bug report. The purpose of reporting
bugs is to get them fixed for everyone in the next release, if possible.
For personal assistance, look in the SERVICE file (see below) for a list of
people who offer it.
Please do not send anything but bug reports to this mailing list. Send
requests to be added to mailing lists to the special list info-gnu-emacs-
requestATprep.edu (or the corresponding UUCP address). For more
information about Emacs mailing lists, see the file
/usr/i18n/mule/lib/mule/$VERSION/etc/MAILINGLISTS. Bugs tend actually to be
fixed if they can be isolated, so it is in your interest to report them in
such a way that they can be easily reproduced.
Bugs that I know about are: shell will not work with programs running in
Raw mode on some Unix versions.
There is a mailing list, muleATetl.jp on the internet, for reporting Mule
bugs and fixes. But before reporting something as a bug, please try to
check if the bug is Mule oriented or original GNU Emacs oriented. The mail-
ing list above is to discuss Mule oriented matters.
Emacs is free; anyone may redistribute copies of Emacs to anyone under the
terms stated in the Emacs General Public License, a copy of which accom-
panies each copy of Emacs and which also appears in the reference manual.
Copies of Emacs may sometimes be received packaged with distributions of
Unix systems, but it is never included in the scope of any license covering
those systems. Such inclusion violates the terms on which distribution is
permitted. In fact, the primary purpose of the General Public License is
to prohibit anyone from attaching any other restrictions to redistribution
Richard Stallman encourages you to improve and extend Emacs, and urges that
you contribute your extensions to the GNU library. Eventually GNU (Gnu's
Not Unix) will be a complete replacement for Berkeley Unix. Everyone will
be able to use the GNU system for free.
Mule is also free; anyone may redistribute copies of Mule to anyone under
the terms stated in the GNU General Public License, a copy of which accom-
panies each copy of Mule.
files for the Info documentation browser (a subsystem of Emacs) to
refer to. Currently not much of Unix is documented here, but the
complete text of the Emacs reference manual is included in a con-
venient tree structured form.
Lisp source files and compiled files that define most editing com-
mands. Some are preloaded; others are autoloaded from this direc-
tory when used.
various programs that are used with GNU Emacs, and some files of
contains the documentation strings for the Lisp primitives and
preloaded Lisp functions of GNU Emacs. They are stored here to
reduce the size of Emacs proper.
lists people offering various services to assist users of GNU
Emacs, including education, troubleshooting, porting and customiza-
tion. These files also have information useful to anyone wishing
to write programs in the Emacs Lisp extension language, which has
not yet been fully documented.
holds lock files that are made for all files being modified in
Emacs, to prevent simultaneous modification of one file by two
list of valid X color names.
X(1X), xlsfonts(1X), xterm(1X), xrdb(1X), m2ps(1)
Emacs was written by Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation.
Joachim Martillo and Robert Krawitz added the X features.
Mule was written by Ken'ichi HANDA, Satoru TOMURA, and Mikiko NISHIKIMI of
Electrotechnical Laboratory, JAPAN, with a great help by members of the
Mule mailing list.