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 more(1)							     more(1)




 NAME
      more, page - file perusal filter for crt viewing

 SYNOPSIS
      more [-n] [-cdefisuvz] [-n number] [-p command] [-t tagstring] [-x
      tabs] [-W option] [+linenumber] [+/pattern] [name ...]

      page [-n] [-cdefisuvz] [-n number] [-p command] [-t tagstring] [-x
      tabs] [-W option] [+linenumber] [+/pattern] [name ...]

    REMARKS:
      pg is preferred in some standards and has some added functionality, but
      does not support character highlighting (see pg(1)).

 DESCRIPTION
      more is a filter for examining continuous text, one screenful at a
      time, on a soft-copy terminal.  It is quite similar to pg, and is
      retained primarily for backward compatibility.  more normally pauses
      after each screenful, printing the filename at the bottom of the
      screen. To display one more line, press <&lt&lt&lt;Return>&gt&gt&gt;.	 To display another
      screenful press <&lt&lt&lt;Space>&gt&gt&gt;.	Other possibilities are described later.

      more and page differ only slightly.  more scrolls the screen upward as
      it prints the next page.	page clears the screen and prints a new
      screenful of text when it prints a new page.  Both provide one line of
      overlap between screenfuls.

      name can be a filename or -, specifying standard input.  more
      processes file arguments in the order given.

      more supports the Basic Regular Expression syntax (see regexp(5)).

      more recognizes the following command line options:

	   -n number	  Set the number of lines in the display window to
			  number, a positive decimal integer.  The default
			  is one line less than the the number of lines
			  displayed by the terminal; on a screen that
			  displays 24 lines, the default is 23. The -n flag
			  overrides any values obtained from the
			  environment.

	   -n		  Same as -n number except that the number of lines
			  is set to n.

	   -c		  Draw each page by beginning at the top of the
			  screen, and erase each line just before drawing on
			  it.  This avoids scrolling the screen, making it
			  easier to read while more is writing.	 This option
			  is ignored if the terminal has no clear-to-end-
			  of-line capability.



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 more(1)							     more(1)




	   -d		  Prompt user with the message Press space to
			  continue, q to quit, h for help at the end of each
			  screenful.  This is useful if more is being used
			  as a filter in some setting, such as a training
			  class, where many users might be unsophisticated.

	   -e		  Exit immediately after writing the last line of
			  the last file in the argument list

	   -f		  Count logical lines, rather than screen lines.
			  That is, long lines are not folded.  This option
			  is recommended if nroff output is being piped
			  through ul, since the latter can generate escape
			  sequences.  These escape sequences contain
			  characters that would ordinarily occupy screen
			  positions, but which do not print when sent to the
			  terminal as part of an escape sequence.  Thus more
			  might assume lines are longer than they really
			  are, and fold lines erroneously.

	   -i		  Perform pattern matching in searches without
			  regard to case.

	   -s		  Squeeze multiple blank lines from the output,
			  producing only one blank line.  Especially helpful
			  when viewing nroff output, this option maximizes
			  the useful information present on the screen.

	   -u		  Normally, more handles underlining and bold such
			  as produced by nroff in a manner appropriate to
			  the particular terminal: if the terminal supports
			  underlining or has a highlighting (usually
			  inverse-video) mode, more outputs appropriate
			  escape sequences to enable underlining, else
			  highlighting mode, for underlined information in
			  the source file.  If the terminal supports
			  highlighting, more uses that mode information that
			  should be printed in boldface type.  The -u option
			  suppresses this processing, as do the "ul" and
			  "os" terminfo flags.

	   -v		  Do not display nonprinting characters graphically;
			  by default, all non-ASCII and control characters
			  (except <&lt&lt&lt;Tab>&gt&gt&gt;, <&lt&lt&lt;Backspace>&gt&gt&gt;, and <&lt&lt&lt;Return>&gt&gt&gt;) are
			  displayed visibly in the form ^X for <&lt&lt&lt;Ctrl-x>&gt&gt&gt;, or
			  M-x for non-ASCII character x.

	   -z		  Same as not specifying -v, with the exception of
			  displaying <&lt&lt&lt;Backspace>&gt&gt&gt; as ^H, <&lt&lt&lt;Return>&gt&gt&gt; as ^M, and
			  <&lt&lt&lt;Tab>&gt&gt&gt; as ^I.




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 more(1)							     more(1)




	   -p command	  Execute the more command initially in the command
			  argument for each file examined.  If the command
			  is a positioning command, such as a line number or
			  a regular expression search, sets the current
			  position to represent the final results of the
			  command, without writing any intermediate lines of
			  the file.  If the positioning command is
			  unsuccessful, the first line in the file is the
			  current position.

	   -t tagstring	  Write the screenful of the file containing the tag
			  named by the tagstring argument.  The specified
			  tag appears in the current position.	If both -p
			  and -t options are specified, more processes -t
			  first; that is, the file containing the tagstring
			  is selected by -t and then the command is
			  executed.

	   -x tabs	  Set the tabstops every tabs position. The default
			  value for the tabs argument is 8.

	   -W option	  Provides optional extensions to the more command.
			  Currently, the following two options are
			  supported:

			       notite	      Prevents more from sending the
					      terminal initialization string
					      before displaying the file.
					      This argument also prevents
					      more from sending the terminal
					      de-initialization string
					      before exiting.

			       tite	      Causes more to send the
					      initialization and de-
					      initialization strings. This
					      is the default.

	   +linenumber	  Start listing such that the current position is
			  set to linenumber.

	   +/pattern	  Start listing such that the current position is
			  set to two lines above the line matching the
			  regular expression pattern.

			  Note: Unlike editors, this construct should NOT
			  end with a /.	 If it does, the trailing slash is
			  taken as character in the search pattern.

      The number of lines available per screen is determined by the -n
      option, if present or by examining values in the environment.  The



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 more(1)							     more(1)




      actual number of lines written is one less than this number, as the
      last line of the screen is used to write a user prompt and user input.

      The number of columns available per line is determined by examining
      values in the environment.  more writes lines containing more
      characters than would fit into this number of columns by breaking the
      line into one more logical lines where each of these lines but the
      last contains the number of characters needed to fill the columns.
      The logical lines are written independently of each other; that is,
      commands affecting a single line affect them separately.

      While determining the number of lines and the number of columns, if
      the methods described above do not yield any number then more uses
      terminfo descriptor files (see term(4)).	If this also fails then the
      number of lines is set to 24 and the number of columns to 80.

      When standard output is a terminal and -u is not specified, more
      treats backspace characters and carriage-return characters specially.

	   +  A character, followed first by a backspace character, then by
	      an underscore (_), causes that character to be written as
	      underlined text, if the terminal supports that. An underscore,
	      followed first by a backspace character, then any character,
	      also causes that character to be written as underlined text,
	      if the terminal supports that.

	   +  A backspace character that appears between two identical
	      printable characters causes the first of those two characters
	      to be written as emboldened text, if the terminal type
	      supports that, and the second to be discarded.  Immediately
	      subsequent occurrences of backspaces/character pairs for that
	      same character is also discarded.

	   +  Other backspace character sequences is written directly to the
	      terminal, which generally causes the character preceding the
	      backspace character to be suppressed in the display.

	   +  A carriage-return character at the end of a line is ignored,
	      rather than being written as a control character.

      If the standard output is not a terminal device, more always exits
      when it reaches end-of-file on the last file in its argument list.
      Otherwise, for all files but the last, more prompts, with an
      indication that it has reached the end of file, along with the name of
      the next file. For the last file specified, or for the standard input
      if no file is specified, more prompts, indicating end-fo-file, and
      accept additional commands. If the next command specifies forward
      scrolling, more will exit. If the -e option is specified, more will
      exit immediately after writing the last line of the last file.





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 more(1)							     more(1)




      more uses the environment variable MORE to preset any flags desired.
      The MORE variable thus sets a string containing flags and arguments,
      preceded with hyphens and blank-character-separated as on the command
      line. Any command-line flags or arguments are processed after those in
      the MORE variable, as if the command line were as follows:

	   more $MORE flags arguments

      For example, to view files using the -c mode of operation, the shell
      command sequence

	   MORE='-c' ; export MORE

      or the csh command

	   setenv MORE -c

      causes all invocations of more, including invocations by programs such
      as man and msgs, to use this mode.  The command sequence that sets up
      the MORE environment variable is usually placed in the .profile or
      .cshrc file.

      In the following descriptions, the current position refers to two
      things:

	   +  the position of the current line on the screen

	   +  the line number (in the file) of the current line on the
	      screen

      The line on the screen corresponding to the current position is the
      third line on the screen. If this is not possible (there are fewer
      than three lines to display or this is the first page of the file, or
      it is the last page of the file), then the current position is either
      the first or last line on the screen.

      Other sequences that can be typed when more pauses, and their effects,
      are as follows (i is an optional integer argument, defaulting to 1):

	   i<&lt&lt&lt;Return>&gt&gt&gt;
	   ij
	   i<&lt&lt&lt;Ctrl-e>&gt&gt&gt;
	   i<&lt&lt&lt;Space>&gt&gt&gt;	  Scroll forward i lines. The default i for <&lt&lt&lt;Space>&gt&gt&gt;
			  is one screenful; for j and <&lt&lt&lt;Return>&gt&gt&gt; it is one
			  line. The entire i lines are written, even if i is
			  more than the screen size. At end-of-file,
			  <&lt&lt&lt;Return>&gt&gt&gt; causes more to continue with the next
			  file in the list, or exits if the current file is
			  the last file in the list.





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 more(1)							     more(1)




	   id
	   i<&lt&lt&lt;Ctrl-d>&gt&gt&gt;	  Scroll forward i lines, with a default of one half
			  of the screen size.  If i is specified, it becomes
			  the new default for subsequent d and u commands.

	   iu
	   i<&lt&lt&lt;Ctrl-u>&gt&gt&gt;	  Scrolls backward i lines, with a default of one
			  half of the screen size. If i is specified, it
			  becomes the new default for subsequent d and u
			  commands.

	   ik
	   i<&lt&lt&lt;Ctrl-y>&gt&gt&gt;	  Scrolls backward i lines, with a default of one
			  line. The entire i lines are written, even if i is
			  more than the screen size.

	   iz		  Display i more lines and sets the new window
			  (screenful) size to i .

	   ig		  Go to line i in the file, with a default of 1
			  (beginning of file). Scroll or rewrite the screen
			  so that the line is at the current position. If i
			  is not specified, then more displays the first
			  screenful in the file.

	   iG		  Go to line i in the file, with a default of the
			  end of the file. If i is not specified, scrolls or
			  rewrites screen so that the last line in the file
			  is at the bottom of the screen. If i is specified,
			  scrolls or rewrites the screen so that the line is
			  at the current position.

	   is		  Skip forward i lines, with a default of 1, and
			  write the next screenful beginning at that point.
			  If i would cause the current position to be such
			  that less than one screenful would be written, the
			  last screenful in the file is written.

	   if
	   i<&lt&lt&lt;Ctrl-f>&gt&gt&gt;	  Move forward i lines, with a default of one
			  screenful. At end-of-file, more will continue with
			  the next file in the list, or exit if the current
			  file is the last file in the list.

	   ib
	   i<&lt&lt&lt;Ctrl-b>&gt&gt&gt;	  Move backward i lines, with a default of one
			  screenful. If i is more than the screen size, only
			  the final screenful will be written.

	   q




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 more(1)							     more(1)




	   Q
	   :q
	   :Q
	   ZZ		  Exit from more.

	   =
	   :f
	   <&lt&lt&lt;Ctrl-g>&gt&gt&gt;	  Write the name of the file currently being
			  examined, the number relative to the total number
			  of files there are to examine, the current line
			  number, the current byte number, and the total
			  bytes to write and what percentage of the file
			  precedes the current position. All of these items
			  reference the first byte of the line after the
			  last line written.

	   v		  Invoke an editor to edit the current file being
			  examined. The name of the editor is taken from the
			  environment variable EDITOR, or default to vi.  If
			  EDITOR represents either vi or ex, the editor is
			  invoked with options such that the current editor
			  line is the physical line corresponding to the
			  current position in more at the time of the
			  invocation.

			  When the editor exits, more resumes on the current
			  file by rewriting the screen with the current line
			  as the current position.

	   h		  Display a description of all the more commands.

	   i/[!]expression
			  Search forward in the file for the i-th line
			  containing the regular expression expression.	 The
			  default value for i is 1. The search starts at the
			  line following the current position.	If the
			  search is successful, the screen is modified so
			  that the searched-for line is in the current
			  position. The null regular expression (/<&lt&lt&lt;Return>&gt&gt&gt;)
			  repeats the search using the previous regular
			  expression. If the character ! is included, the
			  lines for searching are those that do not contain
			  expression.

			  If there are less than i occurrences of
			  expression, and the input is a file rather than a
			  pipe, then the position in the file remains
			  unchanged.

			  The user's erase and kill characters can be used
			  to edit the regular expression.  Erasing back past



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 more(1)							     more(1)




			  the first column cancels the search command.

	   i?[!]expression
			  Same as /, but searches backward in the file for
			  the i th line containing the regular expression
			  expression.

			  Note: Unlike editors, the ?.	construct should NOT
			  end with a /.	 If it does, the trailing slash is
			  taken as a character in the search pattern.

	   in		  Repeat the previous search for the i-th line
			  (default 1) containing the last expression (or not
			  containing the last expression, if the previous
			  search was /! or ?!).

	   iN		  Repeat the search for the opposite direction of
			  the previous search for the i-th line (default 1)
			  containing the last expression

	   ''		  (2 apostrophes) Return to the position from which
			  the last large movement command was executed
			  ("large movement" is defined as any movement of
			  more than a screenful of lines). If no such
			  movements have been made, return to the beginning
			  of the file.

	   !command	  Invoke a shell with command.	The characters % and
			  ! in command are replaced with the current file
			  name and the previous shell command, respectively.
			  If there is no current file name, % is not
			  expanded.  The sequences \% and \! are replaced by
			  % and ! respectively.

	   :e [file]
	   E [file]	  Examine a new file. If the file argument is not
			  specified, the "current" file (see the :n and :p
			  commands) from the list of files in the command
			  line is re-examined.	The filename is subjected to
			  the process of shell word expansions.	 If file is
			  a # (number sign) character, the previously
			  examined file is re-examined.

	   i:n		  Examine the next file. If i is specified, examines
			  the i-th next file specified in the command line.

	   i:p		  Examine the previous file. If a number i is
			  specified, examines the i-th previous file
			  specified in the command line.





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 more(1)							     more(1)




	   :t tagstring	  Go to the supplied tagstring and scroll or rewrite
			  the screen with that line in the current position.

	   m letter	  Mark the current position with the specified
			  letter, where letter represents the name of one of
			  the lower-case letters of the portable character
			  set.

	   ' letter	  Return to the position that was previously marked
			  with the specified letter, making that line the
			  current position.

	   r
	   <&lt&lt&lt;Ctrl-l>&gt&gt&gt;	  Refresh the screen.

	   R		  Refresh the screen, discarding any buffered input.

	   .		  Dot. Repeat the previous command.

	   ^\		  Halt a partial display of text.  more stops
			  sending output, and displays the usual prompt.
			  Unfortunately, some output is lost as a result.

      The commands take effect immediately; i.e., it is not necessary to
      press <&lt&lt&lt;Return>&gt&gt&gt;.  Up to the time when the command character itself is
      given, the line-kill character can be used to cancel the numerical
      argument being formed.

      If the standard output is not a teletype, more is equivalent to
      cat(1).

      more supports the SIGWINCH signal, and redraws the screen in response
      to window size changes.

 EXTERNAL INFLUENCES
    Environment Variables
      COLUMNS	     Overrides the system-selected horizontal screen size.

      EDITOR	     Used by the v command to select an editor.

      LANG	     Provides a default value for the internationalization
		     variables that are unset or null. If LANG is unset or
		     null, the default value of "C" (see lang(5)) is used.
		     If any of the internationalization variables contains
		     an invalid setting, more will behave as if all
		     internationalization variables are set to "C".  See
		     environ(5).

      LC_ALL	     If set to a non-empty string value, overrides the
		     values of all the other internationalization variables.




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 more(1)							     more(1)




      LC_CTYPE	     Determines the interpretation of text as single and/or
		     multi-byte characters, the classification of characters
		     as printable, and the characters matched by character
		     class expressions in regular expressions.

      LC_MESSAGES    Determines the locale that should be used to affect the
		     format and contents of diagnostic messages written to
		     standard error and informative messages written to
		     standard output.

      NLSPATH	     Determines the location of message catalogues for the
		     processing of LC_MESSAGES.

      LINES	     Overrides the system-selected vertical screen size,
		     used as the number of lines in a screenful. The -n
		     option takes precedence over the LINES variable for
		     determining the number of lines in a screenful.

      MORE	     Determines a string containing options, preceded with
		     hyphens and blank-character-separated as on the command
		     line. Any command-line options are processed after
		     those in the MORE variable. The MORE variable takes
		     precedence over the TERM and LINES variables for
		     determining the number of lines in a screenful.

      TERM	     Determines the name of the terminal type.

    International Code Set Support
      Single- and multi-byte character code sets are supported.

 APPLICATION USAGE
      When the standard output is not a terminal, none of the filter-
      modification options is effective. This is based on historical
      practice. For example, a typical implementation of man pipes its
      output through more -s to squeeze excess white space for terminal
      users. When man is piped to lp, however, it is undesirable for this
      squeezing to happen.

 EXAMPLES
      To view a simple file, use:

	   more filename

      To preview nroff output, use a command resembling:

	   nroff -mm +2 doc.n | more -s

      If the file contains tables, use:

	   tbl file | nroff -mm | col | more -s




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 more(1)							     more(1)




      To display file stuff in a fifteen line-window and convert multiple
      adjacent blank lines into a single blank line:

	   more -s -n 15 stuff

      To examine each file with its last screenful:

	   more -p G file1 file2

      To examine each file starting with line 100 in the current position
      (third line, so line 98 is the first line written):

	   more -p 100g file1 file2

      To examine the file that contains the tagstring tag with line 30 in
      the current position:

	   more -t tag -p 30g

 WARNINGS
      Standard error, file descriptor 2, is normally used for input during
      interactive use and should not be redirected (see Input/Output section
      in the manpage of the shell in use).

 FILES
      /usr/share/lib/terminfo/?/*	      compiled terminal capability
					      data base

 AUTHOR
      more was developed by Mark Nudleman, University of California,
      Berkeley, OSF, and HP.

 SEE ALSO
      csh(1), man(1), pg(1), sh(1), term(4), terminfo(4), environ(5),
      lang(5), regexp(5).

 STANDARDS CONFORMANCE
      more: XPG4
















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