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MORE(1)                      BSD Reference Manual                      MORE(1)

NAME
     more - file perusal filter for crt viewing

SYNOPSIS
     more [-ceinus] [-t tag] [-x tabs] [-/ pattern] [-#] [file ...]

DESCRIPTION
     More is a filter for paging through text one screenful at a time.  It us-
     es termcap(3) so it can run on a variety of terminals.  There is even
     limited support for hardcopy terminals.  (On a hardcopy terminal, lines
     which should be printed at the top of the screen are prefixed with an up-
     arrow.)  File may be a single dash (``-''), implying stdin.

OPTIONS
     Command line options are described below.  Options are also taken from
     the environment variable MORE (make sure to precede them with a dash
     (``-'')) but command line options will override them.

     -c    Normally, more will repaint the screen by scrolling from the bottom
           of the screen.  If the -c option is set, when more needs to change
           the entire display, it will paint from the top line down.

     -e    Normally, if displaying a single file, more exits as soon as it
           reaches end-of-file.  The -e option tells more to exit if it reach-
           es end-of-file twice without an intervening operation.  If the file
           is shorter than a single screen more will exit at end-of-file re-
           gardless.

     -i    The -i option causes searches to ignore case; that is, uppercase
           and lowercase are considered identical.

     -n    The -n flag suppresses line numbers.  The default (to use line num-
           bers) may cause more to run more slowly in some cases, especially
           with a very large input file.  Suppressing line numbers with the -n
           flag will avoid this problem.  Using line numbers means: the line
           number will be displayed in the = command, and the v command will
           pass the current line number to the editor.

     -s    The -s option causes consecutive blank lines to be squeezed into a
           single blank line.

     -t    The -t option, followed immediately by a tag, will edit the file
           containing that tag.  For more information, see the ctags(1) com-
           mand.

     -u    By default, more treats backspaces and CR-LF sequences specially.
           Backspaces which appear adjacent to an underscore character are
           displayed as underlined text.  Backspaces which appear between two
           identical characters are displayed as emboldened text.  CR-LF se-
           quences are compressed to a single linefeed character.  The -u op-
           tion causes backspaces to always be displayed as control charac-
           ters, i.e. as the two character sequence ``^H'', and CR-LF to be
           left alone.

     -x    The -x option sets tab stops every N positions. The default for N
           is 8.

     -/    The -/ option specifies a string that will be searched for before
           each file is displayed.

COMMANDS
     Interactive commands for more are based on vi(1).  Some commands may be
     preceded by a decimal number, called N in the descriptions below.  In the
     following descriptions, ^X means control-X.

     h           Help: display a summary of these commands.  If you forget all
                 the other commands, remember this one.

     SPACE or f or ^F
                 Scroll forward N lines, default one window.  If N is more
                 than the screen size, only the final screenful is displayed.

     b or ^B     Scroll backward N lines, default one window (see option -z
                 below).  If N is more than the screen size, only the final
                 screenful is displayed.

     j or RETURN
                 Scroll forward N lines, default 1.  The entire N lines are
                 displayed, even if N is more than the screen size.

     k           Scroll backward N lines, default 1.  The entire N lines are
                 displayed, even if N is more than the screen size.

     d or ^D     Scroll forward N lines, default one half of the screen size.
                 If N is specified, it becomes the new default for subsequent
                 d and u commands.

     u or ^U     Scroll backward N lines, default one half of the screen size.
                 If N is specified, it becomes the new default for subsequent
                 d and u commands.

     g           Go to line N in the file, default 1 (beginning of file).

     G           Go to line N in the file, default the end of the file.

     p or %      Go to a position N percent into the file.  N should be be-
                 tween 0 and 100.  (This works if standard input is being
                 read, but only if more has already read to the end of the
                 file.  It is always fast, but not always useful.)

     r or ^L     Repaint the screen.

     R           Repaint the screen, discarding any buffered input.  Useful if
                 the file is changing while it is being viewed.

     m           Followed by any lowercase letter, marks the current position
                 with that letter.

     '           (Single quote.)  Followed by any lowercase letter, returns to
                 the position which was previously marked with that letter.
                 Followed by another single quote, returns to the position at
                 which the last "large" movement command was executed, or the
                 beginning of the file if no such movements have occurred.
                 All marks are lost when a new file is examined.

     /pattern    Search forward in the file for the N-th line containing the
                 pattern.  N defaults to 1.  The pattern is a regular expres-
                 sion, as recognized by ed.  The search starts at the second
                 line displayed.

     ?pattern    Search backward in the file for the N-th line containing the
                 pattern.  The search starts at the line immediately before
                 the top line displayed.

     /!pattern   Like /, but the search is for the N-th line which does NOT
                 contain the pattern.

     ?!pattern   Like ?, but the search is for the N-th line which does NOT

                 contain the pattern.

     n           Repeat previous search, for N-th line containing the last
                 pattern (or NOT containing the last pattern, if the previous
                 search was /! or ?!).

     E[filename]
                 Examine a new file.  If the filename is missing, the "cur-
                 rent" file (see the N and P commands below) from the list of
                 files in the command line is re-examined.  If the filename is
                 a pound sign (#), the previously examined file is re-
                 examined.

     N or :n     Examine the next file (from the list of files given in the
                 command line).  If a number N is specified (not to be con-
                 fused with the command N), the N-th next file is examined.

     P or :p     Examine the previous file.  If a number N is specified, the
                 N-th previous file is examined.

     :t          Go to supplied tag.

     v           Invokes an editor to edit the current file being viewed.  The
                 editor is taken from the environment variable EDITOR, or de-
                 faults to vi(1).

     = or ^G     These options print out the number of the file currently be-
                 ing displayed relative to the total number of files there are
                 to display, the current line number, the current byte number
                 and the total bytes to display, and what percentage of the
                 file has been displayed.  If more is reading from stdin, or
                 the file is shorter than a single screen, some of these items
                 may not be available.  Note, all of these items reference the
                 first byte of the last line displayed on the screen.

     q or :q or ZZ
                 Exits more.

ENVIRONMENT
     More utilizes the following environment variables, if they exist:

     MORE        This variable may be set with favored options to more.

     EDITOR      Specify default editor.

     SHELL       Current shell in use (normally set by the shell at login
                 time).

     TERM        Specifies terminal type, used by more to get the terminal
                 characteristics necessary to manipulate the screen.

SEE ALSO
     ctags(1),  vi(1)

AUTHOR
     This software is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by Mark
     Nudleman.

HISTORY
     The more command appeared in 3.0BSD.

4.4BSD                          April 18, 1994                               3